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2021-06-24
Hastings, John C., Laverty, David M., Jahic, Admir, Morrow, D John, Brogan, Paul.  2020.  Cyber-security considerations for domestic-level automated demand-response systems utilizing public-key infrastructure and ISO/IEC 20922. 2020 31st Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1–6.
In this paper, the Authors present MQTT (ISO/IEC 20922), coupled with Public-key Infrastructure (PKI) as being highly suited to the secure and timely delivery of the command and control messages required in a low-latency Automated Demand Response (ADR) system which makes use of domestic-level electrical loads connected to the Internet. Several use cases for ADR are introduced, and relevant security considerations are discussed; further emphasizing the suitability of the proposed infrastructure. The authors then describe their testbed platform for testing ADR functionality, and finally discuss the next steps towards getting these kinds of technologies to the next stage.
2021-01-28
Nweke, L. O., Weldehawaryat, G. Kahsay, Wolthusen, S. D..  2020.  Adversary Model for Attacks Against IEC 61850 Real-Time Communication Protocols. 2020 16th International Conference on the Design of Reliable Communication Networks DRCN 2020. :1—8.

Adversarial models are well-established for cryptographic protocols, but distributed real-time protocols have requirements that these abstractions are not intended to cover. The IEEE/IEC 61850 standard for communication networks and systems for power utility automation in particular not only requires distributed processing, but in case of the generic object oriented substation events and sampled value (GOOSE/SV) protocols also hard real-time characteristics. This motivates the desire to include both quality of service (QoS) and explicit network topology in an adversary model based on a π-calculus process algebraic formalism based on earlier work. This allows reasoning over process states, placement of adversarial entities and communication behaviour. We demonstrate the use of our model for the simple case of a replay attack against the publish/subscribe GOOSE/SV subprotocol, showing bounds for non-detectability of such an attack.

2020-12-07
Whitefield, J., Chen, L., Sasse, R., Schneider, S., Treharne, H., Wesemeyer, S..  2019.  A Symbolic Analysis of ECC-Based Direct Anonymous Attestation. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :127–141.
Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) is a cryptographic scheme that provides Trusted Platform Module TPM-backed anonymous credentials. We develop Tamarin modelling of the ECC-based version of the protocol as it is standardised and provide the first mechanised analysis of this standard. Our analysis confirms that the scheme is secure when all TPMs are assumed honest, but reveals a break in the protocol's expected authentication and secrecy properties for all TPMs even if only one is compromised. We propose and formally verify a minimal fix to the standard. In addition to developing the first formal analysis of ECC-DAA, the paper contributes to the growing body of work demonstrating the use of formal tools in supporting standardisation processes for cryptographic protocols.
2020-11-16
Mailloux, L. O., Span, M., Mills, R. F., Young, W..  2019.  A Top Down Approach for Eliciting Systems Security Requirements for a Notional Autonomous Space System. 2019 IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1–7.
Today's highly interconnected and technology reliant environment places great emphasis on the need for secure cyber-physical systems. This work addresses this need by detailing a top down systems security requirements analysis approach for understanding and eliciting security requirements for a notional space system. More specifically, the System-Theoretic Process Analysis approach for Security (STPA-Sec) is used to understand and elicit systems security requirements during the conceptual stage of development. This work employs STPA-Sec in a notional space system to detail the development of functional-level security requirements, design-level engineering considerations, and architectural-level security specifications early in the system life cycle when the solution trade-space is largest rather than merely examining components and adding protections during system operation, maintenance, or sustainment. Lastly, this approach employs a holistic viewpoint which aligns with the systems and software engineering processes as detailed in ISO/IEC/IEEE 152SS and NIST SP SOO-160 Volume 1. This work seeks to advance the science of systems security by providing insight into a viable systems security requirements analysis approach which results in traceable security, safety, and resiliency requirements that can be designed-for, built-to, and verified with confidence.
2020-10-12
Eckhart, Matthias, Ekelhart, Andreas, Lüder, Arndt, Biffl, Stefan, Weippl, Edgar.  2019.  Security Development Lifecycle for Cyber-Physical Production Systems. IECON 2019 - 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. 1:3004–3011.

