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2021-09-07
Shi, Jiayu, Wu, Bin.  2020.  Detection of DDoS Based on Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix Theory and Deep Learning. 2020 5th International Conference on Mechanical, Control and Computer Engineering (ICMCCE). :1615–1618.
There have been researches on Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack detection based on deep learning, but most of them use the feature data processed by data mining for feature learning and classification. Based on the original data flow, this paper combines the method of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), which not only retains the original data but also can further extract the potential relationship between the original data. The original data matrix and the reconstructed matrix were taken as the input of the model, and the Convolutional Neural Network(CNN) was used for feature learning. Finally, the classifier model was trained for detection. The experimental part is divided into two parts: comparing the detection effect of different data processing methods and different deep learning algorithms; the effectiveness and objectivity of the proposed method are verified by comparing the detection effect of the deep learning algorithm with that of the statistical analysis feature algorithm.
Zhang, Xing, Cui, Xiaotong, Cheng, Kefei, Zhang, Liang.  2020.  A Convolutional Encoder Network for Intrusion Detection in Controller Area Networks. 2020 16th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :366–369.
Integrated with various electronic control units (ECUs), vehicles are becoming more intelligent with the assistance of essential connections. However, the interaction with the outside world raises great concerns on cyber-attacks. As a main standard for in-vehicle network, Controller Area Network (CAN) does not have any built-in security mechanisms to guarantee a secure communication. This increases risks of denial of service, remote control attacks by an attacker, posing serious threats to underlying vehicles, property and human lives. As a result, it is urgent to develop an effective in-vehicle network intrusion detection system (IDS) for better security. In this paper, we propose a Feature-based Sliding Window (FSW) to extract the feature of CAN Data Field and CAN IDs. Then we construct a convolutional encoder network (CEN) to detect network intrusion of CAN networks. The proposed FSW-CEN method is evaluated on real-world datasets. The experimental results show that compared to traditional data processing methods and convolutional neural networks, our method is able to detect attacks with a higher accuracy in terms of detection accuracy and false negative rate.
2021-02-23
Cushing, R., Koning, R., Zhang, L., Laat, C. d, Grosso, P..  2020.  Auditable secure network overlays for multi-domain distributed applications. 2020 IFIP Networking Conference (Networking). :658—660.

The push for data sharing and data processing across organisational boundaries creates challenges at many levels of the software stack. Data sharing and processing rely on the participating parties agreeing on the permissible operations and expressing them into actionable contracts and policies. Converting these contracts and policies into a operational infrastructure is still a matter of research and therefore begs the question how should a digital data market place infrastructure look like? In this paper we investigate how communication fabric and applications can be tightly coupled into a multi-domain overlay network which enforces accountability. We prove our concepts with a prototype which shows how a simple workflow can run across organisational boundaries.

