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2021-07-08
Li, Jiawei, Wang, Chuyu, Li, Ang, Han, Dianqi, Zhang, Yan, Zuo, Jinhang, Zhang, Rui, Xie, Lei, Zhang, Yanchao.  2020.  RF-Rhythm: Secure and Usable Two-Factor RFID Authentication. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :2194—2203.
Passive RFID technology is widely used in user authentication and access control. We propose RF-Rhythm, a secure and usable two-factor RFID authentication system with strong resilience to lost/stolen/cloned RFID cards. In RF-Rhythm, each legitimate user performs a sequence of taps on his/her RFID card according to a self-chosen secret melody. Such rhythmic taps can induce phase changes in the backscattered signals, which the RFID reader can detect to recover the user's tapping rhythm. In addition to verifying the RFID card's identification information as usual, the backend server compares the extracted tapping rhythm with what it acquires in the user enrollment phase. The user passes authentication checks if and only if both verifications succeed. We also propose a novel phase-hopping protocol in which the RFID reader emits Continuous Wave (CW) with random phases for extracting the user's secret tapping rhythm. Our protocol can prevent a capable adversary from extracting and then replaying a legitimate tapping rhythm from sniffed RFID signals. Comprehensive user experiments confirm the high security and usability of RF-Rhythm with false-positive and false-negative rates close to zero.
Cao, Yetong, Zhang, Qian, Li, Fan, Yang, Song, Wang, Yu.  2020.  PPGPass: Nonintrusive and Secure Mobile Two-Factor Authentication via Wearables. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1917—1926.
{Mobile devices are promising to apply two-factor authentication in order to improve system security and enhance user privacy-preserving. Existing solutions usually have certain limits of requiring some form of user effort, which might seriously affect user experience and delay authentication time. In this paper, we propose PPGPass, a novel mobile two-factor authentication system, which leverages Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors in wrist-worn wearables to extract individual characteristics of PPG signals. In order to realize both nonintrusive and secure, we design a two-stage algorithm to separate clean heartbeat signals from PPG signals contaminated by motion artifacts, which allows verifying users without intentionally staying still during the process of authentication. In addition, to deal with non-cancelable issues when biometrics are compromised, we design a repeatable and non-invertible method to generate cancelable feature templates as alternative credentials, which enables to defense against man-in-the-middle attacks and replay attacks. To the best of our knowledge, PPGPass is the first nonintrusive and secure mobile two-factor authentication based on PPG sensors in wearables. We build a prototype of PPGPass and conduct the system with comprehensive experiments involving multiple participants. PPGPass can achieve an average F1 score of 95.3%, which confirms its high effectiveness, security, and usability}.
Lu, Yujun, Gao, BoYu, Long, Jinyi, Weng, Jian.  2020.  Hand Motion with Eyes-free Interaction for Authentication in Virtual Reality. 2020 IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality and 3D User Interfaces Abstracts and Workshops (VRW). :714—715.
Designing an authentication method is a crucial component to secure privacy in information systems. Virtual Reality (VR) is a new interaction platform, in which the users can interact with natural behaviours (e.g. hand, gaze, head, etc.). In this work, we propose a novel authentication method in which user can perform hand motion in an eyes-free manner. We evaluate the usability and security between eyes-engage and eyes-free input with a pilot study. The initial result revealed our purposed method can achieve a trade-off between usability and security, showing a new way to behaviour-based authentication in VR.
2021-07-07
Elbasi, Ersin.  2020.  Reliable abnormal event detection from IoT surveillance systems. 2020 7th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :1–5.
