Visible to the public Biblio

Filters: Keyword is Stochastic Computing Security  [Clear All Filters]
2020-11-20
Zhu, S., Chen, H., Xi, W., Chen, M., Fan, L., Feng, D..  2019.  A Worst-Case Entropy Estimation of Oscillator-Based Entropy Sources: When the Adversaries Have Access to the History Outputs. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :152—159.
Entropy sources are designed to provide unpredictable random numbers for cryptographic systems. As an assessment of the sources, Shannon entropy is usually adopted to quantitatively measure the unpredictability of the outputs. In several related works about the entropy evaluation of ring oscillator-based (RO-based) entropy sources, authors evaluated the unpredictability with the average conditional Shannon entropy (ACE) of the source, moreover provided a lower bound of the ACE (LBoACE). However, in this paper, we have demonstrated that when the adversaries have access to the history outputs of the entropy source, for example, by some intrusive attacks, the LBoACE may overestimate the actual unpredictability of the next output for the adversaries. In this situation, we suggest to adopt the specific conditional Shannon entropy (SCE) which exactly measures the unpredictability of the future output with the knowledge of previous output sequences and so is more consistent with the reality than the ACE. In particular, to be conservative, we propose to take the lower bound of the SCE (LBoSCE) as an estimation of the worst-case entropy of the sources. We put forward a detailed method to estimate this worst-case entropy of RO-based entropy sources, which we have also verified by experiment on an FPGA device. We recommend to adopt this method to provide a conservative assessment of the unpredictability when the entropy source works in a vulnerable environment and the adversaries might obtain the previous outputs.
Yogarathinam, A., Chaudhuri, N. R..  2019.  Wide-Area Damping Control Using Multiple DFIG-Based Wind Farms Under Stochastic Data Packet Dropouts. 2019 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM). :1—1.
Data dropouts in communication network can have a significant impact on wide-area oscillation damping control of a smart power grid with large-scale deployment of distributed and networked phasor measurement units and wind energy resources. Remote feedback signals sent through communication channels encounter data dropout, which is represented by the Gilbert-Elliott model. An observer-driven reduced copy (ORC) approach is presented, which uses the knowledge of the nominal system dynamics during data dropouts to improve the damping performance where conventional feedback would suffer. An expression for the expectation of the bound on the error norm between the actual and the estimated states relating uncertainties in the cyber system due to data dropout and physical system due to change in operating conditions is also derived. The key contribution comes from the analytical derivation of the impact of coupling between the cyber and the physical layer on ORC performance. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to calculate the dispersion of the error bound. Nonlinear time-domain simulations demonstrate that the ORC produces significantly better performance compared to conventional feedback under higher data drop situations.
Goyal, Y., Sharma, A..  2019.  A Semantic Machine Learning Approach for Cyber Security Monitoring. 2019 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :439—442.
Security refers to precautions designed to shield the availability and integrity of information exchanged among the digital global community. Information safety measure typically protects the virtual facts from unauthorized sources to get a right of entry to, disclosure, manipulation, alteration or destruction on both hardware and software technologies. According to an evaluation through experts operating in the place of information safety, some of the new cyber-attacks are keep on emerging in all the business processes. As a stop result of the analyses done, it's been determined that although the level of risk is not excessive in maximum of the attacks, it's far a severe risk for important data and the severity of those attacks is prolonged. Prior safety structures has been established to monitor various cyber-threats, predominantly using a gadget processed data or alerts for showing each deterministic and stochastic styles. The principal finding for deterministic patterns in cyber- attacks is that they're neither unbiased nor random over the years. Consequently, the quantity of assaults in the past helps to monitor the range of destiny attacks. The deterministic styles can often be leveraged to generate moderately correct monitoring.
Sui, T., Marelli, D., Sun, X., Fu, M..  2019.  Stealthiness of Attacks and Vulnerability of Stochastic Linear Systems. 2019 12th Asian Control Conference (ASCC). :734—739.
The security of Cyber-physical systems has been a hot topic in recent years. There are two main focuses in this area: Firstly, what kind of attacks can avoid detection, i.e., the stealthiness of attacks. Secondly, what kind of systems can stay stable under stealthy attacks, i.e., the invulnerability of systems. In this paper, we will give a detailed characterization for stealthy attacks and detection criterion for such attacks. We will also study conditions for the vulnerability of a stochastic linear system under stealthy attacks.
Sun, Y., Wang, J., Lu, Z..  2019.  Asynchronous Parallel Surrogate Optimization Algorithm Based on Ensemble Surrogating Model and Stochastic Response Surface Method. :74—84.