2020-11-23
Awaysheh, F., Cabaleiro, J. C., Pena, T. F., Alazab, M..  2019.  Big Data Security Frameworks Meet the Intelligent Transportation Systems Trust Challenges. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :807–813.
Many technological cases exploiting data science have been realized in recent years; machine learning, Internet of Things, and stream data processing are examples of this trend. Other advanced applications have focused on capturing the value from streaming data of different objects of transport and traffic management in an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). In this context, security control and trust level play a decisive role in the sustainable adoption of this trend. However, conceptual work integrating the security approaches of different disciplines into one coherent reference architecture is limited. The contribution of this paper is a reference architecture for ITS security (called SITS). In addition, a classification of Big Data technologies, products, and services to address the ITS trust challenges is presented. We also proposed a novel multi-tier ITS security framework for validating the usability of SITS with business intelligence development in the enterprise domain.
2020-10-19
Hasan, Khondokar Fida, Kaur, Tarandeep, Hasan, Md. Mhedi, Feng, Yanming.  2019.  Cognitive Internet of Vehicles: Motivation, Layered Architecture and Security Issues. 2019 International Conference on Sustainable Technologies for Industry 4.0 (STI). :1–6.
Over the past few years, we have experienced great technological advancements in the information and communication field, which has significantly contributed to reshaping the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) concept. Evolving from the platform of a collection of sensors aiming to collect data, the data exchanged paradigm among vehicles is shifted from the local network to the cloud. With the introduction of cloud and edge computing along with ubiquitous 5G mobile network, it is expected to see the role of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in data processing and smart decision imminent. So as to fully understand the future automobile scenario in this verge of industrial revolution 4.0, it is necessary first of all to get a clear understanding of the cutting-edge technologies that going to take place in the automotive ecosystem so that the cyber-physical impact on transportation system can be measured. CIoV, which is abbreviated from Cognitive Internet of Vehicle, is one of the recently proposed architectures of the technological evolution in transportation, and it has amassed great attention. It introduces cloud-based artificial intelligence and machine learning into transportation system. What are the future expectations of CIoV? To fully contemplate this architecture's future potentials, and milestones set to achieve, it is crucial to understand all the technologies that leaned into it. Also, the security issues to meet the security requirements of its practical implementation. Aiming to that, this paper presents the evolution of CIoV along with the layer abstractions to outline the distinctive functional parts of the proposed architecture. It also gives an investigation of the prime security and privacy issues associated with technological evolution to take measures.
2020-10-12
Marrone, Stefano, Sansone, Carlo.  2019.  An Adversarial Perturbation Approach Against CNN-based Soft Biometrics Detection. 2019 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.
The use of biometric-based authentication systems spread over daily life consumer electronics. Over the years, researchers' interest shifted from hard (such as fingerprints, voice and keystroke dynamics) to soft biometrics (such as age, ethnicity and gender), mainly by using the latter to improve the authentication systems effectiveness. While newer approaches are constantly being proposed by domain experts, in the last years Deep Learning has raised in many computer vision tasks, also becoming the current state-of-art for several biometric approaches. However, since the automatic processing of data rich in sensitive information could expose users to privacy threats associated to their unfair use (i.e. gender or ethnicity), in the last years researchers started to focus on the development of defensive strategies in the view of a more secure and private AI. The aim of this work is to exploit Adversarial Perturbation, namely approaches able to mislead state-of-the-art CNNs by injecting a suitable small perturbation over the input image, to protect subjects against unwanted soft biometrics-based identification by automatic means. In particular, since ethnicity is one of the most critical soft biometrics, as a case of study we will focus on the generation of adversarial stickers that, once printed, can hide subjects ethnicity in a real-world scenario.
2020-08-07
Nawaz, A., Gia, T. N., Queralta, J. Peña, Westerlund, T..  2019.  Edge AI and Blockchain for Privacy-Critical and Data-Sensitive Applications. 2019 Twelfth International Conference on Mobile Computing and Ubiquitous Network (ICMU). :1—2.
The edge and fog computing paradigms enable more responsive and smarter systems without relying on cloud servers for data processing and storage. This reduces network load as well as latency. Nonetheless, the addition of new layers in the network architecture increases the number of security vulnerabilities. In privacy-critical systems, the appearance of new vulnerabilities is more significant. To cope with this issue, we propose and implement an Ethereum Blockchain based architecture with edge artificial intelligence to analyze data at the edge of the network and keep track of the parties that access the results of the analysis, which are stored in distributed databases.
2020-05-18
Wu, Lan, Su, Sheyan, Wen, Chenglin.  2018.  Multiple Fault Diagnosis Methods Based on Multilevel Multi-Granularity PCA. 2018 International Conference on Control, Automation and Information Sciences (ICCAIS). :566–570.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a basic method of fault diagnosis based on multivariate statistical analysis. It utilizes the linear correlation between multiple process variables to implement process fault diagnosis and has been widely used. Traditional PCA fault diagnosis ignores the impact of faults with different magnitudes on detection accuracy. Based on a variety of data processing methods, this paper proposes a multi-level and multi-granularity principal component analysis method to make the detection results more accurate.
2020-05-04
Chen, Hanlin, Hu, Ming, Yan, Hui, Yu, Ping.  2019.  Research on Industrial Internet of Things Security Architecture and Protection Strategy. 2019 International Conference on Virtual Reality and Intelligent Systems (ICVRIS). :365–368.

Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is a fusion of industrial automation systems and IoT systems. It features comprehensive sensing, interconnected transmission, intelligent processing, self-organization and self-maintenance. Its applications span intelligent transportation, smart factories, and intelligence. Many areas such as power grid and intelligent environment detection. With the widespread application of IIoT technology, the cyber security threats to industrial IoT systems are increasing day by day, and information security issues have become a major challenge in the development process. In order to protect the industrial IoT system from network attacks, this paper aims to study the industrial IoT information security protection technology, and the typical architecture of industrial Internet of things system, and analyzes the network security threats faced by industrial Internet of things system according to the different levels of the architecture, and designs the security protection strategies applied to different levels of structures based on the specific means of network attack.

2020-03-30
Narendra, Nanjangud C., Shukla, Anshu, Nayak, Sambit, Jagadish, Asha, Kalkur, Rachana.  2019.  Genoma: Distributed Provenance as a Service for IoT-based Systems. 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :755–760.
One of the key aspects of IoT-based systems, which we believe has not been getting the attention it deserves, is provenance. Provenance refers to those actions that record the usage of data in the system, along with the rationale for said usage. Historically, most provenance methods in distributed systems have been tightly coupled with those of the underlying data processing frameworks in such systems. However, in this paper, we argue that IoT provenance requires a different treatment, given the heterogeneity and dynamism of IoT-based systems. In particular, provenance in IoT-based systems should be decoupled as far as possible from the underlying data processing substrates in IoT-based systems.To that end, in this paper, we present Genoma, our ongoing work on a system for provenance-as-a-service in IoT-based systems. By "provenance-as-a-service" we mean the following: distributed provenance across IoT devices, edge and cloud; and agnostic of the underlying data processing substrate. Genoma comprises a set of services that act together to provide useful provenance information to users across the system. We also show how we are realizing Genoma via an implementation prototype built on Apache Atlas and Tinkergraph, through which we are investigating several key research issues in distributed IoT provenance.
2020-01-27
Shang, Chengya, Bao, Xianqiang, Fu, Lijun, Xia, Li, Xu, Xinghua, Xu, Chengcheng.  2019.  A Novel Key-Value Based Real-Time Data Management Framework for Ship Integrated Power Cyber-Physical System. 2019 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia). :854–858.
The new generation ship integrated power system (IPS) realizes high level informatization for various physical equipments, and gradually develops to a cyber-physical system (CPS). The future trend is collecting ship big data to achieve data-driven intelligence for IPS. However, traditional relational data management framework becomes inefficient to handle the real-time data processing in ship integrated power cyber-physics system. In order to process the large-scale real-time data that collected from numerous sensors by field bus of IPS devices within acceptable latency, especially for handling the semi-structured and non-structured data. This paper proposes a novel key-value data model based real-time data management framework, which enables batch processing and distributed deployment to acquire time-efficiency as well as system scalable. We implement a real-time data management prototype system based on an open source in-memory key-value store. Finally, the evaluation results from the prototype verify the advantages of novel framework compared with traditional solution.
2020-01-20
Krasnobaev, Victor, Kuznetsov, Alexandr, Babenko, Vitalina, Denysenko, Mykola, Zub, Mihael, Hryhorenko, Vlada.  2019.  The Method of Raising Numbers, Represented in the System of Residual Classes to an Arbitrary Power of a Natural Number. 2019 IEEE 2nd Ukraine Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (UKRCON). :1133–1138.

Methods for implementing integer arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication in the system of residual classes are considered. It is shown that their practical use in computer systems can significantly improve the performance of the implementation of arithmetic operations. A new method has been developed for raising numbers represented in the system of residual classes to an arbitrary power of a natural number, both in positive and in negative number ranges. An example of the implementation of the proposed method for the construction of numbers represented in the system of residual classes for the value of degree k = 2 is given.

2019-12-30
Bousselham, Mhidi, Benamar, Nabil, Addaim, Adnane.  2019.  A new Security Mechanism for Vehicular Cloud Computing Using Fog Computing System. 2019 International Conference on Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS). :1–4.

Recently Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) has become an attractive solution that support vehicle's computing and storing service requests. This computing paradigm insures a reduced energy consumption and low traffic congestion. Additionally, VCC has emerged as a promising technology that provides a virtual platform for processing data using vehicles as infrastructures or centralized data servers. However, vehicles are deployed in open environments where they are vulnerable to various types of attacks. Furthermore, traditional cryptographic algorithms failed in insuring security once their keys compromised. In order to insure a secure vehicular platform, we introduce in this paper a new decoy technology DT and user behavior profiling (UBP) as an alternative solution to overcome data security, privacy and trust in vehicular cloud servers using a fog computing architecture. In the case of a malicious behavior, our mechanism shows a high efficiency by delivering decoy files in such a way making the intruder unable to differentiate between the original and decoy file.

