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Ramu, Gandu, Mishra, Zeesha, Acharya, B..  2019.  Hardware implementation of Piccolo Encryption Algorithm for constrained RFID application. 2019 9th Annual Information Technology, Electromechanical Engineering and Microelectronics Conference (IEMECON). :85–89.
The deployment of smart devices in IoT applications are increasing with tremendous pace causing severe security concerns, as it trade most of private information. To counter that security issues in low resource applications, lightweight cryptographic algorithms have been introduced in recent past. In this paper we propose efficient hardware architecture of piccolo lightweight algorithm uses 64 bits block size with variable key size of length 80 and 128 bits. This paper introduces novel hardware architecture of piccolo-80, to supports high speed RFID security applications. Different design strategies are there to optimize the hardware metrics trade-off for particular application. The algorithm is implemented on different family of FPGAs with different devices to analyze the performance of design in 4 input LUTs and 6 input LUTs implementations. In addition, the results of hardware design are evaluated and compared with the most relevant lightweight block ciphers, shows the proposed architecture finds its utilization in terms of speed and area optimization from the hardware resources. The increment in throughput with optimized area of this architecture suggests that piccolo can applicable to implement for ultra-lightweight applications also.
Pan, Yuyang, Yin, Yanzhao, Zhao, Yulin, Wu, Liji, Zhang, Xiangmin.  2019.  A New Information Extractor for Profiled DPA and Implementation of High Order Masking Circuit. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :258–262.
Profiled DPA is a new method combined with machine learning method in side channel attack which is put forward by Whitnall in CHES 2015.[1]The most important part lies in effectiveness of extracting information. This paper introduces a new rule Explained Local Variance (ELV) to extract information in profiled stage for profiled DPA. It attracts information effectively and shields noise to get better accuracy than the original rule. The ELV enables an attacker to use less power traces to get the same result as before. It also leads to 94.6% space reduction and 29.2% time reduction for calculation. For security circuit implementation, a high order masking scheme in modelsim is implemented. A new exchange network is put forward. 96.9% hardware resource is saved due to the usage of this network.
Hu, Taifeng, Wu, Liji, Zhang, Xiangmin, Yin, Yanzhao, Yang, Yijun.  2019.  Hardware Trojan Detection Combine with Machine Learning: an SVM-based Detection Approach. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :202–206.
With the application of integrated circuits (ICs) appears in all aspects of life, whether an IC is security and reliable has caused increasing worry which is of significant necessity. An attacker can achieve the malicious purpose by adding or removing some modules, so called hardware Trojans (HTs). In this paper, we use side-channel analysis (SCA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether there is a Trojan in the circuit. We use SAKURA-G circuit board with Xilinx SPARTAN-6 to complete our experiment. Results show that the Trojan detection rate is up to 93% and the classification accuracy is up to 91.8475%.
Sun, Shuang, Chen, Shudong, Du, Rong, Li, Weiwei, Qi, Donglin.  2019.  Blockchain Based Fine-Grained and Scalable Access Control for IoT Security and Privacy. 2019 IEEE Fourth International Conference on Data Science in Cyberspace (DSC). :598–603.
In this paper, we focuses on an access control issue in the Internet of Things (IoT). Generally, we firstly propose a decentralized IoT system based on blockchain. Then we establish a secure fine-grained access control strategies for users, devices, data, and implement the strategies with smart contract. To trigger the smart contract, we design different transactions. Finally, we use the multi-index table struct for the access right's establishment, and store the access right into Key-Value database to improve the scalability of the decentralized IoT system. In addition, to improve the security of the system we also store the access records on the blockchain and database.
Auer, Lukas, Skubich, Christian, Hiller, Matthias.  2019.  A Security Architecture for RISC-V based IoT Devices. 2019 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1154–1159.

New IoT applications are demanding for more and more performance in embedded devices while their deployment and operation poses strict power constraints. We present the security concept for a customizable Internet of Things (IoT) platform based on the RISC-V ISA and developed by several Fraunhofer Institutes. It integrates a range of peripherals with a scalable computing subsystem as a three dimensional System-in-Package (3D-SiP). The security features aim for a medium security level and target the requirements of the IoT market. Our security architecture extends given implementations to enable secure deployment, operation, and update. Core security features are secure boot, an authenticated watchdog timer, and key management. The Universal Sensor Platform (USeP) SoC is developed for GLOBALFOUNDRIES' 22FDX technology and aims to provide a platform for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) that typically do not have access to advanced microelectronics and integration know-how, and are therefore limited to Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) products.

