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P, Charitha Reddy, K, SaiTulasi, J, Anuja T, R, Rajarajeswari, Mohan, Navya.  2021.  Automatic Test Pattern Generation of Multiple stuck-at faults using Test Patterns of Single stuck-at faults. 2021 5th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :71–75.
The fabricated circuitries are getting massive and denser with every passing year due to which a normal automatic test pattern generation technique to detect only the single stuck-at faults will overlook the multiple stuck-at faults. But generating test patterns that can detect all possible multiple stuck-at fault is practically not possible. Hence, this paper proposes a method, where multiple faults can be detected by using test vectors for detecting single stuck-at faults. Here, the patterns for detecting single faults are generated and their ability to detect multiple stuck-at faults is also analyzed. From the experimental results it was observed that, the generated vectors for single faults cover maximum number of the multiple faults and then new test vectors are generated for the undetermined faults. The generated vectors are optimized for the compact test patterns in order to reduce the test power.
Zhang, Jing.  2021.  Application of multi-fault diagnosis based on discrete event system in industrial sensor network. 2021 4th International Conference on Advanced Electronic Materials, Computers and Software Engineering (AEMCSE). :1122–1126.
This paper presents a method to improve the diagnosability of power network under multiple faults. In this paper, the steps of fault diagnosis are as follows: first, constructing finite automata model of the diagnostic system; then, a fault diagnoser model is established through coupling operation and trajectory reasoning mechanism; finally, the diagnosis results are obtained through this model. In this paper, the judgment basis of diagnosability is defined. Then, based on the existing diagnosis results, the information available can be increased by adding sensor devices, to achieve the purpose of diagnosability in the case of multiple faults of the system.
Thirumavalavasethurayar, P, Ravi, T.  2021.  Implementation of Replay Attack in Controller Area Network Bus Using Universal Verification Methodology. 2021 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Smart Systems (ICAIS). :1142–1146.

Controller area network is the serial communication protocol, which broadcasts the message on the CAN bus. The transmitted message is read by all the nodes which shares the CAN bus. The message can be eavesdropped and can be re-used by some other node by changing the information or send it by duplicate times. The message reused after some delay is replay attack. In this paper, the CAN network with three CAN nodes is implemented using the universal verification components and the replay attack is demonstrated by creating the faulty node. Two types of replay attack are implemented in this paper, one is to replay the entire message and the other one is to replay only the part of the frame. The faulty node uses the first replay attack method where it behaves like the other node in the network by duplicating the identifier. CAN frame except the identifier is reused in the second method which is hard to detect the attack as the faulty node uses its own identifier and duplicates only the data in the CAN frame.

