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Boato, G., Dang-Nguyen, D., Natale, F. G. B. De.  2020.  Morphological Filter Detector for Image Forensics Applications. IEEE Access. 8:13549—13560.
Mathematical morphology provides a large set of powerful non-linear image operators, widely used for feature extraction, noise removal or image enhancement. Although morphological filters might be used to remove artifacts produced by image manipulations, both on binary and gray level documents, little effort has been spent towards their forensic identification. In this paper we propose a non-trivial extension of a deterministic approach originally detecting erosion and dilation of binary images. The proposed approach operates on grayscale images and is robust to image compression and other typical attacks. When the image is attacked the method looses its deterministic nature and uses a properly trained SVM classifier, using the original detector as a feature extractor. Extensive tests demonstrate that the proposed method guarantees very high accuracy in filtering detection, providing 100% accuracy in discriminating the presence and the type of morphological filter in raw images of three different datasets. The achieved accuracy is also good after JPEG compression, equal or above 76.8% on all datasets for quality factors above 80. The proposed approach is also able to determine the adopted structuring element for moderate compression factors. Finally, it is robust against noise addition and it can distinguish morphological filter from other filters.
Guerrini, F., Dalai, M., Leonardi, R..  2020.  Minimal Information Exchange for Secure Image Hash-Based Geometric Transformations Estimation. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 15:3482—3496.
Signal processing applications dealing with secure transmission are enjoying increasing attention lately. This paper provides some theoretical insights as well as a practical solution for transmitting a hash of an image to a central server to be compared with a reference image. The proposed solution employs a rigid image registration technique viewed in a distributed source coding perspective. In essence, it embodies a phase encoding framework to let the decoder estimate the transformation parameters using a very modest amount of information about the original image. The problem is first cast in an ideal setting and then it is solved in a realistic scenario, giving more prominence to low computational complexity in both the transmitter and receiver, minimal hash size, and hash security. Satisfactory experimental results are reported on a standard images set.
Kalaichelvi, T., Apuroop, P..  2020.  Image Steganography Method to Achieve Confidentiality Using CAPTCHA for Authentication. 2020 5th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :495—499.

Steganography is a data hiding technique, which is generally used to hide the data within a file to avoid detection. It is used in the police department, detective investigation, and medical fields as well as in many more fields. Various techniques have been proposed over the years for Image Steganography and also attackers or hackers have developed many decoding tools to break these techniques to retrieve data. In this paper, CAPTCHA codes are used to ensure that the receiver is the intended receiver and not any machine. Here a randomized CAPTCHA code is created to provide additional security to communicate with the authenticated user and used Image Steganography to achieve confidentiality. For achieving secret and reliable communication, encryption and decryption mechanism is performed; hence a machine cannot decode it using any predefined algorithm. Once a secure connection has been established with the intended receiver, the original message is transmitted using the LSB algorithm, which uses the RGB color spectrum to hide the image data ensuring additional encryption.