Aliti, A., Sevrani, K..  2019.  A security model for Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 42nd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1165–1168.
State-of-the-art security frameworks have been extensively addressing security issues for web resources, agents and services in the Semantic Web. The provision of Stream Reasoning as a new area spanning Semantic Web and Data Stream Management Systems has eventually opened up new challenges. Namely, their decentralized nature, the metadata descriptions, the number of users, agents, and services, makes securing Stream Reasoning systems difficult to handle. Thus, there is an inherent need of developing new security models which will handle security and automate security mechanism to a more autonomous system that supports complex and dynamic relationships between data, clients and service providers. We plan to validate our proposed security model on a typical application of stream data, on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In particular, WSNs for water quality monitoring will serve as a case study. The proposed model can be a guide when deploying and maintaining WSNs in different contexts. Moreover, this model will point out main segments which are most important in ensuring security in semantic stream reasoning systems, and their interrelationships. In this paper we propose a security framework to handle most important issues of security within WSN. The security model in itself should be an incentive for other researchers in creating other models to improve information security within semantic stream reasoning systems.
Tsai, I-Chun, Zhong, Yi, Liu, Fang-Ru, Feng, Jianhua.  2019.  A Novel Security Assessment Method Based on Linear Regression for Logic Locking. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electron Devices and Solid-State Circuits (EDSSC). :1–3.
This paper presents a novel logic locking security assessment method based on linear regression, by means of modeling between the distribution probabilities of key-inputs and observable outputs. The algorithm reveals a weakness of the encrypted circuit since the assessment can revoke the key-inputs within several iterations. The experiment result shows that the proposed assessment can be applied to varies of encrypted combinational benchmark circuits, which exceeds 85% of correctness after revoking the encrypted key-inputs.
Gao, Jian, Bai, Huifeng, Wang, Dongshan, Wang, Licheng, Huo, Chao, Hou, Yingying.  2019.  Rapid Security Situation Prediction of Smart Grid Based on Markov Chain. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :2386–2389.

Based on Markov chain analysis method, the situation prediction of smart grid security and stability can be judged in this paper. First component state transition probability matrix and component state prediction were defined. A fast derivation method of Markov state transition probability matrix using in system state prediction was proposed. The Matlab program using this method was compiled to analyze and obtain the future state probability distribution of grid system. As a comparison the system state distribution was simulated based on sequential Monte Carlo method, which was in good agreement with the state transition matrix, and the validity of the method was verified. Furthermore, the situation prediction of the six-node example was analyzed, which provided an effective prediction and analysis tool for the security situation.

Ren, Yidan, Zhu, Zhengzhou, Chen, Xiangzhou, Ding, Huixia, Zhang, Geng.  2018.  Research on Defect Detection Technology of Trusted Behavior Decision Tree Based on Intelligent Data Semantic Analysis of Massive Data. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation. :168–175.

With the rapid development of information technology, software systems' scales and complexity are showing a trend of expansion. The users' needs for the software security, software security reliability and software stability are growing increasingly. At present, the industry has applied machine learning methods to the fields of defect detection to repair and improve software defects through the massive data intelligent semantic analysis or code scanning. The model in machine learning is faced with big difficulty of model building, understanding, and the poor visualization in the field of traditional software defect detection. In view of the above problems, we present a point of view that intelligent semantic analysis technology based on massive data, and using the trusted behavior decision tree model to analyze the soft behavior by layered detection technology. At the same time, it is equipped related test environment to compare the tested software. The result shows that the defect detection technology based on intelligent semantic analysis of massive data is superior to other techniques at the cost of building time and error reported ratio.

Khuchit, Uyangaa, Bai, Yonghong, Wu, Liji, Zhang, Xiangmin.  2018.  An Improved Cross-Coupled NAND Gates PUF for Bank IC Card. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Cryptography, Security and Privacy. :150–153.

This paper presents some verifications and improved considerations of NAND PUF, which was introduced recently [1]. For embedded system such as IC cards, the secret data in memory is vulnerable, so it has to be encrypted and secured. PUF circuit is sensitive to environmental condition, especially in the temperature range influences and variations of current and voltages. This proposed bank IC card would be operated in AB class standard, i.e. voltage would be constant except for power mode changing. Nevertheless, operational temperatures may vary such as the situation of outdoor ATM. Thus, this paper presented some results of our PUF work in Cadence, also on FPGA board. Around 5ns is spent for stabilization of our PUF output that is under variance temperature when power mode changes. Inter Hamming distances is 48.9%, very near to uniqueness and robustness value, that our PUF is feasible to use in bankcard. The maximum error rates are HDintra(0$^\circ$C) = 3.9961 and HDintra(80$^\circ$C) = 3.9916 where at antipoles, while the minimum error rate is HDintra(20$^\circ$C) = 2.9 at room temperature. For improvement, Repetition, LDPC and SEC-DED codes are considered that would eliminate error rates.