Surveillance systems are widely used in airports, streets, banks, military areas, borders, hospitals, and schools. There are two types of surveillance systems which are real-time systems and offline surveillance systems. Usually, security people track videos on time in monitoring rooms to find out abnormal human activities. Real-time human tracking from videos is very expensive especially in airports, borders, and streets due to the huge number of surveillance cameras. There are a lot of research works have been done for automated surveillance systems. In this paper, we presented a new surveillance system to recognize human activities from several cameras using machine learning algorithms. Sequences of images are collected from cameras using the internet of things technology from indoor or outdoor areas. A feature vector is created for each recognized moving object, then machine learning algorithms are applied to extract moving object activities. The proposed abnormal event detection system gives very promising results which are more than 96% accuracy in Multilayer Perceptron, Iterative Classifier Optimizer, and Random Forest algorithms.
2021-06-30
Zhao, Yi, Jia, Xian, An, Dou, Yang, Qingyu.  2020.  LSTM-Based False Data Injection Attack Detection in Smart Grids. 2020 35th Youth Academic Annual Conference of Chinese Association of Automation (YAC). :638—644.
As a typical cyber-physical system, smart grid has attracted growing attention due to the safe and efficient operation. The false data injection attack against energy management system is a new type of cyber-physical attack, which can bypass the bad data detector of the smart grid to influence the results of state estimation directly, causing the energy management system making wrong estimation and thus affects the stable operation of power grid. We transform the false data injection attack detection problem into binary classification problem in this paper, which use the long-term and short-term memory network (LSTM) to construct the detection model. After that, we use the BP algorithm to update neural network parameters and utilize the dropout method to alleviate the overfitting problem and to improve the detection accuracy. Simulation results prove that the LSTM-based detection method can achieve higher detection accuracy comparing with the BPNN-based approach.
2021-06-24
Nilă, Constantin, Patriciu, Victor.  2020.  Taking advantage of unsupervised learning in incident response. 2020 12th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI). :1–6.
This paper looks at new ways to improve the necessary time for incident response triage operations. By employing unsupervised K-means, enhanced by both manual and automated feature extraction techniques, the incident response team can quickly and decisively extrapolate malicious web requests that concluded to the investigated exploitation. More precisely, we evaluated the benefits of different visualization enhancing methods that can improve feature selection and other dimensionality reduction techniques. Furthermore, early tests of the gross framework have shown that the necessary time for triage is diminished, more so if a hybrid multi-model is employed. Our case study revolved around the need for unsupervised classification of unknown web access logs. However, the demonstrated principals may be considered for other applications of machine learning in the cybersecurity domain.
Wu, Chongke, Shao, Sicong, Tunc, Cihan, Hariri, Salim.  2020.  Video Anomaly Detection using Pre-Trained Deep Convolutional Neural Nets and Context Mining. 2020 IEEE/ACS 17th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1—8.
Anomaly detection is critically important for intelligent surveillance systems to detect in a timely manner any malicious activities. Many video anomaly detection approaches using deep learning methods focus on a single camera video stream with a fixed scenario. These deep learning methods use large-scale training data with large complexity. As a solution, in this paper, we show how to use pre-trained convolutional neural net models to perform feature extraction and context mining, and then use denoising autoencoder with relatively low model complexity to provide efficient and accurate surveillance anomaly detection, which can be useful for the resource-constrained devices such as edge devices of the Internet of Things (IoT). Our anomaly detection model makes decisions based on the high-level features derived from the selected embedded computer vision models such as object classification and object detection. Additionally, we derive contextual properties from the high-level features to further improve the performance of our video anomaly detection method. We use two UCSD datasets to demonstrate that our approach with relatively low model complexity can achieve comparable performance compared to the state-of-the-art approaches.
2021-06-02
Xu, Yizheng.  2020.  Application Research Based on Machine Learning in Network Privacy Security. 2020 International Conference on Computer Information and Big Data Applications (CIBDA). :237—240.
As the hottest frontier technology in the field of artificial intelligence, machine learning is subverting various industries step by step. In the future, it will penetrate all aspects of our lives and become an indispensable technology around us. Among them, network security is an area where machine learning can show off its strengths. Among many network security problems, privacy protection is a more difficult problem, so it needs more introduction of new technologies, new methods and new ideas such as machine learning to help solve some problems. The research contents for this include four parts: an overview of machine learning, the significance of machine learning in network security, the application process of machine learning in network security research, and the application of machine learning in privacy protection. It focuses on the issues related to privacy protection and proposes to combine the most advanced matching algorithm in deep learning methods with information theory data protection technology, so as to introduce it into biometric authentication. While ensuring that the loss of matching accuracy is minimal, a high-standard privacy protection algorithm is concluded, which enables businesses, government entities, and end users to more widely accept privacy protection technology.
