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Yu, Yue, Yao, Jiming, Wang, Wei, Qiu, Lanxin, Xu, Yangzhou.  2022.  A Lightweight Identity-Based Secondary Authentication Method in Smart Grid. 2022 IEEE 10th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 10:2190—2195.
5G network slicing plays a key role in the smart grid business. The existing authentication schemes for 5G slicing in smart grids require high computing costs, so they are time-consuming and do not fully consider the security of authentication. Aiming at the application scenario of 5G smart grid, this paper proposes an identity-based lightweight secondary authentication scheme. Compared with other well-known methods, in the protocol interaction of this paper, both the user Ui and the grid server can authenticate each other's identities, thereby preventing illegal users from pretending to be identities. The grid user Ui and the grid server can complete the authentication process without resorting to complex bilinear mapping calculations, so the computational overhead is small. The grid user and grid server can complete the authentication process without transmitting the original identification. Therefore, this scheme has the feature of anonymous authentication. In this solution, the authentication process does not require infrastructure such as PKI, so the deployment is simple. Experimental results show that the protocol is feasible in practical applications
Liang, Xiao, An, Ningyu, Li, Da, Zhang, Qiang, Wang, Ruimiao.  2022.  A Blockchain and ABAC Based Data Access Control Scheme in Smart Grid. 2022 International Conference on Blockchain Technology and Information Security (ICBCTIS). :52—55.
In the smart grid, the sharing of power data among various energy entities can make the data play a higher value. However, there may be unauthorized access while sharing data, which makes many entities unwilling to share their data to prevent data leakage. Based on blockchain and ABAC (Attribute-based Access Control) technology, this paper proposes an access control scheme, so that users can achieve fine-grained access control of their data when sharing them. The solution uses smart contract to achieve automated and reliable policy evaluation. IPFS (Interplanetary File System) is used for off-chain distributed storage to share the storage pressure of blockchain and guarantee the reliable storage of data. At the same time, all processes in the system are stored in the blockchain, ensuring the accountability of the system. Finally, the experiment proves the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Frantti, Tapio, Korkiakoski, Markku.  2022.  Security Controls for Smart Buildings with Shared Space. 2022 6th International Conference on Smart Grid and Smart Cities (ICSGSC). :156—165.
In this paper we consider cyber security requirements of the smart buildings. We identify cyber risks, threats, attack scenarios, security objectives and related security controls. The work was done as a part of a smart building design and construction work. From the controls identified w e concluded security practices for engineering-in smart buildings security. The paper provides an idea toward which system security engineers can strive in the basic design and implementation of the most critical components of the smart buildings. The intent of the concept is to help practitioners to avoid ad hoc approaches in the development of security mechanisms for smart buildings with shared space.
Rashed, Muhammad, Kamruzzaman, Joarder, Gondal, Iqbal, Islam, Syed.  2022.  Vulnerability Assessment framework for a Smart Grid. 2022 4th Global Power, Energy and Communication Conference (GPECOM). :449—454.
The increasing demand for the interconnected IoT based smart grid is facing threats from cyber-attacks due to inherent vulnerability in the smart grid network. There is a pressing need to evaluate and model these vulnerabilities in the network to avoid cascading failures in power systems. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a vulnerability assessment framework based on attack probability for the protection and security of a smart grid. Several factors were taken into consideration such as the probability of attack, propagation of attack from a parent node to child nodes, effectiveness of basic metering system, Kalman estimation and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI). The IEEE-300 bus smart grid was simulated using MATPOWER to study the effectiveness of the proposed framework by injecting false data injection attacks (FDIA); and studying their propagation. Our results show that the use of severity assessment standards such as Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS), AMI measurements and Kalman estimates were very effective for evaluating the vulnerability assessment of smart grid in the presence of FDIA attack scenarios.