2019-06-10
Sokolov, A. N., Pyatnitsky, I. A., Alabugin, S. K..  2018.  Research of Classical Machine Learning Methods and Deep Learning Models Effectiveness in Detecting Anomalies of Industrial Control System. 2018 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :1-6.

Modern industrial control systems (ICS) act as victims of cyber attacks more often in last years. These attacks are hard to detect and their consequences can be catastrophic. Cyber attacks can cause anomalies in the work of the ICS and its technological equipment. The presence of mutual interference and noises in this equipment significantly complicates anomaly detection. Moreover, the traditional means of protection, which used in corporate solutions, require updating with each change in the structure of the industrial process. An approach based on the machine learning for anomaly detection was used to overcome these problems. It complements traditional methods and allows one to detect signal correlations and use them for anomaly detection. Additional Tennessee Eastman Process Simulation Data for Anomaly Detection Evaluation dataset was analyzed as example of industrial process. In the course of the research, correlations between the signals of the sensors were detected and preliminary data processing was carried out. Algorithms from the most common techniques of machine learning (decision trees, linear algorithms, support vector machines) and deep learning models (neural networks) were investigated for industrial process anomaly detection task. It's shown that linear algorithms are least demanding on computational resources, but they don't achieve an acceptable result and allow a significant number of errors. Decision tree-based algorithms provided an acceptable accuracy, but the amount of RAM, required for their operations, relates polynomially with the training sample volume. The deep neural networks provided the greatest accuracy, but they require considerable computing power for internal calculations.

2019-03-11
Shaik, M. A..  2018.  Protecting Agents from Malicious Hosts using Trusted Platform Modules (TPM). 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :559–564.

Software agents represent an assured computing paradigm that tends to emerge to be an elegant technology to solve present day problems. The eminent Scientific Community has proved us with the usage or implementation of software agent's usage approach that simplifies the proposed solution in various types to solve the traditional computing problems arise. The proof of the same is implemented in several applications that exist based on this area of technology where the software agents have maximum benefits but on the same hand absence of the suitable security mechanisms that endures for systems that are based on representation of barriers exists in the paradigm with respect to present day industry. As the application proposing present security mechanisms is not a trivial one as the agent based system builders or developers who are not often security experts as they subsequently do not count on the area of expertise. This paper presents a novel approach for protecting the infrastructure for solving the issues considered to be malicious host in mobile agent system by implementing a secure protocol to migrate agents from host to host relying in various elements based on the enhanced Trusted Platforms Modules (TPM) for processing data. We use enhanced extension to the Java Agent Development framework (JADE) in our proposed system and a migrating protocol is used to validate the proposed framework (AVASPA).

2018-09-28
Song, Youngho, Shin, Young-sung, Jang, Miyoung, Chang, Jae-Woo.  2017.  Design and implementation of HDFS data encryption scheme using ARIA algorithm on Hadoop. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp). :84–90.

Hadoop is developed as a distributed data processing platform for analyzing big data. Enterprises can analyze big data containing users' sensitive information by using Hadoop and utilize them for their marketing. Therefore, researches on data encryption have been widely done to protect the leakage of sensitive data stored in Hadoop. However, the existing researches support only the AES international standard data encryption algorithm. Meanwhile, the Korean government selected ARIA algorithm as a standard data encryption scheme for domestic usages. In this paper, we propose a HDFS data encryption scheme which supports both ARIA and AES algorithms on Hadoop. First, the proposed scheme provides a HDFS block-splitting component that performs ARIA/AES encryption and decryption under the Hadoop distributed computing environment. Second, the proposed scheme provides a variable-length data processing component that can perform encryption and decryption by adding dummy data, in case when the last data block does not contains 128-bit data. Finally, we show from performance analysis that our proposed scheme is efficient for various applications, such as word counting, sorting, k-Means, and hierarchical clustering.

2018-09-05
Gai, K., Qiu, M..  2017.  An Optimal Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme. 2017 ieee 3rd international conference on big data security on cloud (bigdatasecurity), ieee international conference on high performance and smart computing (hpsc), and ieee international conference on intelligent data and security (ids). :101–106.