2021-06-01
Materzynska, Joanna, Xiao, Tete, Herzig, Roei, Xu, Huijuan, Wang, Xiaolong, Darrell, Trevor.  2020.  Something-Else: Compositional Action Recognition With Spatial-Temporal Interaction Networks. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :1046–1056.
Human action is naturally compositional: humans can easily recognize and perform actions with objects that are different from those used in training demonstrations. In this paper, we study the compositionality of action by looking into the dynamics of subject-object interactions. We propose a novel model which can explicitly reason about the geometric relations between constituent objects and an agent performing an action. To train our model, we collect dense object box annotations on the Something-Something dataset. We propose a novel compositional action recognition task where the training combinations of verbs and nouns do not overlap with the test set. The novel aspects of our model are applicable to activities with prominent object interaction dynamics and to objects which can be tracked using state-of-the-art approaches; for activities without clearly defined spatial object-agent interactions, we rely on baseline scene-level spatio-temporal representations. We show the effectiveness of our approach not only on the proposed compositional action recognition task but also in a few-shot compositional setting which requires the model to generalize across both object appearance and action category.
2021-05-25
Meghdouri, Fares, Vázquez, Félix Iglesias, Zseby, Tanja.  2020.  Cross-Layer Profiling of Encrypted Network Data for Anomaly Detection. 2020 IEEE 7th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA). :469—478.

In January 2017 encrypted Internet traffic surpassed non-encrypted traffic. Although encryption increases security, it also masks intrusions and attacks by blocking the access to packet contents and traffic features, therefore making data analysis unfeasible. In spite of the strong effect of encryption, its impact has been scarcely investigated in the field. In this paper we study how encryption affects flow feature spaces and machine learning-based attack detection. We propose a new cross-layer feature vector that simultaneously represents traffic at three different levels: application, conversation, and endpoint behavior. We analyze its behavior under TLS and IPSec encryption and evaluate the efficacy with recent network traffic datasets and by using Random Forests classifiers. The cross-layer multi-key approach shows excellent attack detection in spite of TLS encryption. When IPsec is applied, the reduced variant obtains satisfactory detection for botnets, yet considerable performance drops for other types of attacks. The high complexity of network traffic is unfeasible for monolithic data analysis solutions, therefore requiring cross-layer analysis for which the multi-key vector becomes a powerful profiling core.

2021-05-18
Zeng, Jingxiang, Nie, Xiaofan, Chen, Liwei, Li, Jinfeng, Du, Gewangzi, Shi, Gang.  2020.  An Efficient Vulnerability Extrapolation Using Similarity of Graph Kernel of PDGs. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :1664–1671.
Discovering the potential vulnerabilities in software plays a crucial role in ensuring the security of computer system. This paper proposes a method that can assist security auditors with the analysis of source code. When security auditors identify new vulnerabilities, our method can be adopted to make a list of recommendations that may have the same vulnerabilities for the security auditors. Our method relies on graph representation to automatically extract the mode of PDG(program dependence graph, a structure composed of control dependence and data dependence). Besides, it can be applied to the vulnerability extrapolation scenario, thus reducing the amount of audit code. We worked on an open-source vulnerability test set called Juliet. According to the evaluation results, the clustering effect produced is satisfactory, so that the feature vectors extracted by the Graph2Vec model are applied to labeling and supervised learning indicators are adopted to assess the model for its ability to extract features. On a total of 12,000 small data sets, the training score of the model can reach up to 99.2%, and the test score can reach a maximum of 85.2%. Finally, the recommendation effect of our work is verified as satisfactory.