Kuber, Sughosh, Sharma, Mohit, Gonzalez, Abel.  2021.  Factors influencing CT saturation and its implications on Distance Protection Scheme-Analysis and Testing. 2021 74th Conference for Protective Relay Engineers (CPRE). :1–11.
The behavior of the Current Transformer (CTs) is of utmost importance for protection engineers to ensure reliable operation of power system. CT magnetic saturation is a well-known phenomenon when analyzing its performance characteristics. Nevertheless, transient conditions in the system might be different every time. A good understanding of the magnetic saturation of different CT designs and the effect of saturation on the protection schemes is imperative for developing a robust and dependable protection system. In this paper, various factors that affect CT saturation like X/R ratio, large current magnitudes, DC offset, burden and magnetization remanence are discussed. Analysis of CT saturation based on changes to burden and remanence is performed. In addition to that, the effect of saturation due to these factors on distance protection are presented with test results and analysis. Saturation conditions are analyzed on mho distance elements during phase to ground and three phase faults. Finally, a practical approach to efficiently test the performance of protection schemes under CT saturation conditions is proposed using COMTRADE play back. COMTRADE play back files for various scenarios of CT saturation conditions are generated and used for testing the performance of the protection scheme.
Hou, Xiaolu, Breier, Jakub, Jap, Dirmanto, Ma, Lei, Bhasin, Shivam, Liu, Yang.  2020.  Security Evaluation of Deep Neural Network Resistance Against Laser Fault Injection. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA). :1–6.
Deep learning is becoming a basis of decision making systems in many application domains, such as autonomous vehicles, health systems, etc., where the risk of misclassification can lead to serious consequences. It is necessary to know to which extent are Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) robust against various types of adversarial conditions. In this paper, we experimentally evaluate DNNs implemented in embedded device by using laser fault injection, a physical attack technique that is mostly used in security and reliability communities to test robustness of various systems. We show practical results on four activation functions, ReLu, softmax, sigmoid, and tanh. Our results point out the misclassification possibilities for DNNs achieved by injecting faults into the hidden layers of the network. We evaluate DNNs by using several different attack strategies to show which are the most efficient in terms of misclassification success rates. Outcomes of this work should be taken into account when deploying devices running DNNs in environments where malicious attacker could tamper with the environmental parameters that would bring the device into unstable conditions. resulting into faults.
Jain, Ayush, Rahman, M Tanjidur, Guin, Ujjwal.  2020.  ATPG-Guided Fault Injection Attacks on Logic Locking. 2020 IEEE Physical Assurance and Inspection of Electronics (PAINE). :1–6.
Logic Locking is a well-accepted protection technique to enable trust in the outsourced design and fabrication processes of integrated circuits (ICs) where the original design is modified by incorporating additional key gates in the netlist, resulting in a key-dependent functional circuit. The original functionality of the chip is recovered once it is programmed with the secret key, otherwise, it produces incorrect results for some input patterns. Over the past decade, different attacks have been proposed to break logic locking, simultaneously motivating researchers to develop more secure countermeasures. In this paper, we propose a novel stuck-at fault-based differential fault analysis (DFA) attack, which can be used to break logic locking that relies on a stored secret key. This proposed attack is based on self-referencing, where the secret key is determined by injecting faults in the key lines and comparing the response with its fault-free counterpart. A commercial ATPG tool can be used to generate test patterns that detect these faults, which will be used in DFA to determine the secret key. One test pattern is sufficient to determine one key bit, which results in at most \textbackslashtextbarK\textbackslashtextbar test patterns to determine the entire secret key of size \textbackslashtextbarK\textbackslashtextbar. The proposed attack is generic and can be extended to break any logic locked circuits.
Engels, Susanne, Schellenberg, Falk, Paar, Christof.  2020.  SPFA: SFA on Multiple Persistent Faults. 2020 Workshop on Fault Detection and Tolerance in Cryptography (FDTC). :49–56.
For classical fault analysis, a transient fault is required to be injected during runtime, e.g., only at a specific round. Instead, Persistent Fault Analysis (PFA) introduces a powerful class of fault attacks that allows for a fault to be present throughout the whole execution. One limitation of original PFA as introduced by Zhang et al. at CHES'18 is that the adversary needs know (or brute-force) the faulty values prior to the analysis. While this was addressed at a follow-up work at CHES'20, the solution is only applicable to a single faulty value. Instead, we use the potency of Statistical Fault Analysis (SFA) in the persistent fault setting, presenting Statistical Persistent Fault Analysis (SPFA) as a more general approach of PFA. As a result, any or even a multitude of unknown faults that cause an exploitable bias in the targeted round can be used to recover the cipher's secret key. Indeed, the undesired faults in the other rounds that occur due the persistent nature of the attack converge to a uniform distribution as required by SFA. We verify the effectiveness of our attack against LED and AES.
Bagbaba, Ahmet Cagri, Jenihhin, Maksim, Ubar, Raimund, Sauer, Christian.  2020.  Representing Gate-Level SET Faults by Multiple SEU Faults at RTL. 2020 IEEE 26th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :1–6.
The advanced complex electronic systems increasingly demand safer and more secure hardware parts. Correspondingly, fault injection became a major verification milestone for both safety- and security-critical applications. However, fault injection campaigns for gate-level designs suffer from huge execution times. Therefore, designers need to apply early design evaluation techniques to reduce the execution time of fault injection campaigns. In this work, we propose a method to represent gate-level Single-Event Transient (SET) faults by multiple Single-Event Upset (SEU) faults at the Register-Transfer Level. Introduced approach is to identify true and false logic paths for each SET in the flip-flops' fan-in logic cones to obtain more accurate sets of flip-flops for multiple SEUs injections at RTL. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method to successfully reduce the fault space and also its advantage with respect to state of the art. It was shown that the approach is able to reduce the fault space, and therefore the fault-injection effort, by up to tens to hundreds of times.
Ellinidou, Soultana, Sharma, Gaurav, Markowitch, Olivier, Gogniat, Guy, Dricot, Jean-Michel.  2020.  A novel Network-on-Chip security algorithm for tolerating Byzantine faults. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI and Nanotechnology Systems (DFT). :1–6.
