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Alshawi, Amany, Satam, Pratik, Almoualem, Firas, Hariri, Salim.  2020.  Effective Wireless Communication Architecture for Resisting Jamming Attacks. IEEE Access. 8:176691–176703.
Over time, the use of wireless technologies has significantly increased due to bandwidth improvements, cost-effectiveness, and ease of deployment. Owing to the ease of access to the communication medium, wireless communications and technologies are inherently vulnerable to attacks. These attacks include brute force attacks such as jamming attacks and those that target the communication protocol (Wi-Fi and Bluetooth protocols). Thus, there is a need to make wireless communication resilient and secure against attacks. Existing wireless protocols and applications have attempted to address the need to improve systems security as well as privacy. They have been highly effective in addressing privacy issues, but ineffective in addressing security threats like jamming and session hijacking attacks and other types of Denial of Service Attacks. In this article, we present an ``architecture for resilient wireless communications'' based on the concept of Moving Target Defense. To increase the difficulty of launching successful attacks and achieve resilient operation, we changed the runtime characteristics of wireless links, such as the modulation type, network address, packet size, and channel operating frequency. The architecture reduces the overhead resulting from changing channel configurations using two communication channels, in which one is used for communication, while the other acts as a standby channel. A prototype was built using Software Defined Radio to test the performance of the architecture. Experimental evaluations showed that the approach was resilient against jamming attacks. We also present a mathematical analysis to demonstrate the difficulty of performing a successful attack against our proposed architecture.
Conference Name: IEEE Access
Vashist, Abhishek, Keats, Andrew, Pudukotai Dinakarrao, Sai Manoj, Ganguly, Amlan.  2019.  Securing a Wireless Network-on-Chip Against Jamming Based Denial-of-Service Attacks. 2019 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI). :320–325.
Wireless Networks-on-Chips (NoCs) have emerged as a panacea to the non-scalable multi-hop data transmission paths in traditional wired NoC architectures. Using low-power transceivers in NoC switches, novel Wireless NoC (WiNoC) architectures have been shown to achieve higher energy efficiency with improved peak bandwidth and reduced on-chip data transfer latency. However, using wireless interconnects for data transfer within a chip makes the on-chip communications vulnerable to various security threats from either external attackers or internal hardware Trojans (HTs). In this work, we propose a mechanism to make the wireless communication in a WiNoC secure against persistent jamming based Denial-of-Service attacks from both external and internal attackers. Persistent jamming attacks on the on-chip wireless medium will cause interference in data transfer over the duration of the attack resulting in errors in contiguous bits, known as burst errors. Therefore, we use a burst error correction code to monitor the rate of burst errors received over the wireless medium and deploy a Machine Learning (ML) classifier to detect the persistent jamming attack and distinguish it from random burst errors. In the event of jamming attack, alternate routing strategies are proposed to avoid the DoS attack over the wireless medium, so that a secure data transfer can be sustained even in the presence of jamming. We evaluate the proposed technique on a secure WiNoC in the presence of DoS attacks. It has been observed that with the proposed defense mechanisms, WiNoC can outperform a wired NoC even in presence of attacks in terms of performance and security. On an average, 99.87% attack detection was achieved with the chosen ML Classifiers. A bandwidth degradation of \textbackslashtextless;3% is experienced in the event of internal attack, while the wireless interconnects are disabled in the presence of an external attacker.
MirhoseiniNejad, S. Mohamad, Rahmanpour, Ali, Razavizadeh, S. Mohammad.  2018.  Phase Jamming Attack: A Practical Attack on Physical Layer-Based Key Derivation. 2018 15th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :1–4.

Key derivation from the physical layer features of the communication channels is a promising approach which can help the key management and security enhancement in communication networks. In this paper, we consider a key generation technique that quantizes the received signal phase to obtain the secret keys. We then study the effect of a jamming attack on this system. The jammer is an active attacker that tries to make a disturbance in the key derivation procedure and changes the phase of the received signal by transmitting an adversary signal. We evaluate the effect of jamming on the security performance of the system and show the ways to improve this performance. Our numerical results show that more phase quantization regions limit the probability of successful attacks.

Bhoyar, D. G., Yadav, U..  2017.  Review of jamming attack using game theory. 2017 International Conference on Innovations in Information, Embedded and Communication Systems (ICIIECS). :1–4.

The paper presents the study of protecting wireless sensor network (WSNs) by using game theory for malicious node. By means of game theory the malicious attack nodes can be effectively modeled. In this research there is study on different game theoretic strategies for WSNs. Wireless sensor network are made upon the open shared medium which make easy to built attack. Jamming is the most serious security threats for information preservation. The key purpose of this paper is to present a general synopsis of jamming technique, a variety of types of jammers and its prevention technique by means of game theory. There is a network go through from numerous kind of external and internal attack. The jamming of attack that can be taking place because of the high communication inside the network execute by the nodes in the network. As soon as the weighty communications raise the power expenditure and network load also increases. In research work a game theoretic representation is define for the safe communication on the network.

Xu, Zhiheng, Zhu, Quanyan.  2017.  A Game-Theoretic Approach to Secure Control of Communication-Based Train Control Systems Under Jamming Attacks. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Safe Control of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles. :27–34.