Rout, S., Mohapatra, R. K..  2020.  Video Steganography using Curvelet Transform and Elliptic Curve Cryptography. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–7.
Video steganography mainly deals with secret data transmission in a carrier video file without being visually noticeable by intruders. Video steganography is preferred over image steganography because a video carries more space in comparison to an image. The main concept of information hiding consists of a cover media, which is a greyscale or a color video, a secret data, which is an image or text, and a stego key. Here a secure video steganography method has been proposed which uses Curvelet Transform for secret data embedding, Elliptic Curve Cryptography for stego key encryption and a threshold algorithm for the determination of the amount of secret data to be encoded per frame. A video is a collection of various frames. The frames are selected randomly from the cover video and the frame number of the respective frames has been indexed in the stego key to find the secret data embedding location. Here, the selection of frames in a sequential manner has been avoided to improve security. For enhanced security, the stego key is also encrypted using Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption Scheme (ECIES). Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (FDCT) has been applied to the frames of the cover video and the curvelet coefficients have been modified to obscure the secret data to produce the stego video.
Av, N., Kumar, N. A..  2020.  Image Encryption Using Genetic Algorithm and Bit-Slice Rotation. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
Cryptography is a powerful means of delivering information in a secure manner. Over the years, many image encryption algorithms have been proposed based on the chaotic system to protect the digital image against cryptography attacks. In chaotic encryption, it jumbles the image to vary the framework of the image. This makes it difficult for the attacker to retrieve the original image. This paper introduces an efficient image encryption algorithm incorporating the genetic algorithm, bit plane slicing and bit plane rotation of the digital image. The digital image is sliced into eight planes and each plane is well rotated to give a fully encrypted image after the application of the Genetic Algorithm on each pixel of the image. This makes it less prone to attacks. For decryption, we perform the operations in the reverse order. The performance of this algorithm is measured using various similarity measures like Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM). The results exhibit that the proposed scheme provides a stronger level of encryption and an enhanced security level.
Zhu, L., Zhou, X., Zhang, X..  2020.  A Reversible Meaningful Image Encryption Scheme Based on Block Compressive Sensing. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Information Communication and Signal Processing (ICICSP). :326–330.
An efficient and reversible meaningful image encryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The plain image is first compressed and encrypted simultaneously by Adaptive Block Compressive Sensing (ABCS) framework to create a noise-like secret image. Next, Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding is employed to embed the secret image into a carrier image to generate the final meaningful cipher image. In this scheme, ABCS improves the compression and efficiency performance, and the embedding and extraction operations are absolutely reversible. The simulation results and security analyses are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness, compression, secrecy of the proposed scheme.
Rana, M. M., Mehedie, A. M. Alam, Abdelhadi, A..  2020.  Optimal Image Watermark Technique Using Singular Value Decomposition with PCA. 2020 22nd International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :342–347.
Image watermarking is very important phenomenon in modern society where intellectual property right of information is necessary. Considering this impending problem, there are many image watermarking methods exist in the literature each of having some key advantages and disadvantages. After summarising state-of-the-art literature survey, an optimum digital watermark technique using singular value decomposition with principle component analysis (PCA) is proposed and verified. Basically, the host image is compressed using PCA which reduces multi-dimensional data to effective low-dimensional information. In this scheme, the watermark is embedded using the discrete wavelet transformation-singular value decomposition approach. Simulation results show that the proposed method improves the system performance compared with the existing method in terms of the watermark embedding, and extraction time. Therefore, this work is valuable for image watermarking in modern life such as tracing copyright infringements and banknote authentication.
Geetha, C. R., Basavaraju, S., Puttamadappa, C..  2013.  Variable load image steganography using multiple edge detection and minimum error replacement method. 2013 IEEE Conference on Information Communication Technologies. :53—58.

This paper proposes a steganography method using the digital images. Here, we are embedding the data which is to be secured into the digital image. Human Visual System proved that the changes in the image edges are insensitive to human eyes. Therefore we are using edge detection method in steganography to increase data hiding capacity by embedding more data in these edge pixels. So, if we can increase number of edge pixels, we can increase the amount of data that can be hidden in the image. To increase the number of edge pixels, multiple edge detection is employed. Edge detection is carried out using more sophisticated operator like canny operator. To compensate for the resulting decrease in the PSNR because of increase in the amount of data hidden, Minimum Error Replacement [MER] method is used. Therefore, the main goal of image steganography i.e. security with highest embedding capacity and good visual qualities are achieved. To extract the data we need the original image and the embedding ratio. Extraction is done by taking multiple edges detecting the original image and the data is extracted corresponding to the embedding ratio.

Moussa, Y., Alexan, W..  2020.  Message Security Through AES and LSB Embedding in Edge Detected Pixels of 3D Images. 2020 2nd Novel Intelligent and Leading Emerging Sciences Conference (NILES). :224—229.

This paper proposes an advanced scheme of message security in 3D cover images using multiple layers of security. Cryptography using AES-256 is implemented in the first layer. In the second layer, edge detection is applied. Finally, LSB steganography is executed in the third layer. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is measured using a number of performance metrics. For instance, mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity index measure (SSIM), mean absolute error (MAE) and entropy.

Nisperos, Z. A., Gerardo, B., Hernandez, A..  2020.  Key Generation for Zero Steganography Using DNA Sequences. 2020 12th International Conference on Electronics, Computers and Artificial Intelligence (ECAI). :1–6.
Some of the key challenges in steganography are imperceptibility and resistance to detection of steganalysis algorithms. Zero steganography is an approach to data hiding such that the cover image is not modified. This paper focuses on the generation of stego-key, which is an essential component of this steganographic approach. This approach utilizes DNA sequences and shifting and flipping operations in its binary code representation. Experimental results show that the key generation algorithm has a low cracking probability. The algorithm satisfies the avalanche criterion.
Saleh, A. H., Yousif, A. S., Ahmed, F. Y. H..  2020.  Information Hiding for Text Files by Adopting the Genetic Algorithm and DNA Coding. 2020 IEEE 10th Symposium on Computer Applications Industrial Electronics (ISCAIE). :220–223.
Hiding information is a process to hide data or include it in different digital media such as image, audio, video, and text. However, there are many techniques to achieve the process of hiding information in the image processing, in this paper, a new method has been proposed for hidden data mechanism (which is a text file), then a transposition cipher method has been employed for encryption completed. It can be used to build an encrypted text and also to increase security against possible attacks while sending it over the World Wide Web. A genetic algorithm has been affected in the adjustment of the encoded text and DNA in the creation of an encrypted text that is difficult to detect and then include in the image and that affected the image visual quality. The proposed method outperforms the state of arts in terms of efficiently retrieving the embedded messages. Performance evaluation has been recorded high visual quality scores for the (SNR (single to noise ratio), PSNR (peak single to noise ratio) and MSE (mean square error).
Arunpandian, S., Dhenakaran, S. S..  2020.  DNA based Computing Encryption Scheme Blending Color and Gray Images. 2020 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP). :0966–0970.