Since the number of processors and cores on a single chip is increasing, the interconnection among them becomes significant. Network-on-Chip (NoC) has direct access to all resources and information within a System-on-Chip (SoC), rendering it appealing to attackers. Malicious attacks targeting NoC are a major cause of performance depletion and they can cause arbitrary behavior of links or routers, that is, Byzantine faults. Byzantine faults have been thoroughly investigated in the context of Distributed systems however not in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) systems. Hence, in this paper we propose a novel fault model followed by the design and implementation of lightweight algorithms, based on Software Defined Network-on-Chip (SDNoC) architecture. The proposed algorithms can be used to build highly available NoCs and can tolerate Byzantine faults. Additionally, a set of different scenarios has been simulated and the results demonstrate that by using the proposed algorithms the packet loss decreases between 65% and 76% under Transpose traffic, 67% and 77% under BitReverse and 55% and 66% under Uniform traffic.
Yang, Jiahui, Yuan, Yao, Wang, Shuaibing, Bao, Lianwei, Wang, Ren.  2020.  No-load Switch-in Transient Process Simulation of 500kV Interface Transformer Used in HVDC Flexible. 2020 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE). :1–4.
Interface transformer used in asynchronous networking was a kind of special transformer which's different from normal power transformer. During no-load switch-in, the magnitude of inrush current will be high, and the waveform distortion also be severity. Maybe the protections will be activated, even worse may lead the lockdown of the DC system. In this paper, field-circuit coupled finite element method was used for the study of transient characteristic of no-load switch-in, remanence simulation methods were presented. Quantitative analysis of the effect of closing making angle and core remanence on inrush current peak value, meanwhile, the distribution of magnetic field inside the tank during the transient process. The result indicated that the closing making angle and core remanence have obvious effect on inrush current peak value. The research results of this paper can be used to guide the formulation of no-load switch-in strategy of interface transformer, which was of great significance to ensure the smooth operation of HVDC Flexible system.
Ngow, Y T, Goh, S H, Leo, J, Low, H W, Kamoji, Rupa.  2020.  Automated nets extraction for digital logic physical failure analysis on IP-secure products. 2020 IEEE International Symposium on the Physical and Failure Analysis of Integrated Circuits (IPFA). :1—6.
GDSII layouts of IP-confidential products are heavily controlled and access is only granted to certain privileged personnel. Failure analysts are generally excluded. Without guidance from GDSII, failure analysis, specifically physical inspection based on fault isolation findings cannot proceed. To overcome this challenge, we develop an automated approach that enables image snapshots relevant to failure analysts to be furnished without compromising the confidentiality of the GDSII content in this paper. Modules built are executed to trace the suspected nets and extract them into multiple images of different pre-defined frame specifications to facilitate failure analysis.
Chheng, Kimhok, Priyadi, Ardyono, Pujiantara, Margo, Mahindara, Vincentius Raki.  2020.  The Coordination of Dual Setting DOCR for Ring System Using Adaptive Modified Firefly Algorithm. 2020 International Seminar on Intelligent Technology and Its Applications (ISITIA). :44—50.
Directional Overcurrent Relays (DOCRs) play an essential role in the power system protection to guarantee the reliability, speed of relay operation and avoiding mal-trip in the primary and backup relays when unintentional fault conditions occur in the system. Moreover, the dual setting protection scheme is more efficient protection schemes for offering fast response protection and providing flexibility in the coordination of relay. In this paper, the Adaptive Modified Firefly Algorithm (AMFA) is used to determine the optimal coordination of dual setting DOCRs in the ring distribution system. The AMFA is completed by choosing the minimum value of pickup current (\textbackslashtextbackslashpmbI\textbackslashtextbackslashpmbP) and time dial setting (TDS). On the other hand, dual setting DOCRs protection scheme also proposed for operating in both forward and reverse directions that consisted of individual time current characteristics (TCC) curve for each direction. The previous method is applied to the ring distribution system network of PT. Pupuk Sriwidjaja by considering the fault on each bus. The result illustration that the AMFA within dual setting protection scheme is significantly reaching the optimized coordination and the relay coordination is certain for all simulation scenarios with the minimum operation. The AMFA has been successfully implemented in MATLAB software programming.
Lee, Hyunjun, Bere, Gomanth, Kim, Kyungtak, Ochoa, Justin J., Park, Joung-hu, Kim, Taesic.  2020.  Deep Learning-Based False Sensor Data Detection for Battery Energy Storage Systems. 2020 IEEE CyberPELS (CyberPELS). :1–6.
Battery energy storage systems are facing risks of unreliable battery sensor data which might be caused by sensor faults in an embedded battery management system, communication failures, and even cyber-attacks. It is crucial to evaluate the trustworthiness of battery sensor data since inaccurate sensor data could lead to not only serious damages to battery energy storage systems, but also threaten the overall reliability of their applications (e.g., electric vehicles or power grids). This paper introduces a battery sensor data trust framework enabling detecting unreliable data using a deep learning algorithm. The proposed sensor data trust mechanism could potentially improve safety and reliability of the battery energy storage systems. The proposed deep learning-based battery sensor fault detection algorithm is validated by simulation studies using a convolutional neural network.
Bosio, Alberto, Canal, Ramon, Di Carlo, Stefano, Gizopoulos, Dimitris, Savino, Alessandro.  2020.  Cross-Layer Soft-Error Resilience Analysis of Computing Systems. 2020 50th Annual IEEE-IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks-Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :79—79.
In a world with computation at the epicenter of every activity, computing systems must be highly resilient to errors even if miniaturization makes the underlying hardware unreliable. Techniques able to guarantee high reliability are associated to high costs. Early resilience analysis has the potential to support informed design decisions to maximize system-level reliability while minimizing the associated costs. This tutorial focuses on early cross-layer (hardware and software) resilience analysis considering the full computing continuum (from IoT/CPS to HPC applications) with emphasis on soft errors.
Li, M., Wang, F., Gupta, S..  2020.  Data-driven fault model development for superconducting logic. 2020 IEEE International Test Conference (ITC). :1—5.