As the connectivity within manufacturing processes increases in light of Industry 4.0, information security becomes a pressing issue for product suppliers, systems integrators, and asset owners. Reaching new heights in digitizing the manufacturing industry also provides more targets for cyber attacks, hence, cyber-physical production systems (CPPSs) must be adequately secured to prevent malicious acts. To achieve a sufficient level of security, proper defense mechanisms must be integrated already early on in the systems' lifecycle and not just eventually in the operation phase. Although standardization efforts exist with the objective of guiding involved stakeholders toward the establishment of a holistic industrial security concept (e.g., IEC 62443), a dedicated security development lifecycle for systems integrators is missing. This represents a major challenge for engineers who lack sufficient information security knowledge, as they may not be able to identify security-related activities that can be performed along the production systems engineering (PSE) process. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology named Security Development Lifecycle for Cyber-Physical Production Systems (SDL-CPPS) that aims to foster security by design for CPPSs, i.e., the engineering of smart production systems with security in mind. More specifically, we derive security-related activities based on (i) security standards and guidelines, and (ii) relevant literature, leading to a security-improved PSE process that can be implemented by systems integrators. Furthermore, this paper informs domain experts on how they can conduct these security-enhancing activities and provides pointers to relevant works that may fill the potential knowledge gap. Finally, we review the proposed approach by means of discussions in a workshop setting with technical managers of an Austrian-based systems integrator to identify barriers to adopting the SDL-CPPS.

2020-10-06
Nuqui, Reynaldo, Hong, Junho, Kondabathini, Anil, Ishchenko, Dmitry, Coats, David.  2018.  A Collaborative Defense for Securing Protective Relay Settings in Electrical Cyber Physical Systems. 2018 Resilience Week (RWS). :49—54.
Modern power systems today are protected and controlled increasingly by embedded systems of computing technologies with a great degree of collaboration enabled by communication. Energy cyber-physical systems such as power systems infrastructures are increasingly vulnerable to cyber-attacks on the protection and control layer. We present a method of securing protective relays from malicious change in protective relay settings via collaboration of devices. Each device checks the proposed setting changes of its neighboring devices for consistency and coordination with its own settings using setting rules based on relay coordination principles. The method is enabled via peer-to-peer communication between IEDs. It is validated in a cyber-physical test bed containing a real time digital simulator and actual relays that communicate via IEC 61850 GOOSE messages. Test results showed improvement in cyber physical security by using domain based rules to block malicious changes in protection settings caused by simulated cyber-attacks. The method promotes the use of defense systems that are aware of the physical systems which they are designed to secure.
Ravikumar, Gelli, Hyder, Burhan, Govindarasu, Manimaran.  2019.  Efficient Modeling of HIL Multi-Grid System for Scalability Concurrency in CPS Security Testbed. 2019 North American Power Symposium (NAPS). :1—6.
Cyber-event-triggered power grid blackout compels utility operators to intensify cyber-aware and physics-constrained recovery and restoration process. Recently, coordinated cyber attacks on the Ukrainian grid witnessed such a cyber-event-triggered power system blackout. Various cyber-physical system (CPS) testbeds have attempted with multitude designs to analyze such interdependent events and evaluate remedy measures. However, resource constraints and modular integration designs have been significant barriers while modeling large-scale grid models (scalability) and multi-grid isolated models (concurrency) under a single real-time execution environment for the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) CPS security testbeds. This paper proposes a meticulous design and effective modeling for simulating large-scale grid models and multi-grid isolated models in a HIL realtime digital simulator environment integrated with industry-grade hardware and software systems. We have used our existing HIL CPS security testbed to demonstrate scalability by the realtime performance of a Texas-2000 bus US synthetic grid model and concurrency by the real-time performance of simultaneous ten IEEE-39 bus grid models and an IEEE-118 bus grid model. The experiments demonstrated significant results by 100% realtime performance with zero overruns, low latency while receiving and executing control signals from SEL Relays via IEC-61850 protocol and low latency while computing and transmitting grid data streams including stability measures via IEEE C37.118 synchrophasor data protocol to SEL Phasor Data Concentrators.
2020-09-28
Homoliak, Ivan, Venugopalan, Sarad, Hum, Qingze, Szalachowski, Pawel.  2019.  A Security Reference Architecture for Blockchains. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :390–397.
Due to their specific features, blockchains have become popular in recent years. Blockchains are layered systems where security is a critical factor for their success. The main focus of this work is to systematize knowledge about security and privacy issues of blockchains. To this end, we propose a security reference architecture based on models that demonstrate the stacked hierarchy of various threats as well as threat-risk assessment using ISO/IEC 15408. In contrast to the previous surveys [23], [88], [11], we focus on the categorization of security vulnerabilities based on their origins and using the proposed architecture we present existing prevention and mitigation techniques. The scope of our work mainly covers aspects related to the nature of blockchains, while we mention operational security issues and countermeasures only tangentially.
2020-08-07
Dilmaghani, Saharnaz, Brust, Matthias R., Danoy, Grégoire, Cassagnes, Natalia, Pecero, Johnatan, Bouvry, Pascal.  2019.  Privacy and Security of Big Data in AI Systems: A Research and Standards Perspective. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :5737—5743.