Mohammed, Amira, George, Gibin.  2022.  Vulnerabilities and Strategies of Cybersecurity in Smart Grid - Evaluation and Review. 2022 3rd International Conference on Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE). :1—6.
Smart grid (SG) is considered the next generation of the traditional power grid. It is mainly divided into three main infrastructures: power system, information and communication infrastructures. Cybersecurity is imperative for information infrastructure and the secure, reliable, and efficient operation of the smart grid. Cybersecurity or a lack of proper implementation thereof poses a considerable challenge to the deployment of SG. Therefore, in this paper, A comprehensive survey of cyber security is presented in the smart grid context. Cybersecurity-related information infrastructure is clarified. The impact of adopting cybersecurity on control and management systems has been discussed. Also, the paper highlights the cybersecurity issues and challenges associated with the control decisions in the smart grid.
Feng, Guocong, Huang, Qingshui, Deng, Zijie, Zou, Hong, Zhang, Jiafa.  2022.  Research on cloud security construction of power grid in smart era. 2022 IEEE 2nd International Conference on Data Science and Computer Application (ICDSCA). :976—980.
With the gradual construction and implementation of cloud computing, the information security problem of the smart grid has surfaced. Therefore, in the construction of the smart grid cloud computing platform, information security needs to be considered in planning, infrastructure, and management at the same time, and it is imminent to build an information network that is secure from terminal to the platform to data. This paper introduces the concept of cloud security technology and the latest development of cloud security technology and discusses the main strategies of cloud security construction in electric power enterprises.
Fan, Jinqiang, Xu, Yonggang, Ma, Jing.  2022.  Research on Security Classification and Classification Method of Power Grid Data. 2022 6th International Conference on Smart Grid and Smart Cities (ICSGSC). :72—76.
In order to solve the problem of untargeted data security grading methods in the process of power grid data governance, this paper analyzes the mainstream data security grading standards at home and abroad, investigates and sorts out the characteristics of power grid data security grading requirements, and proposes a method that considers national, social, and A grid data security classification scheme for the security impact of four dimensions of individuals and enterprises. The plan determines the principle of power grid data security classification. Based on the basic idea of “who will be affected to what extent and to what extent when the power grid data security is damaged”, it defines three classification factors that need to be considered: the degree of impact, the scope of influence, and the objects of influence, and the power grid data is divided into five security levels. In the operation stage of power grid data security grading, this paper sorts out the experience and gives the recommended grading process. This scheme basically conforms to the status quo of power grid data classification, and lays the foundation for power grid data governance.
An, Guowei, Han, Congzheng, Zhang, Fugui, Liu, Kun.  2022.  Research on Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Technology for Smart Grid Application. 2022 Asia-Pacific International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility (APEMC). :441—443.
The electromagnetic energy harvesting technology is a new and effective way to supply power to the condition monitoring sensors installed on or near the transmission line. We will use Computer Simulation Technology Software to simulate the different designs of stand-alone electromagnetic energy harvesters The power generated by energy harvesters of different design structures is compared and analyzed through simulation and experimental results. We then propose an improved design of energy harvester.
G, Emayashri, R, Harini, V, Abirami S, M, Benedict Tephila.  2022.  Electricity-Theft Detection in Smart Grids Using Wireless Sensor Networks. 2022 8th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). 1:2033—2036.
Satisfying the growing demand for electricity is a huge challenge for electricity providers without a robust and good infrastructure. For effective electricity management, the infrastructure has to be strengthened from the generation stage to the transmission and distribution stages. In the current electrical infrastructure, the evolution of smart grids provides a significant solution to the problems that exist in the conventional system. Enhanced management visibility and better monitoring and control are achieved by the integration of wireless sensor network technology in communication systems. However, to implement these solutions in the existing grids, the infrastructural constraints impose a major challenge. Along with the choice of technology, it is also crucial to avoid exorbitant implementation costs. This paper presents a self-stabilizing hierarchical algorithm for the existing electrical network. Neighborhood Area Networks (NAN) and Home Area Networks (HAN) layers are used in the proposed architecture. The Home Node (HN), Simple Node (SN) and Cluster Head (CH) are the three types of nodes used in the model. Fraudulent users in the system are identified efficiently using the proposed model based on the observations made through simulation on OMNeT++ simulator.