{Surrogate model-based optimization algorithm remains as an important solution to expensive black-box function optimization. The introduction of ensemble model enables the algorithm to automatically choose a proper model integration mode and adapt to various parameter spaces when dealing with different problems. However, this also significantly increases the computational burden of the algorithm. On the other hand, utilizing parallel computing resources and improving efficiency of black-box function optimization also require combination with surrogate optimization algorithm in order to design and realize an efficient parallel parameter space sampling mechanism. This paper makes use of parallel computing technology to speed up the weight updating related computation for the ensemble model based on Dempster-Shafer theory, and combines it with stochastic response surface method to develop a novel parallel sampling mechanism for asynchronous parameter optimization. Furthermore, it designs and implements corresponding parallel computing framework and applies the developed algorithm to quantitative trading strategy tuning in financial market. It is verified that the algorithm is both feasible and effective in actual application. The experiment demonstrates that with guarantee of optimizing performance, the parallel optimization algorithm can achieve excellent accelerating effect.
Dung, L. T., Tran, H. T. K., Hoa, N. T. T., Choi, S..  2019.  Analysis of Local Secure Connectivity of Legitimate User in Stochastic Wireless Networks. 2019 3rd International Conference on Recent Advances in Signal Processing, Telecommunications Computing (SigTelCom). :155—159.
In this paper, we investigate the local secure connectivity in terms of the probability of existing a secure wireless connection between two legitimate users and the isolated security probability of a legitimate user in stochastic wireless networks. Specifically, the closed-form expressions of the probability that there is a secure wireless communication between two legitimate users are derived first. Then, based on these equations, the corresponding isolated secure probability are given. The characteristics of local secure connectivity are examined in four scenarios combined from two wireless channel conditions (deterministic/Rayleigh fading) and two eavesdropper configurations (non-colluding/colluding). All the derived mathematical equations are validated by the Monte-Carlo simulation. The obtained numerical results in this paper reveal some interesting features of the impact of eavesdropper collusion, wireless channel fading, and density ratio on the secure connection probability and the isolated security probability of legitimate user in stochastic networks.
Liu, D., Lou, F., Wang, H..  2019.  Modeling and measurement internal threat process based on advanced stochastic model*. 2019 Chinese Automation Congress (CAC). :1077—1081.
Previous research on internal threats was mostly focused on modeling threat behaviors. These studies have paid little attention to risk measurement. This paper analyzed the internal threat scenarios, introduced the operation related protection model into the firewall-password model, constructed a series of sub models. By analyzing the illegal data out process, the analysis model of target network can be rapidly generated based on four protection sub-models. Then the risk value of an assessment point can be computed dynamically according to the Petri net computing characteristics and the effectiveness of overall network protection can be measured. This method improves the granularity of the model and simplifies the complexity of modeling complex networks and can realize dynamic and real-time risk measurement.
2018-06-07
Llerena, Yamilet R. Serrano, Su, Guoxin, Rosenblum, David S..  2017.  Probabilistic Model Checking of Perturbed MDPs with Applications to Cloud Computing. Proceedings of the 2017 11th Joint Meeting on Foundations of Software Engineering. :454–464.
Probabilistic model checking is a formal verification technique that has been applied successfully in a variety of domains, providing identification of system errors through quantitative verification of stochastic system models. One domain that can benefit from probabilistic model checking is cloud computing, which must provide highly reliable and secure computational and storage services to large numbers of mission-critical software systems. For real-world domains like cloud computing, external system factors and environmental changes must be estimated accurately in the form of probabilities in system models; inaccurate estimates for the model probabilities can lead to invalid verification results. To address the effects of uncertainty in probability estimates, in previous work we have developed a variety of techniques for perturbation analysis of discrete- and continuous-time Markov chains (DTMCs and CTMCs). These techniques determine the consequences of the uncertainty on verification of system properties. In this paper, we present the first approach for perturbation analysis of Markov decision processes (MDPs), a stochastic formalism that is especially popular due to the significant expressive power it provides through the combination of both probabilistic and nondeterministic choice. Our primary contribution is a novel technique for efficiently analyzing the effects of perturbations of model probabilities on verification of reachability properties of MDPs. The technique heuristically explores the space of adversaries of an MDP, which encode the different ways of resolving the MDP’s nondeterministic choices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our approach by applying it to two case studies of cloud systems.
Wu, Xi, Li, Fengan, Kumar, Arun, Chaudhuri, Kamalika, Jha, Somesh, Naughton, Jeffrey.  2017.  Bolt-on Differential Privacy for Scalable Stochastic Gradient Descent-based Analytics. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Conference on Management of Data. :1307–1322.