The huge volume, variety, and velocity of big data have empowered Machine Learning (ML) techniques and Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems. However, the vast portion of data used to train AI systems is sensitive information. Hence, any vulnerability has a potentially disastrous impact on privacy aspects and security issues. Nevertheless, the increased demands for high-quality AI from governments and companies require the utilization of big data in the systems. Several studies have highlighted the threats of big data on different platforms and the countermeasures to reduce the risks caused by attacks. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing threats which violate privacy aspects and security issues inflicted by big data as a primary driving force within the AI/ML workflow. We define an adversarial model to investigate the attacks. Additionally, we analyze and summarize the defense strategies and countermeasures of these attacks. Furthermore, due to the impact of AI systems in the market and the vast majority of business sectors, we also investigate Standards Developing Organizations (SDOs) that are actively involved in providing guidelines to protect the privacy and ensure the security of big data and AI systems. Our far-reaching goal is to bridge the research and standardization frame to increase the consistency and efficiency of AI systems developments guaranteeing customer satisfaction while transferring a high degree of trustworthiness.

2020-08-03
Si, Wen-Rong, Fu, Chen-Zhao, Gao, Kai, Zhang, Jia-Min, He, Lin, Bao, Hai-Long, Wu, Xin-Ye.  2019.  Research on a General Fast Analysis Algorithm Model for Pd Acoustic Detection System: The Algorithm Model Design and Its Application. 2019 International Conference on Smart Grid and Electrical Automation (ICSGEA). :22–26.
Nowadays, the detection of acoustical emission is widely used for fault diagnosis of gas insulated substations (GIS) in normal operation and factory tests, which is called 'non-conventional' method recommended in the standard IEC TS 62478-2016 and GIGRE D1.33 444. In this paper, to develop a data analyzer for acoustic detection (AD) system to make an assistant diagnosis for technical personnel or equipment operation and maintenance personnel, based on the previous research on the experimental research, pattern identification with phase compensation and the software development, the algorithm model design and its application is given in detail. For the acoustical emission signals (n, ti, qi), the BP artificial neural network optimized by genetic algorithm (GA-BP) is used as a classifier based on the fingerprint consisting of several statistic operators, which are derivate form typical 2D histograms of PRPD with identification with phase compensation (IPC). Experimental results show that the comprehensive algorithm model designed for identification is practical and effective.
2020-05-08
Boakye-Boateng, Kwasi, Lashkari, Arash Habibi.  2019.  Securing GOOSE: The Return of One-Time Pads. 2019 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1—8.

IEC 61850 is an international standard that is widely used in substation automation systems (SAS) in smart grids. During its development, security was not considered thus leaving SAS vulnerable to attacks from adversaries. IEC 62351 was developed to provide security recommendations for SAS against (distributed) denial-of-service, replay, alteration, spoofing and detection of devices attacks. However, real-time communications, which require protocols such as Generic Object-Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) to function efficiently, cannot implement these recommendations due to latency constraints. There has been researching that sought to improve the security of GOOSE messages, however, some cannot be practically implemented due to hardware requirements while others are theoretical, even though latency requirements were met. This research investigates the possibility of encrypting GOOSE messages with One- Time Pads (OTP), leveraging the fact that encryption/decryption processes require the random generation of OTPs and modulo addition (XOR), which could be a realistic approach to secure GOOSE while maintaining latency requirements. Results show that GOOSE messages can be encrypted with some future work required.

Kearney, Paul, Asal, Rasool.  2019.  ERAMIS: A Reference Architecture-Based Methodology for IoT Systems. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:366—367.