Alkuwari, Ahmad N., Al-Kuwari, Saif, Qaraqe, Marwa.  2022.  Anomaly Detection in Smart Grids: A Survey From Cybersecurity Perspective. 2022 3rd International Conference on Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE). :1—7.
Smart grid is the next generation for power generation, consumption and distribution. However, with the introduction of smart communication in such sensitive components, major risks from cybersecurity perspective quickly emerged. This survey reviews and reports on the state-of-the-art techniques for detecting cyber attacks in smart grids, mainly through machine learning techniques.
Qian, Sen, Deng, Hui, Chen, Chuan, Huang, Hui, Liang, Yun, Guo, Jinghong, Hu, Zhengyong, Si, Wenrong, Wang, Hongkang, Li, Yunjia.  2022.  Design of a Nonintrusive Current Sensor with Large Dynamic Range Based on Tunneling Magnetoresistive Devices. 2022 IEEE 5th International Electrical and Energy Conference (CIEEC). :3405—3409.
Current sensors are widely used in power grid for power metering, automation and power equipment monitoring. Since the tradeoff between the sensitivity and the measurement range needs to be made to design a current sensor, it is difficult to deploy one sensor to measure both the small-magnitude and the large-magnitude current. In this research, we design a surface-mount current sensor by using the tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) devices and show that the tradeoff between the sensitivity and the detection range can be broken. Two TMR devices of different sensitivity degrees were integrated into one current sensor module, and a signal processing algorithm was implemented to fusion the outputs of the two TMR devices. Then, a platform was setup to test the performance of the surface-mount current sensor. The results showed that the designed current sensor could measure the current from 2 mA to 100 A with an approximate 93 dB dynamic range. Besides, the nonintrusive feature of the surface-mount current sensor could make it convenient to be deployed on-site.
Cheng, Xi, Liang, Yafeng, Qiu, Jianhong, Zhao, XiaoLi, Ma, Lihong.  2022.  Risk Assessment Method of Microgrid System Based on Random Matrix Theory. 2022 IEEE 10th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC). 10:705—709.
In view of the problems that the existing power grid risk assessment mainly depends on the data fusion of decision-making level, which has strong subjectivity and less effective information, this paper proposes a risk assessment method of microgrid system based on random matrix theory. Firstly, the time series data of multiple sensors are constructed into a high-dimensional matrix according to the different parameter types and nodes; Then, based on random matrix theory and sliding time window processing, the average spectral radius sequence is calculated to characterize the state of microgrid system. Finally, an example is given to verify the effectiveness of the method.
Kumar, T. Ch. Anil, Dixit, Ganesh Kumar, Singh, Rajesh, Narukullapati, Bharath Kumar, Chakravarthi, M. Kalyan, Gangodkar, Durgaprasad.  2022.  Wireless Sensor Network using Control Communication and Monitoring of Smart Grid. 2022 2nd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering (ICACITE). :1567—1570.
For some countries around the world, meeting demand is a serious concern. Power supply market is increasingly increasing, posing a big challenge for various countries throughout the world. The increasing expansion in the market for power needs upgrading system dependability to increase the smart grid's resilience. This smart electric grid has a sensor that analyses grid power availability and sends regular updates to the organisation. The internet is currently being utilized to monitor processes and place orders for running variables from faraway places. A large number of scanners have been used to activate electrical equipment for domestic robotics for a long period in the last several days. Conversely, if it is not correctly implemented, it will have a negative impact on cost-effectiveness as well as productivity. For something like a long time, home automation has relied on a large number of sensor nodes to control electrical equipment. Since there are so many detectors, this isn't cost-effective. In this article, develop and accept a wireless communication component and a management system suitable for managing independent efficient network units from voltage rises and voltage control technologies in simultaneous analyzing system reliability in this study. This research paper has considered secondary method to collect relevant and in-depth data related to the wireless sensor network and its usage in smart grid monitoring.