Fidalgo, Ana, Medeiros, Ibéria, Antunes, Paulo, Neves, Nuno.  2020.  Towards a Deep Learning Model for Vulnerability Detection on Web Application Variants. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW). :465–476.
Reported vulnerabilities have grown significantly over the recent years, with SQL injection (SQLi) being one of the most prominent, especially in web applications. For these, such increase can be explained by the integration of multiple software parts (e.g., various plugins and modules), often developed by different organizations, composing thus web application variants. Machine Learning has the potential to be a great ally on finding vulnerabilities, aiding experts by reducing the search space or even by classifying programs on their own. However, previous work usually does not consider SQLi or utilizes techniques hard to scale. Moreover, there is a clear gap in vulnerability detection with machine learning for PHP, the most popular server-side language for web applications. This paper presents a Deep Learning model able to classify PHP slices as vulnerable (or not) to SQLi. As slices can belong to any variant, we propose the use of an intermediate language to represent the slices and interpret them as text, resorting to well-studied Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. Preliminary results of the use of the model show that it can discover SQLi, helping programmers and precluding attacks that would eventually cost a lot to repair.
Zheng, Wei, Gao, Jialiang, Wu, Xiaoxue, Xun, Yuxing, Liu, Guoliang, Chen, Xiang.  2020.  An Empirical Study of High-Impact Factors for Machine Learning-Based Vulnerability Detection. 2020 IEEE 2nd International Workshop on Intelligent Bug Fixing (IBF). :26–34.
Ahstract-Vulnerability detection is an important topic of software engineering. To improve the effectiveness and efficiency of vulnerability detection, many traditional machine learning-based and deep learning-based vulnerability detection methods have been proposed. However, the impact of different factors on vulnerability detection is unknown. For example, classification models and vectorization methods can directly affect the detection results and code replacement can affect the features of vulnerability detection. We conduct a comparative study to evaluate the impact of different classification algorithms, vectorization methods and user-defined variables and functions name replacement. In this paper, we collected three different vulnerability code datasets. These datasets correspond to different types of vulnerabilities and have different proportions of source code. Besides, we extract and analyze the features of vulnerability code datasets to explain some experimental results. Our findings from the experimental results can be summarized as follows: (i) the performance of using deep learning is better than using traditional machine learning and BLSTM can achieve the best performance. (ii) CountVectorizer can improve the performance of traditional machine learning. (iii) Different vulnerability types and different code sources will generate different features. We use the Random Forest algorithm to generate the features of vulnerability code datasets. These generated features include system-related functions, syntax keywords, and user-defined names. (iv) Datasets without user-defined variables and functions name replacement will achieve better vulnerability detection results.
Ogawa, Yuji, Kimura, Tomotaka, Cheng, Jun.  2020.  Vulnerability Assessment for Machine Learning Based Network Anomaly Detection System. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan (ICCE-Taiwan). :1–2.
In this paper, we assess the vulnerability of network anomaly detection systems that use machine learning methods. Although the performance of these network anomaly detection systems is high in comparison to that of existing methods without machine learning methods, the use of machine learning methods for detecting vulnerabilities is a growing concern among researchers of image processing. If the vulnerabilities of machine learning used in the network anomaly detection method are exploited by attackers, large security threats are likely to emerge in the near future. Therefore, in this paper we clarify how vulnerability detection of machine learning network anomaly detection methods affects their performance.
2021-05-13
Song, Jie, Chen, Yixin, Ye, Jingwen, Wang, Xinchao, Shen, Chengchao, Mao, Feng, Song, Mingli.  2020.  DEPARA: Deep Attribution Graph for Deep Knowledge Transferability. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :3921–3929.
