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2020-12-02
Scheffer, V., Ipach, H., Becker, C..  2019.  Distribution Grid State Assessment for Control Reserve Provision Using Boundary Load Flow. 2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech. :1—6.

With the increasing expansion of wind and solar power plants, these technologies will also have to contribute control reserve to guarantee frequency stability within the next couple of years. In order to maintain the security of supply at the same level in the future, it must be ensured that wind and solar power plants are able to feed in electricity into the distribution grid without bottlenecks when activated. The present work presents a grid state assessment, which takes into account the special features of the control reserve supply. The identification of a future grid state, which is necessary for an ex ante evaluation, poses the challenge of forecasting loads. The Boundary Load Flow method takes load uncertainties into account and is used to estimate a possible interval for all grid parameters. Grid congestions can thus be detected preventively and suppliers of control reserve can be approved or excluded. A validation in combination with an exemplary application shows the feasibility of the overall methodology.

2020-11-20
Efstathopoulos, G., Grammatikis, P. R., Sarigiannidis, P., Argyriou, V., Sarigiannidis, A., Stamatakis, K., Angelopoulos, M. K., Athanasopoulos, S. K..  2019.  Operational Data Based Intrusion Detection System for Smart Grid. 2019 IEEE 24th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). :1—6.

With the rapid progression of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and especially of Internet of Things (IoT), the conventional electrical grid is transformed into a new intelligent paradigm, known as Smart Grid (SG). SG provides significant benefits both for utility companies and energy consumers such as the two-way communication (both electricity and information), distributed generation, remote monitoring, self-healing and pervasive control. However, at the same time, this dependence introduces new security challenges, since SG inherits the vulnerabilities of multiple heterogeneous, co-existing legacy and smart technologies, such as IoT and Industrial Control Systems (ICS). An effective countermeasure against the various cyberthreats in SG is the Intrusion Detection System (IDS), informing the operator timely about the possible cyberattacks and anomalies. In this paper, we provide an anomaly-based IDS especially designed for SG utilising operational data from a real power plant. In particular, many machine learning and deep learning models were deployed, introducing novel parameters and feature representations in a comparative study. The evaluation analysis demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed IDS and the improvement due to the suggested complex data representation.

2020-10-12
Jharko, Elena, Promyslov, Vitaly, Iskhakov, Andrey.  2019.  Extending Functionality of Early Fault Diagnostic System for Online Security Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant. 2019 International Russian Automation Conference (RusAutoCon). :1–6.

The new instrumentation and control (I&C) systems of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) improve the ability to operate the plant enhance the safety and performance of the NPP. However, they bring a new type of threat to the NPP's industry-cyber threat. The early fault diagnostic system (EDS) is one of the decision support systems that might be used online during the operation stage. The EDS aim is to prevent the incident/accident evolution by a timely troubleshooting process during any plant operational modes. It means that any significative deviation of plant parameters from normal values is pointed-out to plant operators well before reaching any undesired threshold potentially leading to a prohibited plant state, together with the cause that has generated the deviation. The paper lists the key benefits using the EDS to counter the cyber threat and proposes the framework for cybersecurity assessment using EDS during the operational stage.

2020-10-06
Akbarzadeh, Aida, Pandey, Pankaj, Katsikas, Sokratis.  2019.  Cyber-Physical Interdependencies in Power Plant Systems: A Review of Cyber Security Risks. 2019 IEEE Conference on Information and Communication Technology. :1—6.

Realizing the importance of the concept of “smart city” and its impact on the quality of life, many infrastructures, such as power plants, began their digital transformation process by leveraging modern computing and advanced communication technologies. Unfortunately, by increasing the number of connections, power plants become more and more vulnerable and also an attractive target for cyber-physical attacks. The analysis of interdependencies among system components reveals interdependent connections, and facilitates the identification of those among them that are in need of special protection. In this paper, we review the recent literature which utilizes graph-based models and network-based models to study these interdependencies. A comprehensive overview, based on the main features of the systems including communication direction, control parameters, research target, scalability, security and safety, is presented. We also assess the computational complexity associated with the approaches presented in the reviewed papers, and we use this metric to assess the scalability of the approaches.