Núñez, Ivonne, Cano, Elia, Rovetto, Carlos, Ojo-Gonzalez, Karina, Smolarz, Andrzej, Saldana-Barrios, Juan Jose.  2022.  Key technologies applied to the optimization of smart grid systems based on the Internet of Things: A Review. 2022 V Congreso Internacional en Inteligencia Ambiental, Ingeniería de Software y Salud Electrónica y Móvil (AmITIC). :1—8.
This article describes an analysis of the key technologies currently applied to improve the quality, efficiency, safety and sustainability of Smart Grid systems and identifies the tools to optimize them and possible gaps in this area, considering the different energy sources, distributed generation, microgrids and energy consumption and production capacity. The research was conducted with a qualitative methodological approach, where the literature review was carried out with studies published from 2019 to 2022, in five (5) databases following the selection of studies recommended by the PRISMA guide. Of the five hundred and four (504) publications identified, ten (10) studies provided insight into the technological trends that are impacting this scenario, namely: Internet of Things, Big Data, Edge Computing, Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain. It is concluded that to obtain the best performance within Smart Grids, it is necessary to have the maximum synergy between these technologies, since this union will enable the application of advanced smart digital technology solutions to energy generation and distribution operations, thus allowing to conquer a new level of optimization.
Kumar, Santosh, Kumar, N M G, Geetha, B.T., Sangeetha, M., Chakravarthi, M. Kalyan, Tripathi, Vikas.  2022.  Cluster, Cloud, Grid Computing via Network Communication Using Control Communication and Monitoring of Smart Grid. 2022 2nd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering (ICACITE). :1220—1224.
Traditional power consumption management systems are not showing enough reliability and thus, smart grid technology has been introduced to reduce the excess power wastages. In the context of smart grid systems, network communication is another term that is used for developing the network between the users and the load profiles. Cloud computing and clustering are also executed for efficient power management. Based on the facts, this research is going to identify wireless network communication systems to monitor and control smart grid power consumption. Primary survey-based research has been carried out with 62 individuals who worked in the smart grid system, tracked, monitored and controlled the power consumptions using WSN technology. The survey was conducted online where the respondents provided their opinions via a google survey form. The responses were collected and analyzed on Microsoft Excel. Results show that hybrid commuting of cloud and edge computing technology is more advantageous than individual computing. Respondents agreed that deep learning techniques will be more beneficial to analyze load profiles than machine learning techniques. Lastly, the study has explained the advantages and challenges of using smart grid network communication systems. Apart from the findings from primary research, secondary journal articles were also observed to emphasize the research findings.
Zhai, Di, Lu, Yang, Shi, Rui, Ji, Yuejie.  2022.  Large-Scale Micro-Power Sensors Access Scheme Based on Hybrid Mode in IoT Enabled Smart Grid. 2022 7th International Conference on Signal and Image Processing (ICSIP). :719—723.
In order to solve the problem of high data collision probability, high access delay and high-power consumption in random access process of power Internet of Things, an access scheme for large-scale micro-power wireless sensors based on slot-scheduling and hybrid mode is presented. This scheme divides time into different slots and designs a slot-scheduling algorithm according to network workload and power consumption. Sensors with different service priorities are arranged in different time slots for competitive access, using appropriate random-access mechanism. And rationally arrange the number of time slots and competing end-devices in different time slots. This scheme is able to meet the timeliness requirements of different services and reduce the overall network power consumption when dealing with random access scenarios of large-scale micro-power wireless sensor network. Based on the simulation results of actual scenarios, this access scheme can effectively reduce the overall power consumption of the network, and the high priority services can meet the timeliness requirements on the premise of lower power consumption, while the low priority services can further reduce power consumption.