While significant progress has been made separately on analytics systems for scalable stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and private SGD, none of the major scalable analytics frameworks have incorporated differentially private SGD. There are two inter-related issues for this disconnect between research and practice: (1) low model accuracy due to added noise to guarantee privacy, and (2) high development and runtime overhead of the private algorithms. This paper takes a first step to remedy this disconnect and proposes a private SGD algorithm to address both issues in an integrated manner. In contrast to the white-box approach adopted by previous work, we revisit and use the classical technique of output perturbation to devise a novel “bolt-on” approach to private SGD. While our approach trivially addresses (2), it makes (1) even more challenging. We address this challenge by providing a novel analysis of the L2-sensitivity of SGD, which allows, under the same privacy guarantees, better convergence of SGD when only a constant number of passes can be made over the data. We integrate our algorithm, as well as other state-of-the-art differentially private SGD, into Bismarck, a popular scalable SGD-based analytics system on top of an RDBMS. Extensive experiments show that our algorithm can be easily integrated, incurs virtually no overhead, scales well, and most importantly, yields substantially better (up to 4X) test accuracy than the state-of-the-art algorithms on many real datasets.

Rullo, Antonino, Midi, Daniele, Serra, Edoardo, Bertino, Elisa.  2017.  A Game of Things: Strategic Allocation of Security Resources for IoT. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation. :185–190.
In many Internet of Thing (IoT) application domains security is a critical requirement, because malicious parties can undermine the effectiveness of IoT-based systems by compromising single components and/or communication channels. Thus, a security infrastructure is needed to ensure the proper functioning of such systems even under attack. However, it is also critical that security be at a reasonable resource and energy cost, as many IoT devices may not have sufficient resources to host expensive security tools. In this paper, we focus on the problem of efficiently and effectively securing IoT networks by carefully allocating security tools. We model our problem according to game theory, and provide a Pareto-optimal solution, in which the cost of the security infrastructure, its energy consumption, and the probability of a successful attack, are minimized. Our experimental evaluation shows that our technique improves the system robustness in terms of packet delivery rate for different network topologies.
El Mir, Iman, Kim, Dong Seong, Haqiq, Abdelkrim.  2017.  Towards a Stochastic Model for Integrated Detection and Filtering of DoS Attacks in Cloud Environments. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Big Data, Cloud and Applications. :28:1–28:6.
Cloud Data Center (CDC) security remains a major challenge for business organizations and takes an important concern with research works. The attacker purpose is to guarantee the service unavailability and maximize the financial loss costs. As a result, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks have appeared as the most popular attack. The main aim of such attacks is to saturate and overload the system network through a massive data packets size flooding toward a victim server and to block the service to users. This paper provides a defending system in order to mitigate the Denial of Service (DoS) attack in CDC environment. Basically it outlines the different techniques of DoS attacks and its countermeasures by combining the filtering and detection mechanisms. We presented an analytical model based on queueing model to evaluate the impact of flooding attack on cloud environment regarding service availability and QoS performance. Consequently, we have plotted the response time, throughput, drop rate and resource computing utilization varying the attack arrival rate. We have used JMT (Java Modeling Tool) simulator to validate the analytical model. Our approach was appeared powerful for attacks mitigation in the cloud environment.
Aygun, R. C., Yavuz, A. G..  2017.  Network Anomaly Detection with Stochastically Improved Autoencoder Based Models. 2017 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud). :193–198.