In this paper, a novel DNA based computing method is proposed for encryption of biometric color(face)and gray fingerprint images. In many applications of present scenario, gray and color images are exhibited major role for authenticating identity of an individual. The values of aforementioned images have considered as two separate matrices. The key generation process two level mathematical operations have applied on fingerprint image for generating encryption key. For enhancing security to biometric image, DNA computing has done on the above matrices generating DNA sequence. Further, DNA sequences have scrambled to add complexity to biometric image. Results of blending images, image of DNA computing has shown in experimental section. It is observed that the proposed substitution DNA computing algorithm has shown good resistant against statistical and differential attacks.

Akkasaligar, P. T., Biradar, S..  2020.  Medical Image Compression and Encryption using Chaos based DNA Cryptography. 2020 IEEE Bangalore Humanitarian Technology Conference (B-HTC). :1–5.
In digital communication, the transmission of medical images over communication network is very explosive. We need a communication system to transmit the medical information rapidly and securely. In this manuscript, we propose a cryptosystem with novel encoding strategy and lossless compression technique. The chaos based DNA cryptography is used to enrich security of medical images. The lossless Discrete Haar Wavelet Transform is used to reduce space and time efficiency during transmission. The cryptanalysis proves that proposed cryptosystem is secure against different types of attacks. The compression ratio and pixel comparison is performed to verify the similarity of retained medical image.
Pramanik, S., Bandyopadhyay, S. K., Ghosh, R..  2020.  Signature Image Hiding in Color Image using Steganography and Cryptography based on Digital Signature Concepts. 2020 2nd International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA). :665–669.
Data Transmission in network security is one of the most vital issues in today's communication world. The outcome of the suggested method is outlined over here. Enhanced security can be achieved by this method. The vigorous growth in the field of information communication has made information transmission much easier. But this type of advancement has opened up many possibilities of information being snooped. So, day-by-day maintaining of information security is becoming an inseparable part of computing and communication. In this paper, the authors have explored techniques that blend cryptography & steganography together. In steganography, information is kept hidden behind a cover image. In this paper, approaches for information hiding using both cryptography & steganography is proposed keeping in mind two considerations - size of the encrypted object and degree of security. Here, signature image information is kept hidden into cover image using private key of sender & receiver, which extracts the information from stego image using a public key. This approach can be used for message authentication, message integrity & non-repudiation purpose.
Wang, H., Li, Y., Wang, Y., Hu, H., Yang, M.-H..  2020.  Collaborative Distillation for Ultra-Resolution Universal Style Transfer. 2020 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :1857–1866.
Universal style transfer methods typically leverage rich representations from deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) models (e.g., VGG-19) pre-trained on large collections of images. Despite the effectiveness, its application is heavily constrained by the large model size to handle ultra-resolution images given limited memory. In this work, we present a new knowledge distillation method (named Collaborative Distillation) for encoder-decoder based neural style transfer to reduce the convolutional filters. The main idea is underpinned by a finding that the encoder-decoder pairs construct an exclusive collaborative relationship, which is regarded as a new kind of knowledge for style transfer models. Moreover, to overcome the feature size mismatch when applying collaborative distillation, a linear embedding loss is introduced to drive the student network to learn a linear embedding of the teacher's features. Extensive experiments show the effectiveness of our method when applied to different universal style transfer approaches (WCT and AdaIN), even if the model size is reduced by 15.5 times. Especially, on WCT with the compressed models, we achieve ultra-resolution (over 40 megapixels) universal style transfer on a 12GB GPU for the first time. Further experiments on optimization-based stylization scheme show the generality of our algorithm on different stylization paradigms. Our code and trained models are available at
He, H. Y., Yang, Z. Guo, Chen, X. N..  2020.  PERT: Payload Encoding Representation from Transformer for Encrypted Traffic Classification. 2020 ITU Kaleidoscope: Industry-Driven Digital Transformation (ITU K). :1—8.