Exploring the intrinsic interconnections between the knowledge encoded in PRe-trained Deep Neural Networks (PR-DNNs) of heterogeneous tasks sheds light on their mutual transferability, and consequently enables knowledge transfer from one task to another so as to reduce the training effort of the latter. In this paper, we propose the DEeP Attribution gRAph (DEPARA) to investigate the transferability of knowledge learned from PR-DNNs. In DEPARA, nodes correspond to the inputs and are represented by their vectorized attribution maps with regards to the outputs of the PR-DNN. Edges denote the relatedness between inputs and are measured by the similarity of their features extracted from the PR-DNN. The knowledge transferability of two PR-DNNs is measured by the similarity of their corresponding DEPARAs. We apply DEPARA to two important yet under-studied problems in transfer learning: pre-trained model selection and layer selection. Extensive experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method in solving both these problems. Code, data and models reproducing the results in this paper are available at https://github.com/zju-vipa/DEPARA.
Mahmoud, Loreen, Praveen, Raja.  2020.  Artificial Neural Networks for detecting Intrusions: A survey. 2020 Fifth International Conference on Research in Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (ICRCICN). :41–48.
Nowadays, the networks attacks became very sophisticated and hard to be recognized, The traditional types of intrusion detection systems became inefficient in predicting new types of attacks. As the IDS is an important factor in securing the network in the real time, many new effective IDS approaches have been proposed. In this paper, we intend to discuss different Artificial Neural Networks based IDS approaches, also we are going to categorize them in four categories (normal ANN, DNN, CNN, RNN) and make a comparison between them depending on different performance parameters (accuracy, FNR, FPR, training time, epochs and the learning rate) and other factors like the network structure, the classification type, the used dataset. At the end of the survey, we will mention the merits and demerits of each approach and suggest some enhancements to avoid the noticed drawbacks.
Li, Yizhi.  2020.  Research on Application of Convolutional Neural Network in Intrusion Detection. 2020 7th International Forum on Electrical Engineering and Automation (IFEEA). :720–723.
At present, our life is almost inseparable from the network, the network provides a lot of convenience for our life. However, a variety of network security incidents occur very frequently. In recent years, with the continuous development of neural network technology, more and more researchers have applied neural network to intrusion detection, which has developed into a new research direction in intrusion detection. As long as the neural network is provided with input data including network data packets, through the process of self-learning, the neural network can separate abnormal data features and effectively detect abnormal data. Therefore, the article innovatively proposes an intrusion detection method based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), which is used to test on public data sets. The results show that the model has a higher accuracy rate and a lower false negative rate than traditional intrusion detection methods.
2021-05-05
Coulter, Rory, Zhang, Jun, Pan, Lei, Xiang, Yang.  2020.  Unmasking Windows Advanced Persistent Threat Execution. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :268—276.

The advanced persistent threat (APT) landscape has been studied without quantifiable data, for which indicators of compromise (IoC) may be uniformly analyzed, replicated, or used to support security mechanisms. This work culminates extensive academic and industry APT analysis, not as an incremental step in existing approaches to APT detection, but as a new benchmark of APT related opportunity. We collect 15,259 APT IoC hashes, retrieving subsequent sandbox execution logs across 41 different file types. This work forms an initial focus on Windows-based threat detection. We present a novel Windows APT executable (APT-EXE) dataset, made available to the research community. Manual and statistical analysis of the APT-EXE dataset is conducted, along with supporting feature analysis. We draw upon repeat and common APT paths access, file types, and operations within the APT-EXE dataset to generalize APT execution footprints. A baseline case analysis successfully identifies a majority of 117 of 152 live APT samples from campaigns across 2018 and 2019.

Poudyal, Subash, Dasgupta, Dipankar.  2020.  AI-Powered Ransomware Detection Framework. 2020 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :1154—1161.