Wang, L., Wang, D., Gao, J., Huo, C., Bai, H., Yuan, J..  2019.  Research on Multi-Source Data Security Protection of Smart Grid Based on Quantum Key Combination. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analysis (ICCCBDA). :449–453.

Power communication network is an important infrastructure of power system. For a large number of widely distributed business terminals and communication terminals. The data protection is related to the safe and stable operation of the whole power grid. How to solve the problem that lots of nodes need a large number of keys and avoid the situation that these nodes cannot exchange information safely because of the lack of keys. In order to solve the problem, this paper proposed a segmentation and combination technology based on quantum key to extend the limited key. The basic idea was to obtain a division scheme according to different conditions, and divide a key into several different sub-keys, and then combine these key segments to generate new keys and distribute them to different terminals in the system. Sufficient keys were beneficial to key updating, and could effectively enhance the ability of communication system to resist damage and intrusion. Through the analysis and calculation, the validity of this method in the use of limited quantum keys to achieve the business data secure transmission of a large number of terminal was further verified.

Xi, W., Suo, S., Cai, T., Jian, G., Yao, H., Fan, L..  2019.  A Design and Implementation Method of IPSec Security Chip for Power Distribution Network System Based on National Cryptographic Algorithms. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :2307–2310.

The target of security protection of the power distribution automation system (the distribution system for short) is to ensure the security of communication between the distribution terminal (terminal for short) and the distribution master station (master system for short). The encryption and authentication gateway (VPN gateway for short) for distribution system enhances the network layer communication security between the terminal and the VPN gateway. The distribution application layer encryption authentication device (master cipher machine for short) ensures the confidentiality and integrity of data transmission in application layer, and realizes the identity authentication between the master station and the terminal. All these measures are used to prevent malicious damage and attack to the master system by forging terminal identity, replay attack and other illegal operations, in order to prevent the resulting distribution network system accidents. Based on the security protection scheme of the power distribution automation system, this paper carries out the development of multi-chip encapsulation, develops IPSec Protocols software within the security chip, and realizes dual encryption and authentication function in IP layer and application layer supporting the national cryptographic algorithm.

Duncan, A., Jiang, L., Swany, M..  2018.  Repurposing SoC Analog Circuitry for Additional COTS Hardware Security. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :201–204.

This paper introduces a new methodology to generate additional hardware security in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) system-on-a-chip (SoC) integrated circuits (ICs) that have already been fabricated and packaged. On-chip analog hardware blocks such as analog to digital converters (ADCs), digital to analog converters (DACs) and comparators residing within an SoC are repurposed and connected to one another to generate unique physically unclonable function (PUF) responses. The PUF responses are digitized and processed on-chip to create keys for use in encryption and device authentication activities. Key generation and processing algorithms are presented that minimize the effects of voltage and temperature fluctuations to maximize the repeatability of a key within a device. Experimental results utilizing multiple on-chip analog blocks inside a common COTS microcontroller show reliable key generation with minimal overhead.

Yin, Z., Dou, S., Bai, H., Hou, Y..  2019.  Light-Weighted Security Access Scheme of Broadband Power Line Communications for Multi-Source Information Collection. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :1087–1090.

With the continuously development of smart meter-reading technologies for decades, remote information collection of electricity, water, gas and heat meters have been realized. Due to the difference of electrical interfaces and communication protocols among various types of meters, communication modes of meter terminals are not so compatible, it is difficult to realize communication optimization of electricity, water, gas and heat meters information collection services. In addition, with the development of power consumption information acquisition system, the number of acquisition terminals soars greatly and the data of terminal access is highly concurrent. Therefore, the risk of security access is increasing. This paper presents a light-weighted security access scheme of power line communication based on multi-source data acquisition of electricity, water, gas and heat meters, which separates multi-source data acquisition services and achieve services security isolation and channel security isolation. The communication reliability and security of the meter-reading service of "electricity, water, gas and heat" will be improved and the integrated meter service will be realized reliably.

Wang, D., Ma, Y., Du, J., Ji, Y., Song, Y..  2018.  Security-Enhanced Signaling Scheme in Software Defined Optical Network. 2018 10th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :286–289.