Intrusion detection systems do not perform well when it comes to detecting zero-day attacks, therefore improving their performance in that regard is an active research topic. In this study, to detect zero-day attacks with high accuracy, we proposed two deep learning based anomaly detection models using autoencoder and denoising autoencoder respectively. The key factor that directly affects the accuracy of the proposed models is the threshold value which was determined using a stochastic approach rather than the approaches available in the current literature. The proposed models were tested using the KDDTest+ dataset contained in NSL-KDD, and we achieved an accuracy of 88.28% and 88.65% respectively. The obtained results show that, as a singular model, our proposed anomaly detection models outperform any other singular anomaly detection methods and they perform almost the same as the newly suggested hybrid anomaly detection models.

Kang, E. Y., Mu, D., Huang, L., Lan, Q..  2017.  Verification and Validation of a Cyber-Physical System in the Automotive Domain. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :326–333.
Software development for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), e.g., autonomous vehicles, requires both functional and non-functional quality assurance to guarantee that the CPS operates safely and effectively. EAST-ADL is a domain specific architectural language dedicated to safety-critical automotive embedded system design. We have previously modified EAST-ADL to include energy constraints and transformed energy-aware real-time (ERT) behaviors modeled in EAST-ADL/Stateflow into UPPAAL models amenable to formal verification. Previous work is extended in this paper by including support for Simulink and an integration of Simulink/Stateflow (S/S) within the same too lchain. S/S models are transformed, based on the extended ERT constraints with probability parameters, into verifiable UPPAAL-SMC models and integrate the translation with formal statistical analysis techniques: Probabilistic extension of EAST-ADL constraints is defined as a semantics denotation. A set of mapping rules is proposed to facilitate the guarantee of translation. Formal analysis on both functional- and non-functional properties is performed using Simulink Design Verifier and UPPAAL-SMC. Our approach is demonstrated on the autonomous traffic sign recognition vehicle case study.
Rullo, A., Serra, E., Bertino, E., Lobo, J..  2017.  Shortfall-Based Optimal Security Provisioning for Internet of Things. 2017 IEEE 37th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :2585–2586.

We present a formal method for computing the best security provisioning for Internet of Things (IoT) scenarios characterized by a high degree of mobility. The security infrastructure is intended as a security resource allocation plan, computed as the solution of an optimization problem that minimizes the risk of having IoT devices not monitored by any resource. We employ the shortfall as a risk measure, a concept mostly used in the economics, and adapt it to our scenario. We show how to compute and evaluate an allocation plan, and how such security solutions address the continuous topology changes that affect an IoT environment.

Hinojosa, V., Gonzalez-Longatt, F..  2017.  Stochastic security-constrained generation expansion planning methodology based on a generalized line outage distribution factors. 2017 IEEE Manchester PowerTech. :1–6.