Superconducting technology is being seriously explored for certain applications. We propose a new clean-slate method to derive fault models from large numbers of simulation results. For this technology, our method identifies completely new fault models – overflow, pulse-escape, and pattern-sensitive – in addition to the well-known stuck-at faults.

Wang, H., Yang, J., Wang, X., Li, F., Liu, W., Liang, H..  2020.  Feature Fingerprint Extraction and Abnormity Diagnosis Method of the Vibration on the GIS. 2020 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application (ICHVE). :1—4.

Mechanical faults of Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) often occurred, which may cause serious losses. Detecting vibration signal was effective for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of GIS. The vibration characteristic of GIS in service was detected and researched based on a developed testing system in this paper, and feature fingerprint extraction method was proposed to evaluate vibration characteristics and diagnose mechanical defects. Through analyzing the spectrum of the vibration signal, we could see that vibration frequency of operating GIS was about 100Hz under normal condition. By means of the wavelet transformation, the vibration fingerprint was extracted for the diagnosis of mechanical vibration. The mechanical vibration characteristic of GIS including circuit breaker and arrester in service was detected, we could see that the frequency distribution of abnormal vibration signal was wider, it contained a lot of high harmonic components besides the 100Hz component, and the vibration acoustic fingerprint was totally different from the normal ones, that is, by comparing the frequency spectra and vibration fingerprint, the mechanical faults of GIS could be found effectively.