Opportunities arising from IoT-enabled applications are significant, but market growth is inhibited by concerns over security and complexity. To address these issues, we propose the ERAMIS methodology, which is based on instantiation of a reference architecture that captures common design features, embodies best practice, incorporates good security properties by design, and makes explicit provision for operational security services and processes.

2020-03-16
Radoglou-Grammatikis, Panagiotis, Sarigiannidis, Panagiotis, Giannoulakis, Ioannis, Kafetzakis, Emmanouil, Panaousis, Emmanouil.  2019.  Attacking IEC-60870-5-104 SCADA Systems. 2019 IEEE World Congress on Services (SERVICES). 2642-939X:41–46.
The rapid evolution of the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) services transforms the conventional electrical grid into a new paradigm called Smart Grid (SG). Even though SG brings significant improvements, such as increased reliability and better energy management, it also introduces multiple security challenges. One of the main reasons for this is that SG combines a wide range of heterogeneous technologies, including Internet of Things (IoT) devices as well as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. The latter are responsible for monitoring and controlling the automatic procedures of energy transmission and distribution. Nevertheless, the presence of these systems introduces multiple vulnerabilities because their protocols do not implement essential security mechanisms such as authentication and access control. In this paper, we focus our attention on the security issues of the IEC 60870-5-104 (IEC-104) protocol, which is widely utilized in the European energy sector. In particular, we provide a SCADA threat model based on a Coloured Petri Net (CPN) and emulate four different types of cyber attacks against IEC-104. Last, we used AlienVault's risk assessment model to evaluate the risk level that each of these cyber attacks introduces to our system to confirm our intuition about their severity.
2020-03-09
PONGSRISOMCHAI, Sutthinee, Ngamsuriyaroj, Sudsanguan.  2019.  Automated IT Audit of Windows Server Access Control. 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :539–544.

To protect sensitive information of an organization, we need to have proper access controls since several data breach incidents were happened because of broken access controls. Normally, the IT auditing process would be used to identify security weaknesses and should be able to detect any potential access control violations in advance. However, most auditing processes are done manually and not performed consistently since lots of resources are required; thus, the auditing is performed for quality assurance purposes only. This paper proposes an automated process to audit the access controls on the Windows server operating system. We define the audit checklist and use the controls defined in ISO/IEC 27002:2013 as a guideline for identifying audit objectives. In addition, an automated audit tool is developed for checking security controls against defined security policies. The results of auditing are the list of automatically generated passed and failed policies. If the auditing is done consistently and automatically, the intrusion incidents could be detected earlier and essential damages could be prevented. Eventually, it would help increase the reliability of the system.

2020-03-02
Livshitz, Ilva I., Lontsikh, Pawel A., Lontsiklr, Natalia P., Karascv, Sergey, Golovina, Elena.  2019.  The Actual Problems of IT-Security Process Assurance. 2019 International Conference "Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies" (IT QM IS). :140–144.

The article deals with the aspects of IT-security of business processes, using a variety of methodological tools, including Integrated Management Systems. Currently, all IMS consist of at least 2 management systems, including the IT-Security Management System. Typically, these IMS cover biggest part of the company business processes, but in practice, there are examples of different scales, even within a single facility. However, it should be recognized that the total number of such projects both in the Russian Federation and in the World is small. The security of business processes will be considered on the example of the incident of Norsk Hydro. In the article the main conclusions are given to confirm the possibility of security, continuity and recovery of critical business processes on the example of this incident.

2020-02-17
Byun, Minjae, Lee, Yongjun, Choi, Jin-Young.  2019.  Risk and avoidance strategy for blocking mechanism of SDN-based security service. 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :187–190.

Software-Defined Network (SDN) is the dynamic network technology to address the issues of traditional networks. It provides centralized view of the whole network through decoupling the control planes and data planes of a network. Most SDN-based security services globally detect and block a malicious host based on IP address. However, the IP address is not verified during the forwarding process in most cases and SDN-based security service may block a normal host with forged IP address in the whole network, which means false-positive. In this paper, we introduce an attack scenario that uses forged packets to make the security service consider a victim host as an attacker so that block the victim. We also introduce cost-effective risk avoidance strategy.