Pradyumna, Achhi, Kuthadi, Sai Madhav, Kumar, A. Ananda, Karuppiah, N..  2022.  IoT Based Smart Grid Communication with Transmission Line Fault Identification. 2022 International Conference on Intelligent Controller and Computing for Smart Power (ICICCSP). :1—5.
The electrical grid connects all the generating stations to supply uninterruptible power to the consumers. With the advent of technology, smart sensors and communication are integrated with the existing grid to behave like a smart system. This smart grid is a two-way communication that connects the consumers and producers. It is a connected smart network that integrates electricity generation, transmission, substation, distribution, etc. In this smart grid, clean, reliable power with a high-efficiency rate of transmission is available. In this paper, a highly efficient smart management system of a smart grid with overall protection is proposed. This management system checks and monitors the parameters periodically. This future technology also develops a smart transformer with ac and dc compatibility, for self-protection and for the healing process.
Boodai, Razan M., Alessa, Hadeel A., Alanazi, Arwa H..  2022.  An Approach to Address Risk Management Challenges: Focused on IT Governance Framework. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :184–188.
Information Technology (IT) governance crosses the organization practices, culture, and policy that support IT management in controlling five key functions, which are strategic alignment, performance management, resource management, value delivery, and risk management. The line of sight is extended from the corporate strategy to the risk management, and risk controls are assessed against operational goals. Thus, the risk management model is concerned with ensuring that the corporate risks are sufficiently controlled and managed. Many organizations rely on IT services to facilitate and sustain their operations, which mandate the existence of a risk management model in their IT governance. This paper examines prior research based on IT governance by using a risk management framework. It also proposes a new method for calculating and classifying IT-related risks. Additionally, we assessed our technique with one of the critical IT services that proves the reliability and accuracy of the implemented model.
Deng, Chao, He, Mingxing, Wen, Xinyu, Luo, Qian.  2022.  Support Efficient User Revocation and Identity Privacy in Integrity Auditing of Shared Data. 2022 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA). :221—229.
The cloud provides storage for users to share their files in the cloud. Nowadays some shared data auditing schemes are proposed for protecting data integrity. However, preserving the identity privacy of group users and secure user revocation usually result in high computational overhead. Then a shared data auditing scheme supporting identity privacy preserving is proposed that enables users to be effectively revoked. To preserve identity privacy during the audit process, we develop an efficient authenticator generation mechanism that enables public auditing. Our solution supports efficient user revocation, where the authenticator of the revoked user does not need to be regenerated and integrity checking can be performed appropriately. At the same time, the group manager maintains two tables to ensure user traceability. When the user updates data, two tables are modified and updated by the group manager promptly. It shows that our scheme is secure by security analysis. Moreover, concrete experiments prove the performance of the system.
Li, Xiuli, Wang, Guoshi, Wang, Chuping, Qin, Yanyan, Wang, Ning.  2022.  Software Source Code Security Audit Algorithm Supporting Incremental Checking. 2022 IEEE 7th International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud). :53—58.
Source code security audit is an effective technique to deal with security vulnerabilities and software bugs. As one kind of white-box testing approaches, it can effectively help developers eliminate defects in the code. However, it suffers from performance issues. In this paper, we propose an incremental checking mechanism which enables fast source code security audits. And we conduct comprehensive experiments to verify the effectiveness of our approach.
Yuan, Wenyong, Wei, Lixian, Li, Zhengge, Ki, Ruifeng, Yang, Xiaoyuan.  2022.  ID-based Data Integrity Auditing Scheme from RSA with Forward Security. 2022 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA). :192—197.