Traffic identification becomes more important yet more challenging as related encryption techniques are rapidly developing nowadays. In difference to recent deep learning methods that apply image processing to solve such encrypted traffic problems, in this paper, we propose a method named Payload Encoding Representation from Transformer (PERT) to perform automatic traffic feature extraction using a state-of-the-art dynamic word embedding technique. Based on this, we further provide a traffic classification framework in which unlabeled traffic is utilized to pre-train an encoding network that learns the contextual distribution of traffic payload bytes. Then, the downward classification reuses the pre-trained network to obtain an enhanced classification result. By implementing experiments on a public encrypted traffic data set and our captured Android HTTPS traffic, we prove the proposed method can achieve an obvious better effectiveness than other compared baselines. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the encrypted traffic classification with the dynamic word embedding alone with its pre-training strategy has been addressed.

Abbas, M. S., Mahdi, S. S., Hussien, S. A..  2020.  Security Improvement of Cloud Data Using Hybrid Cryptography and Steganography. 2020 International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering (CSASE). :123–127.
One of the significant advancements in information technology is Cloud computing, but the security issue of data storage is a big problem in the cloud environment. That is why a system is proposed in this paper for improving the security of cloud data using encryption, information concealment, and hashing functions. In the data encryption phase, we implemented hybrid encryption using the algorithm of AES symmetric encryption and the algorithm of RSA asymmetric encryption. Next, the encrypted data will be hidden in an image using LSB algorithm. In the data validation phase, we use the SHA hashing algorithm. Also, in our suggestion, we compress the data using the LZW algorithm before hiding it in the image. Thus, it allows hiding as much data as possible. By using information concealment technology and mixed encryption, we can achieve strong data security. In this paper, PSNR and SSIM values were calculated in addition to the graph to evaluate the image masking performance before and after applying the compression process. The results showed that PSNR values of stego-image are better for compressed data compared to data before compression.
Kumar, S., Singh, B. K., Akshita, Pundir, S., Batra, S., Joshi, R..  2020.  A survey on Symmetric and Asymmetric Key based Image Encryption. 2nd International Conference on Data, Engineering and Applications (IDEA). :1–5.
Image Encryption is a technique where an algorithm along with a set of characters called key encrypts the data into cipher text. The cipher text can be converted back into plaintext by decryption. This technique is employed for the security of data such that confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of data is maintained. In today's era security of information has become a crucial task, unauthorized access and use of data has become a noticeable issue. To provide the security required, there are several algorithms to suit the purposes. While the use and transferring of images has become easy and faster due to technological advancements especially wireless sensor network, image destruction and illegitimate use has become a potential threat. Different transfer mediums and various uses of images require different and appropriately suiting encryption approaches. Hence, in this paper we discuss the types of image encryption techniques. We have also discussed several encryption algorithms, their advantages and suitability.
Zhang, J., Ji, X., Xu, W., Chen, Y.-C., Tang, Y., Qu, G..  2020.  MagView: A Distributed Magnetic Covert Channel via Video Encoding and Decoding. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :357—366.

Air-gapped networks achieve security by using the physical isolation to keep the computers and network from the Internet. However, magnetic covert channels based on CPU utilization have been proposed to help secret data to escape the Faraday-cage and the air-gap. Despite the success of such cover channels, they suffer from the high risk of being detected by the transmitter computer and the challenge of installing malware into such a computer. In this paper, we propose MagView, a distributed magnetic cover channel, where sensitive information is embedded in other data such as video and can be transmitted over the air-gapped internal network. When any computer uses the data such as playing the video, the sensitive information will leak through the magnetic covert channel. The "separation" of information embedding and leaking, combined with the fact that the covert channel can be created on any computer, overcomes these limitations. We demonstrate that CPU utilization for video decoding can be effectively controlled by changing the video frame type and reducing the quantization parameter without video quality degradation. We prototype MagView and achieve up to 8.9 bps throughput with BER as low as 0.0057. Experiments under different environment are conducted to show the robustness of MagView. Limitations and possible countermeasures are also discussed.

Xu, H., Jiang, H..  2019.  An Image Encryption Schema Based on Hybrid Optimized Chaotic System. 2019 3rd International Conference on Electronic Information Technology and Computer Engineering (EITCE). :784–788.