2020-02-10
Muka, Romina, Haugli, Fredrik Bakkevig, Vefsnmo, Hanne, Heegaard, Poul E..  2019.  Information Inconsistencies in Smart Distribution Grids under Different Failure Causes modelled by Stochastic Activity Networks. 2019 AEIT International Annual Conference (AEIT). :1–6.
The ongoing digitalization of the power distribution grid will improve the operational support and automation which is believed to increase the system reliability. However, in an integrated and interdependent cyber-physical system, new threats appear which must be understood and dealt with. Of particular concern, in this paper, is the causes of an inconsistent view between the physical system (here power grid) and the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) system (here Distribution Management System). In this paper we align the taxonomy used in International Electrotechnical Commission (power eng.) and International Federation for Information Processing (ICT community), define a metric for inconsistencies, and present a modelling approach using Stochastic Activity Networks to assess the consequences of inconsistencies. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated in a simple use case.
2020-01-21
Fujdiak, Radek, Blazek, Petr, Mlynek, Petr, Misurec, Jiri.  2019.  Developing Battery of Vulnerability Tests for Industrial Control Systems. 2019 10th IFIP International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security (NTMS). :1–5.

Nowadays, the industrial control systems (ICS) face many challenges, where security is becoming one of the most crucial. This fact is caused by new connected environment, which brings among new possibilities also new vulnerabilities, threats, or possible attacks. The criminal acts in the ICS area increased over the past years exponentially, which caused the loss of billions of dollars. This also caused classical Intrusion Detection Systems and Intrusion Prevention Systems to evolve in order to protect among IT also ICS networks. However, these systems need sufficient data such as traffic logs, protocol information, attack patterns, anomaly behavior marks and many others. To provide such data, the requirements for the test environment are summarized in this paper. Moreover, we also introduce more than twenty common vulnerabilities across the ICS together with information about possible risk, attack vector (point), possible detection methods and communication layer occurrence. Therefore, the paper might be used as a base-ground for building sufficient data generator for machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms often used in ICS/IDS systems.

2019-12-02
Wright, James G., Wolthusen, Stephen D..  2018.  Stealthy Injection Attacks Against IEC61850's GOOSE Messaging Service. 2018 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT-Europe). :1–6.
IEC61850 and IEC62351 combined provide a set of security promises for the communications channels that are used to run a substation automation system (SAS), that use IEC61850 based technologies. However, one area that is largely untouched by these security promises is the generic object oriented substation events (GOOSE) messaging service. GOOSE is designed to multicast commands and data across a substation within hard real time quality of service (QoS) requirements. This means that GOOSE is unable to implement the required security technologies as the added latency to any message would violate the QoS.
2019-10-02
Alkadi, A., Chi, H., Prodanoff, Z. G., Kreidl, P..  2018.  Evaluation of Two RFID Traffic Models with Potential in Anomaly Detection. SoutheastCon 2018. :1–5.

The use of Knuth's Rule and Bayesian Blocks constant piecewise models for characterization of RFID traffic has been proposed already. This study presents an evaluation of the application of those two modeling techniques for various RFID traffic patterns. The data sets used in this study consist of time series of binned RFID command counts. More specifically., we compare the shape of several empirical plots of raw data sets we obtained from experimental RIFD readings., against the constant piecewise graphs produced as an output of the two modeling algorithms. One issue limiting the applicability of modeling techniques to RFID traffic is the fact that there are a large number of various RFID applications available. We consider this phenomenon to present the main motivation for this study. The general expectation is that the RFID traffic traces from different applications would be sequences with different histogram shapes. Therefore., no modeling technique could be considered universal for modeling the traffic from multiple RFID applications., without first evaluating its model performance for various traffic patterns. We postulate that differences in traffic patterns are present if the histograms of two different sets of RFID traces form visually different plot shapes.

2019-08-05
Ogundokun, A., Zavarsky, P., Swar, B..  2018.  Cybersecurity assurance control baselining for smart grid communication systems. 2018 14th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS). :1–6.