Cloud data integrity verification was an important means to ensure data security. We used public key infrastructure (PKI) to manage user keys in Traditional way, but there were problems of certificate verification and high cost of key management. In this paper, RSA signature was used to construct a new identity-based cloud audit protocol, which solved the previous problems caused by PKI and supported forward security, and reduced the loss caused by key exposure. Through security analysis, the design scheme could effectively resist forgery attack and support forward security.
Alimzhanova, Zhanna, Tleubergen, Akzer, Zhunusbayeva, Salamat, Nazarbayev, Dauren.  2022.  Comparative Analysis of Risk Assessment During an Enterprise Information Security Audit. 2022 International Conference on Smart Information Systems and Technologies (SIST). :1—6.
This article discusses a threat and vulnerability analysis model that allows you to fully analyze the requirements related to information security in an organization and document the results of the analysis. The use of this method allows avoiding and preventing unnecessary costs for security measures arising from subjective risk assessment, planning and implementing protection at all stages of the information systems lifecycle, minimizing the time spent by an information security specialist during information system risk assessment procedures by automating this process and reducing the level of errors and professional skills of information security experts. In the initial sections, the common methods of risk analysis and risk assessment software are analyzed and conclusions are drawn based on the results of comparative analysis, calculations are carried out in accordance with the proposed model.
Saloni, Arora, Dilpreet Kaur.  2022.  A Review on The Concerns of Security Audit Using Machine Learning Techniques. 2022 2nd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering (ICACITE). :835—839.
Successful information and communication technology (ICT) may propel administrative procedures forward quickly. In order to achieve efficient usage of TCT in their businesses, ICT strategies and plans should be examined to ensure that they align with the organization's visions and missions. Efficient software and hardware work together to provide relevant data that aids in the improvement of how we do business, learn, communicate, entertain, and work. This exposes them to a risky environment that is prone to both internal and outside threats. The term “security” refers to a level of protection or resistance to damage. Security can also be thought of as a barrier between assets and threats. Important terms must be understood in order to have a comprehensive understanding of security. This research paper discusses key terms, concerns, and challenges related to information systems and security auditing. Exploratory research is utilised in this study to find an explanation for the observed occurrences, problems, or behaviour. The study's findings include a list of various security risks that must be seriously addressed in any Information System and Security Audit.
Upadhyaya, Santosh Kumar, Thangaraju, B..  2022.  A Novel Method for Trusted Audit and Compliance for Network Devices by Using Blockchain. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Computing and Communication Technologies (CONECCT). :1—6.
The Network Security and Risk (NSR) management team in an enterprise is responsible for maintaining the network which includes switches, routers, firewalls, controllers, etc. Due to the ever-increasing threat of capitalizing on the vulnerabilities to create cyber-attacks across the globe, a major objective of the NSR team is to keep network infrastructure safe and secure. NSR team ensures this by taking proactive measures of periodic audits of network devices. Further external auditors are engaged in the audit process. Audit information is primarily stored in an internal database of the enterprise. This generic approach could result in a trust deficit during external audits. This paper proposes a method to improve the security and integrity of the audit information by using blockchain technology, which can greatly enhance the trust factor between the auditors and enterprises.
Lobanok, Oleg, Promyslov, Vitaly, Semenkov, Kirill.  2022.  Safety-Driven Approach for Security Audit of I&C Systems of Nuclear Power Plants. 2022 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Applications and Manufacturing (ICIEAM). :545—550.
In this paper, we tried to summarize the practical experience of information security audits of nuclear power plants' automated process control system (I&C). The article presents a methodology for auditing the information security of instrumentation and control systems for nuclear power plants. The methodology was developed taking into account international and national Russian norms and rules and standards. The audit taxonomy, classification lifecycle are described. The taxonomy of information security audits shows that form, objectives of the I&C information security audit, and procedures can vary widely. A conceptual program is considered and discussed in details. The distinctive feature of the methodology is the mandatory consideration of the impact of information security on nuclear safety.