Ransomware attacks are taking advantage of the ongoing pandemics and attacking the vulnerable systems in business, health sector, education, insurance, bank, and government sectors. Various approaches have been proposed to combat ransomware, but the dynamic nature of malware writers often bypasses the security checkpoints. There are commercial tools available in the market for ransomware analysis and detection, but their performance is questionable. This paper aims at proposing an AI-based ransomware detection framework and designing a detection tool (AIRaD) using a combination of both static and dynamic malware analysis techniques. Dynamic binary instrumentation is done using PIN tool, function call trace is analyzed leveraging Cuckoo sandbox and Ghidra. Features extracted at DLL, function call, and assembly level are processed with NLP, association rule mining techniques and fed to different machine learning classifiers. Support vector machine and Adaboost with J48 algorithms achieved the highest accuracy of 99.54% with 0.005 false-positive rates for a multi-level combined term frequency approach.

Kumar, Rahul, Sethi, Kamalakanta, Prajapati, Nishant, Rout, Rashmi Ranjan, Bera, Padmalochan.  2020.  Machine Learning based Malware Detection in Cloud Environment using Clustering Approach. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—7.

Enforcing security and resilience in a cloud platform is an essential but challenging problem due to the presence of a large number of heterogeneous applications running on shared resources. A security analysis system that can detect threats or malware must exist inside the cloud infrastructure. Much research has been done on machine learning-driven malware analysis, but it is limited in computational complexity and detection accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks, we proposed a new malware detection system based on the concept of clustering and trend micro locality sensitive hashing (TLSH). We used Cuckoo sandbox, which provides dynamic analysis reports of files by executing them in an isolated environment. We used a novel feature extraction algorithm to extract essential features from the malware reports obtained from the Cuckoo sandbox. Further, the most important features are selected using principal component analysis (PCA), random forest, and Chi-square feature selection methods. Subsequently, the experimental results are obtained for clustering and non-clustering approaches on three classifiers, including Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Logistic Regression. The model performance shows better classification accuracy and false positive rate (FPR) as compared to the state-of-the-art works and non-clustering approach at significantly lesser computation cost.

Kishore, Pushkar, Barisal, Swadhin Kumar, Prasad Mohapatra, Durga.  2020.  JavaScript malware behaviour analysis and detection using sandbox assisted ensemble model. 2020 IEEE REGION 10 CONFERENCE (TENCON). :864—869.

Whenever any internet user visits a website, a scripting language runs in the background known as JavaScript. The embedding of malicious activities within the script poses a great threat to the cyberworld. Attackers take advantage of the dynamic nature of the JavaScript and embed malicious code within the website to download malware and damage the host. JavaScript developers obfuscate the script to keep it shielded from getting detected by the malware detectors. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for analysing and detecting JavaScript using sandbox assisted ensemble model. We extract the payload using malware-jail sandbox to get the real script. Upon getting the extracted script, we analyse it to define the features that are needed for creating the dataset. We compute Pearson's r between every feature for feature extraction. An ensemble model consisting of Sequential Minimal Optimization (SMO), Voted Perceptron and AdaBoost algorithm is used with voting technique to detect malicious JavaScript. Experimental results show that our proposed model can detect obfuscated and de-obfuscated malicious JavaScript with an accuracy of 99.6% and 0.03s detection time. Our model performs better than other state-of-the-art models in terms of accuracy and least training and detection time.

Hallaji, Ehsan, Razavi-Far, Roozbeh, Saif, Mehrdad.  2020.  Detection of Malicious SCADA Communications via Multi-Subspace Feature Selection. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1—8.
Security maintenance of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems has been a point of interest during recent years. Numerous research works have been dedicated to the design of intrusion detection systems for securing SCADA communications. Nevertheless, these data-driven techniques are usually dependant on the quality of the monitored data. In this work, we propose a novel feature selection approach, called MSFS, to tackle undesirable quality of data caused by feature redundancy. In contrast to most feature selection techniques, the proposed method models each class in a different subspace, where it is optimally discriminated. This has been accomplished by resorting to ensemble learning, which enables the usage of multiple feature sets in the same feature space. The proposed method is then utilized to perform intrusion detection in smaller subspaces, which brings about efficiency and accuracy. Moreover, a comparative study is performed on a number of advanced feature selection algorithms. Furthermore, a dataset obtained from the SCADA system of a gas pipeline is employed to enable a realistic simulation. The results indicate the proposed approach extensively improves the detection performance in terms of classification accuracy and standard deviation.