The communication security issue is of great importance and should not be ignored in backbone optical networks which is undergoing the evolution toward software defined networks (SDN). With the aim to solve this problem, this paper conducts deep analysis into the security challenge of software defined optical networks (SDON) and proposes a so-called security-enhanced signaling scheme of SDON. The proposed scheme makes full advantage of current OpenFIow protocol with some necessary extensions and security improvement, by combining digital signatures and message feedback with efficient PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) in signaling procedure of OpenFIow interaction. Thus, this security-enhanced signaling procedure is also designed in details to make sure the end-to-end trusted service connection. Simulation results show that this proposed approach can greatly improve the security level of large-scale optical network for Energy Internet services with better performance in term of connection success rate performance.

Mbiriki, A., Katar, C., Badreddine, A..  2018.  Improvement of Security System Level in the Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) Architecture. 2018 30th International Conference on Microelectronics (ICM). :40–43.

Industry 4.0 is based on the CPS architecture since it is the next generation in the industry. The CPS architecture is a system based on Cloud Computing technology and Internet of Things where computer elements collaborate for the control of physical entities. The security framework in this architecture is necessary for the protection of two parts (physical and information) so basically, security in CPS is classified into two main parts: information security (data) and security of control. In this work, we propose two models to solve the two problems detected in the security framework. The first proposal SCCAF (Smart Cloud Computing Adoption Framework) treats the nature of information that serves for the detection and the blocking of the threats our basic architecture CPS. The second model is a modeled detector related to the physical nature for detecting node information.

Moyne, J., Mashiro, S., Gross, D..  2018.  Determining a Security Roadmap for the Microelectronics Industry. 2018 29th Annual SEMI Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Conference (ASMC). :291–294.

The evolution of the microelectronics manufacturing industry is characterized by increased complexity, analysis, integration, distribution, data sharing and collaboration, all of which is enabled by the big data explosion. This evolution affords a number of opportunities in improved productivity and quality, and reduced cost, however it also brings with it a number of risks associated with maintaining security of data systems. The International Roadmap for Devices and System Factory Integration International Focus Team (IRDS FI IFT) determined that a security technology roadmap for the industry is needed to better understand the needs, challenges and potential solutions for security in the microelectronics industry and its supply chain. As a first step in providing this roadmap, the IFT conducted a security survey, soliciting input from users, suppliers and OEMs. Preliminary results indicate that data partitioning with IP protection is the number one topic of concern, with the need for industry-wide standards as the second most important topic. Further, the "fear" of security breach is considered to be a significant hindrance to Advanced Process Control efforts as well as use of cloud-based solutions. The IRDS FI IFT will endeavor to provide components of a security roadmap for the industry in the 2018 FI chapter, leveraging the output of the survey effort combined with follow-up discussions with users and consultations with experts.

Moghadas, S. H., Fischer, G..  2017.  Robust IoT communication physical layer concept with improved physical unclonable function. 2017 IEEE Asia Pacific Conference on Postgraduate Research in Microelectronics and Electronics (PrimeAsia). :97–100.

Reliability and robustness of Internet of Things (IoT)-cloud-based communication is an important issue for prospective development of the IoT concept. In this regard, a robust and unique client-to-cloud communication physical layer is required. Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is regarded as a suitable physics-based random identification hardware, but suffers from reliability problems. In this paper, we propose novel hardware concepts and furthermore an analysis method in CMOS technology to improve the hardware-based robustness of the generated PUF word from its first point of generation to the last cloud-interfacing point in a client. Moreover, we present a spectral analysis for an inexpensive high-yield implementation in a 65nm generation. We also offer robust monitoring concepts for the PUF-interfacing communication physical layer hardware.

Coustans, M., Terrier, C., Eberhardt, T., Salgado, S., Cherkaoui, A., Fesquet, L..  2017.  A subthreshold 30pJ/bit self-timed ring based true random number generator for internet of everything. 2017 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (S3S). :1–3.

This paper presents a true random number generator that exploits the subthreshold properties of jitter of events propagating in a self-timed ring and jitter of events propagating in an inverter based ring oscillator. Design was implemented in 180nm CMOS flash process. Devices provide high quality random bit sequences passing FIPS 140-2 and NIST SP 800-22 statistical tests which guaranty uniform distribution and unpredictability thanks to the physics based entropy source.

Zabib, D. Z., Levi, I., Fish, A., Keren, O..  2017.  Secured Dual-Rail-Precharge Mux-based (DPMUX) symmetric-logic for low voltage applications. 2017 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (S3S). :1–2.