2020-09-14
Kim, Seungmin, Kim, Sangwoo, Nam, Ki-haeng, Kim, Seonuk, Kwon, Kook-huei.  2019.  Cyber Security Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant through Vital Digital Assets. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :224–226.
As nuclear power plant Instrumentation and Control(I&C) systems have turned into digital systems, the possibility of cyber-attacks has increased. To protect the nuclear power plant from cyber-attacks, digital assets are classified and managed as critical digital assets which have safety, security and emergency preparedness functions. However, critical digital assets represent 70-80% of total digital assets, and applying and managing the same security control is inefficient. Therefore, this paper presents the criteria for identifying digital assets that are classified as vital digital assets that can directly affect the serious accidents of nuclear power plants.
2020-08-07
Lou, Xin, Tran, Cuong, Yau, David K.Y., Tan, Rui, Ng, Hongwei, Fu, Tom Zhengjia, Winslett, Marianne.  2019.  Learning-Based Time Delay Attack Characterization for Cyber-Physical Systems. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1—6.
The cyber-physical systems (CPSes) rely on computing and control techniques to achieve system safety and reliability. However, recent attacks show that these techniques are vulnerable once the cyber-attackers have bypassed air gaps. The attacks may cause service disruptions or even physical damages. This paper designs the built-in attack characterization scheme for one general type of cyber-attacks in CPS, which we call time delay attack, that delays the transmission of the system control commands. We use the recurrent neural networks in deep learning to estimate the delay values from the input trace. Specifically, to deal with the long time-sequence data, we design the deep learning model using stacked bidirectional long short-term memory (LSTM) units. The proposed approach is tested by using the data generated from a power plant control system. The results show that the LSTM-based deep learning approach can work well based on data traces from three sensor measurements, i.e., temperature, pressure, and power generation, in the power plant control system. Moreover, we show that the proposed approach outperforms the base approach based on k-nearest neighbors.
2020-07-16
Hasani, Abbas, Haghjoo, Farhad, Bak, Claus Leth, Faria da Silva, Filipe.  2019.  Performance Evaluation of Some Industrial Loss of Field Protection Schemes Using a Realistic Model in The RTDS. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2019 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I CPS Europe). :1—5.

Loss of field (LOF) relay, with ANSI code 40, is one of the most important protection functions for synchronous generators in power plants. Although many LOF protection schemes have been presented in the literature during the last decades, a few numbers of them such as impedance and admittance based schemes are accepted by the industry. This paper explores and compares the performances of some industrial LOF protection schemes through simulation studies and from speed, reliability and security viewpoints. The simulation studies are carried out in the real-time-digital-simulator, where a realistic power generation unit is developed by employing the phase domain model of synchronous generator. Using such a realistic system, various types of LOF events can be simulated in accordance with IEEE Standard C37.102-2006, so that the performance of any method can be evaluated through careful LOF studies.

2020-04-24
Rahman, Lamiya, Adan, Jannatul, Nahid-AI-Masood, Deeba, Shohana Rahman.  2018.  Performance Analysis of Floating Buoy Point Absorber and Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converters in Onshore and Offshore Locations. 2018 10th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (ICECE). :233—236.

The aim of this paper is to explore the performance of two well-known wave energy converters (WECs) namely Floating Buoy Point Absorber (FBPA) and Oscillating Surge (OS) in onshore and offshore locations. To achieve clean energy targets by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, integration of renewable energy resources is continuously increasing all around the world. In addition to widespread renewable energy source such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV), wave energy extracted from ocean is becoming more tangible day by day. In the literature, a number of WEC devices are reported. However, further investigations are still needed to better understand the behaviors of FBPA WEC and OS WEC under irregular wave conditions in onshore and offshore locations. Note that being surrounded by Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh has huge scope of utilizing wave power. To this end, FBPA WEC and OS WEC are simulated using the typical onshore and offshore wave height and wave period of the coastal area of Bangladesh. Afterwards, performances of the aforementioned two WECs are compared by analyzing their power output.

M'zoughi, Fares, Garrido, Aitor J., Garrido, Izaskun, Bouallègue, Soufiene, Ayadi, Mounir.  2018.  Sliding Mode Rotational Speed Control of an Oscillating Water Column-based Wave Generation Power Plants. 2018 International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM). :1263—1270.

This paper deals with the modeling and control of the NEREIDA wave generation power plant installed in Mutriku, Spain. This kind of Oscillating Water Column (OWC) plants usually employ a Wells turbine coupled to a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The stalling behavior of the Wells turbine limits the generated power. In this context, a sliding mode rotational speed control is proposed to help avoiding this phenomenon. This will regulate the speed by means of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) of the Back-to-Back converter governing the generator. The results of the comparative study show that the proposed control provides a higher generated power compared to the uncontrolled case.