To meet the growing railway-transportation demand, a new train control system, communication-based train control (CBTC) system, aims to maximize the ability of train lines by reducing the headway of each train. However, the wireless communications expose the CBTC system to new security threats. Due to the cyber-physical nature of the CBTC system, a jamming attack can damage the physical part of the train system by disrupting the communications. To address this issue, we develop a secure framework to mitigate the impact of the jamming attack based on a security criterion. At the cyber layer, we apply a multi-channel model to enhance the reliability of the communications and develop a zero-sum stochastic game to capture the interactions between the transmitter and jammer. We present analytical results and apply dynamic programming to find the equilibrium of the stochastic game. Finally, the experimental results are provided to evaluate the performance of the proposed secure mechanism.

Salem, A., Liao, X., Shen, Y., Lu, X..  2017.  Provoking the Adversary by Dual Detection Techniques: A Game Theoretical Framework. 2017 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :326–329.

Establishing a secret and reliable wireless communication is a challenging task that is of paramount importance. In this paper, we investigate the physical layer security of a legitimate transmission link between a user that assists an Intrusion Detection System (IDS) in detecting eavesdropping and jamming attacks in the presence of an adversary that is capable of conducting an eavesdropping or a jamming attack. The user is being faced by a challenge of whether to transmit, thus becoming vulnerable to an eavesdropping or a jamming attack, or to keep silent and consequently his/her transmission will be delayed. The adversary is also facing a challenge of whether to conduct an eavesdropping or a jamming attack that will not get him/her to be detected. We model the interactions between the user and the adversary as a two-state stochastic game. Explicit solutions characterize some properties while highlighting some interesting strategies that are being embraced by the user and the adversary. Results show that our proposed system outperform current systems in terms of communication secrecy.

Almoualem, F., Satam, P., Ki, J. G., Hariri, S..  2017.  SDR-Based Resilient Wireless Communications. 2017 International Conference on Cloud and Autonomic Computing (ICCAC). :114–119.

As the use of wireless technologies increases significantly due to ease of deployment, cost-effectiveness and the increase in bandwidth, there is a critical need to make the wireless communications secure, and resilient to attacks or faults (malicious or natural). Wireless communications are inherently prone to cyberattacks due to the open access to the medium. While current wireless protocols have addressed the privacy issues, they have failed to provide effective solutions against denial of service attacks, session hijacking and jamming attacks. In this paper, we present a resilient wireless communication architecture based on Moving Target Defense, and Software Defined Radios (SDRs). The approach achieves its resilient operations by randomly changing the runtime characteristics of the wireless communications channels between different wireless nodes to make it extremely difficult to succeed in launching attacks. The runtime characteristics that can be changed include packet size, network address, modulation type, and the operating frequency of the channel. In addition, the lifespan for each configuration will be random. To reduce the overhead in switching between two consecutive configurations, we use two radio channels that are selected at random from a finite set of potential channels, one will be designated as an active channel while the second acts as a standby channel. This will harden the wireless communications attacks because the attackers have no clue on what channels are currently being used to exploit existing vulnerability and launch an attack. The experimental results and evaluation show that our approach can tolerate a wide range of attacks (Jamming, DOS and session attacks) against wireless networks.

Bo Chai, Zaiyue Yang, Jiming Chen.  2014.  Impacts of unreliable communication and regret matching based anti-jamming approach in smart grid. Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), 2014 IEEE PES. :1-5.

Demand response management (DRM) is one of the main features in smart grid, which is realized via communications between power providers and consumers. Due to the vulnerabilities of communication channels, communication is not perfect in practice and will be threatened by jamming attack. In this paper, we consider jamming attack in the wireless communication for smart grid. Firstly, the DRM performance degradation introduced by unreliable communication is fully studied. Secondly, a regret matching based anti-jamming algorithm is proposed to enhance the performance of communication and DRM. Finally, numerical results are presented to illustrate the impacts of unreliable communication on DRM and the performance of the proposed anti-jamming algorithm.

Zhuo Lu, Wenye Wang, Wang, C..  2015.  Camouflage Traffic: Minimizing Message Delay for Smart Grid Applications under Jamming. Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on. 12:31-44.

Smart grid is a cyber-physical system that integrates power infrastructures with information technologies. To facilitate efficient information exchange, wireless networks have been proposed to be widely used in the smart grid. However, the jamming attack that constantly broadcasts radio interference is a primary security threat to prevent the deployment of wireless networks in the smart grid. Hence, spread spectrum systems, which provide jamming resilience via multiple frequency and code channels, must be adapted to the smart grid for secure wireless communications, while at the same time providing latency guarantee for control messages. An open question is how to minimize message delay for timely smart grid communication under any potential jamming attack. To address this issue, we provide a paradigm shift from the case-by-case methodology, which is widely used in existing works to investigate well-adopted attack models, to the worst-case methodology, which offers delay performance guarantee for smart grid applications under any attack. We first define a generic jamming process that characterizes a wide range of existing attack models. Then, we show that in all strategies under the generic process, the worst-case message delay is a U-shaped function of network traffic load. This indicates that, interestingly, increasing a fair amount of traffic can in fact improve the worst-case delay performance. As a result, we demonstrate a lightweight yet promising system, transmitting adaptive camouflage traffic (TACT), to combat jamming attacks. TACT minimizes the message delay by generating extra traffic called camouflage to balance the network load at the optimum. Experiments show that TACT can decrease the probability that a message is not delivered on time in order of magnitude.