Bulle, Bruno B., Santin, Altair O., Viegas, Eduardo K., dos Santos, Roger R..  2020.  A Host-based Intrusion Detection Model Based on OS Diversity for SCADA. IECON 2020 The 46th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :691—696.

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems have been a frequent target of cyberattacks in Industrial Control Systems (ICS). As such systems are a frequent target of highly motivated attackers, researchers often resort to intrusion detection through machine learning techniques to detect new kinds of threats. However, current research initiatives, in general, pursue higher detection accuracies, neglecting the detection of new kind of threats and their proposal detection scope. This paper proposes a novel, reliable host-based intrusion detection for SCADA systems through the Operating System (OS) diversity. Our proposal evaluates, at the OS level, the SCADA communication over time and, opportunistically, detects, and chooses the most appropriate OS to be used in intrusion detection for reliability purposes. Experiments, performed through a variety of SCADA OSs front-end, shows that OS diversity provides higher intrusion detection scope, improving detection accuracy by up to 8 new attack categories. Besides, our proposal can opportunistically detect the most reliable OS that should be used for the current environment behavior, improving by up to 8%, on average, the system accuracy when compared to a single OS approach, in the best case.

2021-05-03
Sohail, Muhammad, Zheng, Quan, Rezaiefar, Zeinab, Khan, Muhammad Alamgeer, Ullah, Rizwan, Tan, Xiaobin, Yang, Jian, Yuan, Liu.  2020.  Triangle Area Based Multivariate Correlation Analysis for Detecting and Mitigating Cache Pollution Attacks in Named Data Networking. 2020 3rd International Conference on Hot Information-Centric Networking (HotICN). :114–121.
The key feature of NDN is in-network caching that every router has its cache to store data for future use, thus improve the usage of the network bandwidth and reduce the network latency. However, in-network caching increases the security risks - cache pollution attacks (CPA), which includes locality disruption (ruining the cache locality by sending random requests for unpopular contents to make them popular) and False Locality (introducing unpopular contents in the router's cache by sending requests for a set of unpopular contents). In this paper, we propose a machine learning method, named Triangle Area Based Multivariate Correlation Analysis (TAB-MCA) that detects the cache pollution attacks in NDN. This detection system has two parts, the triangle-area-based MCA technique, and the threshold-based anomaly detection technique. The TAB-MCA technique is used to extract hidden geometrical correlations between two distinct features for all possible permutations and the threshold-based anomaly detection technique. This technique helps our model to be able to distinguish attacks from legitimate traffic records without requiring prior knowledge. Our technique detects locality disruption, false locality, and combination of the two with high accuracy. Implementation of XC-topology, the proposed method shows high efficiency in mitigating these attacks. In comparison to other ML-methods, our proposed method has a low overhead cost in mitigating CPA as it doesn't require attackers' prior knowledge. Additionally, our method can also detect non-uniform attack distributions.
Xu, Shenglin, Xie, Peidai, Wang, Yongjun.  2020.  AT-ROP: Using static analysis and binary patch technology to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction. 2020 International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Software Engineering (TASE). :209–216.
Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) is one of the most common techniques to exploit software vulnerabilities. Although many solutions to defend against ROP attacks have been proposed, they still have various drawbacks, such as requiring additional information (source code, debug symbols, etc.), increasing program running cost, and causing program instability. In this paper, we propose a method: using static analysis and binary patch technology to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction. According to this method, we implemented the AT- ROP tool in a Linux 64-bit system environment. Compared to existing tools, it clears the parameter registers when the function returns. As a result, it makes the binary to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction without having to obtain the source code of the binary. We use the binary challenges in the CTF competition and the binary programs commonly used in the Linux environment to experiment. It turns out that AT-ROP can make the binary program have the ability to defend against ROP attacks based on return instruction with a small increase in the size of the binary program and without affecting its normal execution.