In this study, it is proposed to carry out an efficient formulation in order to figure out the stochastic security-constrained generation capacity expansion planning (SC-GCEP) problem. The main idea is related to directly compute the line outage distribution factors (LODF) which could be applied to model the N - m post-contingency analysis. In addition, the post-contingency power flows are modeled based on the LODF and the partial transmission distribution factors (PTDF). The post-contingency constraints have been reformulated using linear distribution factors (PTDF and LODF) so that both the pre- and post-contingency constraints are modeled simultaneously in the SC-GCEP problem using these factors. In the stochastic formulation, the load uncertainty is incorporated employing a two-stage multi-period framework, and a K - means clustering technique is implemented to decrease the number of load scenarios. The main advantage of this methodology is the feasibility to quickly compute the post-contingency factors especially with multiple-line outages (N - m). This concept would improve the security-constraint analysis modeling quickly the outage of m transmission lines in the stochastic SC-GCEP problem. It is carried out several experiments using two electrical power systems in order to validate the performance of the proposed formulation.

Hinojosa, V..  2017.  A generalized stochastic N-m security-constrained generation expansion planning methodology using partial transmission distribution factors. 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting. :1–5.

This study proposes to apply an efficient formulation to solve the stochastic security-constrained generation capacity expansion planning (GCEP) problem using an improved method to directly compute the generalized generation distribution factors (GGDF) and the line outage distribution factors (LODF) in order to model the pre- and the post-contingency constraints based on the only application of the partial transmission distribution factors (PTDF). The classical DC-based formulation has been reformulated in order to include the security criteria solving both pre- and post-contingency constraints simultaneously. The methodology also takes into account the load uncertainty in the optimization problem using a two-stage multi-period model, and a clustering technique is used as well to reduce load scenarios (stochastic problem). The main advantage of this methodology is the feasibility to quickly compute the LODF especially with multiple-line outages (N-m). This idea could speed up contingency analyses and improve significantly the security-constrained analyses applied to GCEP problems. It is worth to mentioning that this approach is carried out without sacrificing optimality.

2018-04-04
Narwal, P., Singh, S. N., Kumar, D..  2017.  Game-theory based detection and prevention of DoS attacks on networking node in open stack private cloud. 2017 International Conference on Infocom Technologies and Unmanned Systems (Trends and Future Directions) (ICTUS). :481–486.

Security at virtualization level has always been a major issue in cloud computing environment. A large number of virtual machines that are hosted on a single server by various customers/client may face serious security threats due to internal/external network attacks. In this work, we have examined and evaluated these threats and their impact on OpenStack private cloud. We have also discussed the most popular DOS (Denial-of-Service) attack on DHCP server on this private cloud platform and evaluated the vulnerabilities in an OpenStack networking component, Neutron, due to which this attack can be performed through rogue DHCP server. Finally, a solution, a game-theory based cloud architecture, that helps to detect and prevent DOS attacks in OpenStack has been proposed.

2018-02-21
Li, T., Wu, L., Zhang, X., Wu, X., Zhou, J., Wang, X..  2017.  A novel transition effect ring oscillator based true random number generator for a security SoC. 2017 International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC). :1–2.

The transition effect ring oscillator (TERO) based true random number generator (TRNG) was proposed by Varchola and Drutarovsky in 2010. There were several stochastic models for this advanced TRNG based on ring oscillator. This paper proposed an improved TERO based TRNG and implements both on Altera Cyclone series FPGA platform and on a 0.13um CMOS ASIC process. FPGA experimental results show that this balanced TERO TRNG is in good performance as the experimental data results past the national institute of standards and technology (NIST) test in 1M bit/s. The TRNG is feasible for a security SoC.

2018-02-06
Wang, Y., Rawal, B., Duan, Q..  2017.  Securing Big Data in the Cloud with Integrated Auditing. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud). :126–131.

In this paper, we review big data characteristics and security challenges in the cloud and visit different cloud domains and security regulations. We propose using integrated auditing for secure data storage and transaction logs, real-time compliance and security monitoring, regulatory compliance, data environment, identity and access management, infrastructure auditing, availability, privacy, legality, cyber threats, and granular auditing to achieve big data security. We apply a stochastic process model to conduct security analyses in availability and mean time to security failure. Potential future works are also discussed.