M'zoughi, Fares, Bouallègue, Soufiene, Ayadi, Mounir, Garrido, Aitor J., Garrido, Izaskun.  2018.  Harmony search algorithm-based airflow control of an oscillating water column-based wave generation power plants. 2018 International Conference on Advanced Systems and Electric Technologies (IC\_ASET). :249—254.

The NEREIDA wave generation power plant installed in Mutriku, Spain is a multiple Oscillating Water Column (OWC) plant. The power takeoff consists of a Wells turbine coupled to a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). The stalling behavior present in the Wells turbine limits the generated power. This paper presents the modeling and a Harmony Search Algorithm-based airflow control of the OWC. The Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is proposed to help overcome the limitations of a traditionally tuned PID. An investigation between HSA-tuned controller and the traditionally tuned controller has been performed. Results of the controlled and uncontrolled plant prove the effectiveness of the airflow control and the superiority of the HSA-tuned controller.

2020-03-16
Babay, Amy, Schultz, John, Tantillo, Thomas, Beckley, Samuel, Jordan, Eamon, Ruddell, Kevin, Jordan, Kevin, Amir, Yair.  2019.  Deploying Intrusion-Tolerant SCADA for the Power Grid. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :328–335.

While there has been considerable research on making power grid Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems resilient to attacks, the problem of transitioning these technologies into deployed SCADA systems remains largely unaddressed. We describe our experience and lessons learned in deploying an intrusion-tolerant SCADA system in two realistic environments: a red team experiment in 2017 and a power plant test deployment in 2018. These experiences resulted in technical lessons related to developing an intrusion-tolerant system with a real deployable application, preparing a system for deployment in a hostile environment, and supporting protocol assumptions in that hostile environment. We also discuss some meta-lessons regarding the cultural aspects of transitioning academic research into practice in the power industry.

2020-03-02
Zhang, Yihan, Wu, Jiajing, Chen, Zhenhao, Huang, Yuxuan, Zheng, Zibin.  2019.  Sequential Node/Link Recovery Strategy of Power Grids Based on Q-Learning Approach. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :1–5.

Cascading failure, which can be triggered by both physical and cyber attacks, is among the most critical threats to the security and resilience of power grids. In current literature, researchers investigate the issue of cascading failure on smart grids mainly from the attacker's perspective. From the perspective of a grid defender or operator, however, it is also an important issue to restore the smart grid suffering from cascading failure back to normal operation as soon as possible. In this paper, we consider cascading failure in conjunction with the restoration process involving repairing of the failed nodes/links in a sequential fashion. Based on a realistic power flow cascading failure model, we exploit a Q-learning approach to develop a practical and effective policy to identify the optimal way of sequential restorations for large-scale smart grids. Simulation results on three power grid test benchmarks demonstrate the learning ability and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

2019-07-01
Akhtar, T., Gupta, B. B., Yamaguchi, S..  2018.  Malware propagation effects on SCADA system and smart power grid. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–6.

Critical infrastructures have suffered from different kind of cyber attacks over the years. Many of these attacks are performed using malwares by exploiting the vulnerabilities of these resources. Smart power grid is one of the major victim which suffered from these attacks and its SCADA system are frequently targeted. In this paper we describe our proposed framework to analyze smart power grid, while its SCADA system is under attack by malware. Malware propagation and its effects on SCADA system is the focal point of our analysis. OMNeT++ simulator and openDSS is used for developing and analyzing the simulated smart power grid environment.

2019-06-24
Wang, J., Zhang, X., Zhang, H., Lin, H., Tode, H., Pan, M., Han, Z..  2018.  Data-Driven Optimization for Utility Providers with Differential Privacy of Users' Energy Profile. 2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1–6.

Smart meters migrate conventional electricity grid into digitally enabled Smart Grid (SG), which is more reliable and efficient. Fine-grained energy consumption data collected by smart meters helps utility providers accurately predict users' demands and significantly reduce power generation cost, while it imposes severe privacy risks on consumers and may discourage them from using those “espionage meters". To enjoy the benefits of smart meter measured data without compromising the users' privacy, in this paper, we try to integrate distributed differential privacy (DDP) techniques into data-driven optimization, and propose a novel scheme that not only minimizes the cost for utility providers but also preserves the DDP of users' energy profiles. Briefly, we add differential private noises to the users' energy consumption data before the smart meters send it to the utility provider. Due to the uncertainty of the users' demand distribution, the utility provider aggregates a given set of historical users' differentially private data, estimates the users' demands, and formulates the data- driven cost minimization based on the collected noisy data. We also develop algorithms for feasible solutions, and verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme through simulations using the simulated energy consumption data generated from the utility company's real data analysis.