Gerdroodbari, Y. Z., Davarpanah, M., Farhangi, S..  2018.  Remanent Flux Negative Effects on Transformer Diagnostic Test Results and a Novel Approach for Its Elimination. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. 33:2938–2945.
Influence of remanent flux on hysteresis curve of the transformer core is addressed in this paper. In addition, its significant negative effect on transformer diagnostic tests is quantified based on experimental studies. Furthermore, a novel approach is proposed to efficiently and quickly eliminate the remanent flux. This approach is evaluated based on simulation studies on a 230/63-kV power transformer. Meanwhile, experimental studies are performed on both 0.2/0.2 and 20/0.4 kV transformers. These studies reveal that the approach not only is well able to eliminate the remanent flux, but also it has various advantages over the commonly used method. In addition, this approach is equally applicable for various power, distribution, and instrument transformer types.
Drozd, Oleksandr, Kharchenko, Vyacheslav, Rucinski, Andrzej, Kochanski, Thaddeus, Garbos, Raymond, Maevsky, Dmitry.  2019.  Development of Models in Resilient Computing. 2019 10th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). :1—6.

The article analyzes the concept of "Resilience" in relation to the development of computing. The strategy for reacting to perturbations in this process can be based either on "harsh Resistance" or "smarter Elasticity." Our "Models" are descriptive in defining the path of evolutionary development as structuring under the perturbations of the natural order and enable the analysis of the relationship among models, structures and factors of evolution. Among those, two features are critical: parallelism and "fuzziness", which to a large extent determine the rate of change of computing development, especially in critical applications. Both reversible and irreversible development processes related to elastic and resistant methods of problem solving are discussed. The sources of perturbations are located in vicinity of the resource boundaries, related to growing problem size with progress combined with the lack of computational "checkability" of resources i.e. data with inadequate models, methodologies and means. As a case study, the problem of hidden faults caused by the growth, the deficit of resources, and the checkability of digital circuits in critical applications is analyzed.

Ameli, Amir, Hooshyar, Ali, El-Saadany, Ehab F..  2019.  Development of a Cyber-Resilient Line Current Differential Relay. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. 15:305—318.
The application of line current differential relays (LCDRs) to protect transmission lines has recently proliferated. However, the reliance of LCDRs on digital communication channels has raised growing cyber-security concerns. This paper investigates the impacts of false data injection attacks (FDIAs) on the performance of LCDRs. It also develops coordinated attacks that involve multiple components, including LCDRs, and can cause false line tripping. Additionally, this paper proposes a technique for detecting FDIAs against LCDRs and differentiating them from actual faults in two-terminal lines. In this method, when an LCDR detects a fault, instead of immediately tripping the line, it calculates and measures the superimposed voltage at its local terminal, using the proposed positive-sequence (PS) and negative-sequence (NS) submodules. To calculate this voltage, the LCDR models the protected line in detail and replaces the rest of the system with a Thevenin equivalent that produces accurate responses at the line terminals. Afterwards, remote current measurement is utilized by the PS and NS submodules to compute each sequence's superimposed voltage. A difference between the calculated and the measured superimposed voltages in any sequence reveals that the remote current measurements are not authentic. Thus, the LCDR's trip command is blocked. The effectiveness of the proposed method is corroborated using simulation results for the IEEE 39-bus test system. The performance of the proposed method is also tested using an OPAL real-time simulator.
Bedoui, Mouna, Bouallegue, Belgacem, Hamdi, Belgacem, Machhout, Mohsen.  2019.  An Efficient Fault Detection Method for Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication Montgomery Algorithm. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Design Test of Integrated Micro Nano-Systems (DTS). :1—5.

Elliptical curve cryptography (ECC) is being used more and more in public key cryptosystems. Its main advantage is that, at a given security level, key sizes are much smaller compared to classical asymmetric cryptosystems like RSA. Smaller keys imply less power consumption, less cryptographic computation and require less memory. Besides performance, security is another major problem in embedded devices. Cryptosystems, like ECC, that are considered mathematically secure, are not necessarily considered safe when implemented in practice. An attacker can monitor these interactions in order to mount attacks called fault attacks. A number of countermeasures have been developed to protect Montgomery Scalar Multiplication algorithm against fault attacks. In this work, we proposed an efficient countermeasure premised on duplication scheme and the scrambling technique for Montgomery Scalar Multiplication algorithm against fault attacks. Our approach is simple and easy to hardware implementation. In addition, we perform injection-based error simulations and demonstrate that the error coverage is about 99.996%.