Cybersecurity assurance plays an important role in managing trust in smart grid communication systems. In this paper, cybersecurity assurance controls for smart grid communication networks and devices are delineated from the more technical functional controls to provide insights on recent innovative risk-based approaches to cybersecurity assurance in smart grid systems. The cybersecurity assurance control baselining presented in this paper is based on requirements and guidelines of the new family of IEC 62443 standards on network and systems security of industrial automation and control systems. The paper illustrates how key cybersecurity control baselining and tailoring concepts of the U.S. NIST SP 800-53 can be adopted in smart grid security architecture. The paper outlines the application of IEC 62443 standards-based security zoning and assignment of security levels to the zones in smart grid system architectures. To manage trust in the smart grid system architecture, cybersecurity assurance base lining concepts are applied per security impact levels. Selection and justification of security assurance controls presented in the paper is utilizing the approach common in Security Technical Implementation Guides (STIGs) of the U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency. As shown in the paper, enhanced granularity for managing trust both on the overall system and subsystem levels of smart grid systems can be achieved by implementation of the instructions of the CNSSI 1253 of the U.S. Committee of National Security Systems on security categorization and control selection for national security systems.

2019-07-01
Rosa, F. De Franco, Jino, M., Bueno, P. Marcos Siqueira, Bonacin, R..  2018.  Coverage-Based Heuristics for Selecting Assessment Items from Security Standards: A Core Set Proposal. 2018 Workshop on Metrology for Industry 4.0 and IoT. :192-197.

In the realm of Internet of Things (IoT), information security is a critical issue. Security standards, including their assessment items, are essential instruments in the evaluation of systems security. However, a key question remains open: ``Which test cases are most effective for security assessment?'' To create security assessment designs with suitable assessment items, we need to know the security properties and assessment dimensions covered by a standard. We propose an approach for selecting and analyzing security assessment items; its foundations come from a set of assessment heuristics and it aims to increase the coverage of assessment dimensions and security characteristics in assessment designs. The main contribution of this paper is the definition of a core set of security assessment heuristics. We systematize the security assessment process by means of a conceptual formalization of the security assessment area. Our approach can be applied to security standards to select or to prioritize assessment items with respect to 11 security properties and 6 assessment dimensions. The approach is flexible allowing the inclusion of dimensions and properties. Our proposal was applied to a well know security standard (ISO/IEC 27001) and its assessment items were analyzed. The proposal is meant to support: (i) the generation of high-coverage assessment designs, which include security assessment items with assured coverage of the main security characteristics, and (ii) evaluation of security standards with respect to the coverage of security aspects.

2019-03-11
Xie, X. L., Xue, W. X..  2018.  An Empirical Study of Web Software Trustworthiness Measurement. 2018 2nd IEEE Advanced Information Management,Communicates,Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :1474–1481.

The aim of this paper is to present a fresh methodology of improved evidence synthesis for assessing software trustworthiness, which can unwind collisions stemming from proofs and these proofs' own uncertainties. To achieve this end, the paper, on the ground of ISO/IEC 9126 and web software attributes, models the indicator framework by factor analysis. Then, the paper conducts an calculation of the weight for each indicator via the technique of structural entropy and makes a fuzzy judgment matrix concerning specialists' comments. This study performs a computation of scoring and grade regarding software trustworthiness by using of the criterion concerning confidence degree discernment and comes up with countermeasures to promote trustworthiness. Relying on online accounting software, this study makes an empirical analysis to further confirm validity and robustness. This paper concludes with pointing out limitations.

2018-08-23
Matsuo, S..  2017.  How formal analysis and verification add security to blockchain-based systems. 2017 Formal Methods in Computer Aided Design (FMCAD). :1–4.

Blockchain is an integrated technology to ensure keeping record and process transactions with decentralized manner. It is thought as the foundation of future decentralized ecosystem, and collects much attention. However, the maturity of this technology including security of the fundamental protocol and its applications is not enough, thus we need more research on the security evaluation and verification of Blockchain technology This tutorial explains the current status of the security of this technology, its security layers and possibility of application of formal analysis and verification.

2018-06-07
Obster, M., Kowalewski, S..  2017.  A live static code analysis architecture for PLC software. 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :1–4.

Static code analysis is a convenient technique to support the development of software. Without prior test setup, information about a later runtime behavior can be inferred and errors in the code can be found before using a regular compiler. Solutions to apply static code analysis to PLC software following the IEC 61131-3 already exist, but using these separate tools usually creates a gap in the development process. In this paper we introduce an architecture to use static analysis directly in a development environment and give instant feedback to the developer while he is still editing the PLC software.