Hardware implementations of cryptographic algorithms may leak information through numerous side channels, which can be used to reveal the secret cryptographic keys, and therefore compromise the security of the algorithm. Power Analysis Attacks (PAAs) [1] exploit the information leakage from the device's power consumption (typically measured on the supply and/or ground pins). Digital circuits consume dynamic switching energy when data propagate through the logic in each new calculation (e.g. new clock cycle). The average power dissipation of a design can be expressed by: Ptot(t) = α · (Pd(t) + Ppvt(t)) (1) where α is the activity factor (the probability that the gate will switch) and depends on the probability distribution of the inputs to the combinatorial logic. This induces a linear relationship between the power and the processed data [2]. Pd is the deterministic power dissipated by the switching of the gate, including any parasitic and intrinsic capacitances, and hence can be evaluated prior to manufacturing. Ppvt is the change in expected power consumption due to nondeterministic parameters such as process variations, mismatch, temperature, etc. In this manuscript, we describe the design of logic gates that induce data-independent (constant) α and Pd.

Armstrong, D., Nasri, B., Karri, R., Shahrjerdi, D..  2017.  Hybrid silicon CMOS-carbon nanotube physically unclonable functions. 2017 IEEE SOI-3D-Subthreshold Microelectronics Technology Unified Conference (S3S). :1–3.

Physically unclonable functions (PUFs) are used to uniquely identify electronic devices. Here, we introduce a hybrid silicon CMOS-nanotube PUF circuit that uses the variations of nanotube transistors to generate a random response. An analog silicon circuit subsequently converts the nanotube response to zero or one bits. We fabricate an array of nanotube transistors to study and model their device variability. The behavior of the hybrid CMOS-nanotube PUF is then simulated. The parameters of the analog circuit are tuned to achieve the desired normalized Hamming inter-distance of 0.5. The co-design of the nanotube array and the silicon CMOS is an attractive feature for increasing the immunity of the hybrid PUF against an unauthorized duplication. The heterogeneous integration of nanotubes with silicon CMOS offers a new strategy for realizing security tokens that are strong, low-cost, and reliable.

Kakanakov, N., Shopov, M..  2017.  Adaptive models for security and data protection in IoT with Cloud technologies. 2017 40th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1001–1004.

The paper presents an example Sensor-cloud architecture that integrates security as its native ingredient. It is based on the multi-layer client-server model with separation of physical and virtual instances of sensors, gateways, application servers and data storage. It proposes the application of virtualised sensor nodes as a prerequisite for increasing security, privacy, reliability and data protection. All main concerns in Sensor-Cloud security are addressed: from secure association, authentication and authorization to privacy and data integrity and protection. The main concept is that securing the virtual instances is easier to implement, manage and audit and the only bottleneck is the physical interaction between real sensor and its virtual reflection.

Andročec, D., Tomaš, B., Kišasondi, T..  2017.  Interoperability and lightweight security for simple IoT devices. 2017 40th International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1285–1291.

The Semantic Web can be used to enable the interoperability of IoT devices and to annotate their functional and nonfunctional properties, including security and privacy. In this paper, we will show how to use the ontology and JSON-LD to annotate connectivity, security and privacy properties of IoT devices. Out of that, we will present our prototype for a lightweight, secure application level protocol wrapper that ensures communication consistency, secrecy and integrity for low cost IoT devices like the ESP8266 and Photon particle.

Guo, X., Dutta, R. G., He, J., Jin, Y..  2017.  PCH framework for IP runtime security verification. 2017 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :79–84.

Untrusted third-party vendors and manufacturers have raised security concerns in hardware supply chain. Among all existing solutions, formal verification methods provide powerful solutions in detection malicious behaviors at the pre-silicon stage. However, little work have been done towards built-in hardware runtime verification at the post-silicon stage. In this paper, a runtime formal verification framework is proposed to evaluate the trust of hardware during its execution. This framework combines the symbolic execution and SAT solving methods to validate the user defined properties. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on an FPGA platform using an SoC design with untrusted IPs. The experimentation results show that the proposed approach can provide high-level security assurance for hardware at runtime.

Samwel, Niels, Daemen, Joan.  2017.  DPA on Hardware Implementations of Ascon and Keyak. Proceedings of the Computing Frontiers Conference. :415–424.

This work applies side channel analysis on hardware implementations of two CAESAR candidates, Keyak and Ascon. Both algorithms are cryptographic sponges with an iterated permutation. The algorithms share an s-box so attacks on the non-linear step of the permutation are similar. This work presents the first results of a DPA attack on Keyak using traces generated by an FPGA. A new attack is crafted for a larger sensitive variable to reduce the number of traces. It also presents and applies the first CPA attack on Ascon. Using a toy-sized threshold implementation of Ascon we try to give insight in the order of the steps of a permutation.