Ranjan, G S K, Kumar Verma, Amar, Radhika, Sudha.  2019.  K-Nearest Neighbors and Grid Search CV Based Real Time Fault Monitoring System for Industries. 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1—5.
Fault detection in a machine at earlier stage can prevent severe damage and loss to the industries. Fault detection techniques are broadly classified into three categories; signature extraction-based, model-based and knowledge-based approach. Model-based techniques are efficient for raising an alarm signal if there is any fault in the machine. This paper focuses on one such model based-technique to identify the internal faults of induction machine. The model developed is deployed in the end to make it feasible to use in real time. K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) and grid search cross validation (CV) have been used to train and optimize the model to give the best results. The advantage of proposed algorithm is the accuracy in prediction which has been seen to be 80%. Finally, a user friendly interface has been built using Flask, a python web framework.
Yang, Zai-xin, Gao, Chen, Wang, Yun-min.  2018.  Security and Stability Control System Simulation Using RTDS. 2018 13th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA). :1737—1740.
Analyzing performance of security and stability control system is of great importance for the safe and stable operation of the power grid. Digital dynamic experimental model is built by real time digital simulation (RTDS) in order to research security and stability system of Inner Mongolia in northern 500kV transmission channel. The whole process is closed-loop dynamic real-time simulation. According to power grid network testing technology standard, all kinds of stability control devices need to be tested in a comprehensive system. Focus on the following items: security and stability control strategy, tripping criterion as well as power system low frequency oscillations. Results of the trial indicated that the simulation test platform based on RTDS have the ability of detecting the safe and stable device. It can reflect the action behavior and control characteristics of the safe and stable device accurately. The device can be used in the case of low frequency oscillation of the system.
Portolan, Michele, Savino, Alessandro, Leveugle, Regis, Di Carlo, Stefano, Bosio, Alberto, Di Natale, Giorgio.  2019.  Alternatives to Fault Injections for Early Safety/Security Evaluations. 2019 IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS). :1–10.
Functional Safety standards like ISO 26262 require a detailed analysis of the dependability of components subjected to perturbations. Radiation testing or even much more abstract RTL fault injection campaigns are costly and complex to set up especially for SoCs and Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) comprising intertwined hardware and software. Moreover, some approaches are only applicable at the very end of the development cycle, making potential iterations difficult when market pressure and cost reduction are paramount. In this tutorial, we present a summary of classical state-of-the-art approaches, then alternative approaches for the dependability analysis that can give an early yet accurate estimation of the safety or security characteristics of HW-SW systems. Designers can rely on these tools to identify issues in their design to be addressed by protection mechanisms, ensuring that system dependability constraints are met with limited risk when subjected later to usual fault injections and to e.g., radiation testing or laser attacks for certification.
Abraham, Jacob A..  2019.  Resiliency Demands on Next Generation Critical Embedded Systems. 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :135–138.

Emerging intelligent systems have stringent constraints including cost and power consumption. When they are used in critical applications, resiliency becomes another key requirement. Much research into techniques for fault tolerance and dependability has been successfully applied to highly critical systems, such as those used in space, where cost is not an overriding constraint. Further, most resiliency techniques were focused on dealing with failures in the hardware and bugs in the software. The next generation of systems used in critical applications will also have to be tolerant to test escapes after manufacturing, soft errors and transients in the electronics, hardware bugs, hardware and software Trojans and viruses, as well as intrusions and other security attacks during operation. This paper will assess the impact of these threats on the results produced by a critical system, and proposed solutions to each of them. It is argued that run-time checks at the application-level are necessary to deal with errors in the results.

Danger, Jean-Luc, Fribourg, Laurent, Kühne, Ulrich, Naceur, Maha.  2019.  LAOCOÖN: A Run-Time Monitoring and Verification Approach for Hardware Trojan Detection. 2019 22nd Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :269–276.

Hardware Trojan Horses and active fault attacks are a threat to the safety and security of electronic systems. By such manipulations, an attacker can extract sensitive information or disturb the functionality of a device. Therefore, several protections against malicious inclusions have been devised in recent years. A prominent technique to detect abnormal behavior in the field is run-time verification. It relies on dedicated monitoring circuits and on verification rules generated from a set of temporal properties. An important question when dealing with such protections is the effectiveness of the protection against unknown attacks. In this paper, we present a methodology based on automatic generation of monitoring and formal verification techniques that can be used to validate and analyze the quality of a set of temporal properties when used as protection against generic attackers of variable strengths.