The purpose of this paper is to improve the safety of chaotic image encryption algorithm. Firstly, to achieve this goal, it put forward two improved chaotic system logistic and henon, which covered an promoted henon chaotic system with better probability density, and an 2-dimension logistic chaotic system with high Lyapunov exponents. Secondly, the chaotic key stream was generated by the new 2D logistic chaotic system and optimized henon mapping, which mixed in dynamic proportions. The conducted sequence has better randomness and higher safety for image cryptosystem. Thirdly, we proposed algorithm takes advantage of the compounded chaotic system Simulation experiment results and security analysis showed that the proposed scheme was more effective and secure. It can resist various typical attacks, has high security, satisfies the requirements of image encryption theoretical.

Kushnir, M., Kosovan, H., Kroialo, P., Komarnytskyy, A..  2020.  Encryption of the Images on the Basis of Two Chaotic Systems with the Use of Fuzzy Logic. 2020 IEEE 15th International Conference on Advanced Trends in Radioelectronics, Telecommunications and Computer Engineering (TCSET). :610–613.

Recently, new perspective areas of chaotic encryption have evolved, including fuzzy logic encryption. The presented work proposes an image encryption system based on two chaotic mapping that uses fuzzy logic. The paper also presents numerical calculations of some parameters of statistical analysis, such as, histogram, entropy of information and correlation coefficient, which confirm the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Kaur, S., Jindal, A..  2020.  Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based Image Tamper Detection Scheme. 2020 International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies (ICICT). :695—699.
Image authentication techniques are basically used to check whether the received document is accurate or actual as it was transmitted by the source node or not. Image authentication ensures the integrity of the digital images and identify the ownership of the copyright of the digital images. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is method based on spatial domain which is used to extract important features from an image. SVD function decomposes an image into three matrices (U, S, V), the S matrix is a diagonal matrix constitutes singular values. These values are important features of that particular image. The quick response code features are utilized to create QR code from the extracted values. The evaluations produced represents that this designed method is better in producing authenticated image as compared to existing schemes.
Nguyen, A., Choi, S., Kim, W., Lee, S..  2019.  A Simple Way of Multimodal and Arbitrary Style Transfer. ICASSP 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :1752—1756.

We re-define multimodality and introduce a simple approach to multimodal and arbitrary style transfer. Conventionally, style transfer methods are limited to synthesizing a deterministic output based on a single style, and there has been no work that can generate multiple images of various details, or multimodality, given a single style. In this work, we explore a way to achieve multimodal and arbitrary style transfer by injecting noise to a unimodal method. This novel approach does not require any trainable parameters, and can be readily applied to any unimodal style transfer methods with separate style encoding sub-network in literature. Experimental results show that while being able to transfer an image to multiple domains in various ways, the image quality is highly competitive with contemporary models in style transfer.

Zhang, Y., Zhang, Y., Cai, W..  2018.  Separating Style and Content for Generalized Style Transfer. 2018 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. :8447–8455.

Neural style transfer has drawn broad attention in recent years. However, most existing methods aim to explicitly model the transformation between different styles, and the learned model is thus not generalizable to new styles. We here attempt to separate the representations for styles and contents, and propose a generalized style transfer network consisting of style encoder, content encoder, mixer and decoder. The style encoder and content encoder are used to extract the style and content factors from the style reference images and content reference images, respectively. The mixer employs a bilinear model to integrate the above two factors and finally feeds it into a decoder to generate images with target style and content. To separate the style features and content features, we leverage the conditional dependence of styles and contents given an image. During training, the encoder network learns to extract styles and contents from two sets of reference images in limited size, one with shared style and the other with shared content. This learning framework allows simultaneous style transfer among multiple styles and can be deemed as a special 'multi-task' learning scenario. The encoders are expected to capture the underlying features for different styles and contents which is generalizable to new styles and contents. For validation, we applied the proposed algorithm to the Chinese Typeface transfer problem. Extensive experiment results on character generation have demonstrated the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

Yang, J., Kang, X., Wong, E. K., Shi, Y..  2018.  Deep Learning with Feature Reuse for JPEG Image Steganalysis. 2018 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC). :533–538.
It is challenging to detect weak hidden information in a JPEG compressed image. In this paper, we propose a 32-layer convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with feature reuse by concatenating all features from previous layers. The proposed method can improve the flow of gradient and information, and the shared features and bottleneck layers in the proposed CNN model further reduce the number of parameters dramatically. The experimental results shown that the proposed method significantly reduce the detection error rate compared with the existing JPEG steganalysis methods, e.g. state-of-the-art XuNet method and the conventional SCA-GFR method. Compared with XuNet method and conventional method SCA-GFR in detecting J-UNIWARD at 0.1 bpnzAC (bit per non-zero AC DCT coefficient), the proposed method can reduce detection error rate by 4.33% and 6.55% respectively.