2018-06-07
Hinojosa, V., Gonzalez-Longatt, F..  2017.  Stochastic security-constrained generation expansion planning methodology based on a generalized line outage distribution factors. 2017 IEEE Manchester PowerTech. :1–6.

In this study, it is proposed to carry out an efficient formulation in order to figure out the stochastic security-constrained generation capacity expansion planning (SC-GCEP) problem. The main idea is related to directly compute the line outage distribution factors (LODF) which could be applied to model the N - m post-contingency analysis. In addition, the post-contingency power flows are modeled based on the LODF and the partial transmission distribution factors (PTDF). The post-contingency constraints have been reformulated using linear distribution factors (PTDF and LODF) so that both the pre- and post-contingency constraints are modeled simultaneously in the SC-GCEP problem using these factors. In the stochastic formulation, the load uncertainty is incorporated employing a two-stage multi-period framework, and a K - means clustering technique is implemented to decrease the number of load scenarios. The main advantage of this methodology is the feasibility to quickly compute the post-contingency factors especially with multiple-line outages (N - m). This concept would improve the security-constraint analysis modeling quickly the outage of m transmission lines in the stochastic SC-GCEP problem. It is carried out several experiments using two electrical power systems in order to validate the performance of the proposed formulation.

2018-04-04
Lin, Y., Abur, A..  2017.  Identifying security vulnerabilities of weakly detectable network parameter errors. 2017 55th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton). :295–301.
This paper is concerned about the security vulnerabilities in the implementation of the Congestion Revenue Rights (CRR) markets. Such problems may be due to the weakly detectable network model parameter errors which are commonly found in power systems. CRRs are financial tools for hedging the risk of congestion charges in power markets. The reimbursements received by CRR holders are determined by the congestion patterns and Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) in the day-ahead markets, which heavily rely on the parameters in the network model. It is recently shown that detection of errors in certain network model parameters may be very difficult. This paper's primary goal is to illustrate the lack of market security due to such vulnerabilities, i.e. CRR market calculations can be manipulated by injecting parameter errors which are not likely to be detected. A case study using the IEEE 14-bus system will illustrate the feasibility of such undetectable manipulations. Several suggestions for preventing such cyber security issues are provided at the end of the paper.
2017-02-14
R. Leszczyna, M. Łosiński, R. Małkowski.  2015.  "Security information sharing for the polish power system". 2015 Modern Electric Power Systems (MEPS). :1-6.

The Polish Power System is becoming increasingly more dependent on Information and Communication Technologies which results in its exposure to cyberattacks, including the evolved and highly sophisticated threats such as Advanced Persistent Threats or Distributed Denial of Service attacks. The most exposed components are SCADA systems in substations and Distributed Control Systems in power plants. When addressing this situation the usual cyber security technologies are prerequisite, but not sufficient. With the rapidly evolving cyber threat landscape the use of partnerships and information sharing has become critical. However due to several anonymity concerns the relevant stakeholders may become reluctant to exchange sensitive information about security incidents. In the paper a multi-agent architecture is presented for the Polish Power System which addresses the anonymity concerns.

2015-05-01
Marashi, K., Sarvestani, S.S..  2014.  Towards Comprehensive Modeling of Reliability for Smart Grids: Requirements and Challenges. High-Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE), 2014 IEEE 15th International Symposium on. :105-112.


Smart grids utilize computation and communication to improve the efficacy and dependability of power generation, transmission, and distribution. As such, they are among the most critical and complex cyber-physical systems. The success of smart grids in achieving their stated goals is yet to be rigorously proven. In this paper, our focus is on improvements (or lack thereof) in reliability. We discuss vulnerabilities in the smart grid and their potential impact on its reliability, both generally and for the specific example of the IEEE-14 bus system. We conclude the paper by presenting a preliminary Markov imbedded systems model for reliability of smart grids and describe how it can be evolved to capture the vulnerabilities discussed.