The expeditious expansion of the networking technologies have remarkably driven the usage of the distributedcomputing as well as services, such as task offloading to the cloud. However, security and privacy concerns are restricting the implementations of cloud computing because of the threats from both outsiders and insiders. The primary alternative of protecting users' data is developing a Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) scheme, which can cover both data protections and data processing in the cloud. Despite many previous attempts addressing this approach, none of the proposed work can simultaneously satisfy two requirements that include the non-noise accuracy and an efficiency execution. This paper focuses on the issue of FHE design and proposes a novel FHE scheme, which is called Optimal Fully Homomorphic Encryption (O-FHE). Our approach utilizes the properties of the Kronecker Product (KP) and designs a mechanism of achieving FHE, which consider both accuracy and efficiency. We have assessed our scheme in both theoretical proofing and experimental evaluations with the confirmed and exceptional results.

2018-06-11
Crabtree, A., Lodge, T., Colley, J., Greenghalgh, C., Mortier, R..  2017.  Accountable Internet of Things? Outline of the IoT databox model 2017 IEEE 18th International Symposium on A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM). :1–6.

This paper outlines the IoT Databox model as a means of making the Internet of Things (IoT) accountable to individuals. Accountability is a key to building consumer trust and mandated in data protection legislation. We briefly outline the `external' data subject accountability requirement specified in actual legislation in Europe and proposed legislation in the US, and how meeting requirement this turns on surfacing the invisible actions and interactions of connected devices and the social arrangements in which they are embedded. The IoT Databox model is proposed as an in principle means of enabling accountability and providing individuals with the mechanisms needed to build trust in the IoT.

2018-05-16
Patra, M. K..  2017.  An architecture model for smart city using Cognitive Internet of Things (CIoT). 2017 Second International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT). :1–6.

In this paper, a distributed architecture for the implementation of smart city has been proposed to facilitate various smart features like solid waste management, efficient urban mobility and public transport, smart parking, robust IT connectivity, safety and security of citizens and a roadmap for achieving it. How massive volume of IoT data can be analyzed and a layered architecture of IoT is explained. Why data integration is important for analyzing and processing of data collected by the different smart devices like sensors, actuators and RFIDs is discussed. The wireless sensor network can be used to sense the data from various locations but there has to be more to it than stuffing sensors everywhere for everything. Why only the sensor is not sufficient for data collection and how human beings can be used to collect data is explained. There is some communication protocols between the volunteers engaged in collecting data to restrict the sharing of data and ensure that the target area is covered with minimum numbers of volunteers. Every volunteer should cover some predefined area to collect data. Then the proposed architecture model is having one central server to store all data in a centralized server. The data processing and the processing of query being made by the user is taking place in centralized server.

2018-04-02
Al-Zobbi, M., Shahrestani, S., Ruan, C..  2017.  Implementing A Framework for Big Data Anonymity and Analytics Access Control. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :873–880.

Analytics in big data is maturing and moving towards mass adoption. The emergence of analytics increases the need for innovative tools and methodologies to protect data against privacy violation. Many data anonymization methods were proposed to provide some degree of privacy protection by applying data suppression and other distortion techniques. However, currently available methods suffer from poor scalability, performance and lack of framework standardization. Current anonymization methods are unable to cope with the massive size of data processing. Some of these methods were especially proposed for MapReduce framework to operate in Big Data. However, they still operate in conventional data management approaches. Therefore, there were no remarkable gains in the performance. We introduce a framework that can operate in MapReduce environment to benefit from its advantages, as well as from those in Hadoop ecosystems. Our framework provides a granular user's access that can be tuned to different authorization levels. The proposed solution provides a fine-grained alteration based on the user's authorization level to access MapReduce domain for analytics. Using well-developed role-based access control approaches, this framework is capable of assigning roles to users and map them to relevant data attributes.

2018-01-16
Kansal, V., Dave, M..  2017.  Proactive DDoS attack detection and isolation. 2017 International Conference on Computer, Communications and Electronics (Comptelix). :334–338.

The increased number of cyber attacks makes the availability of services a major security concern. One common type of cyber threat is distributed denial of service (DDoS). A DDoS attack is aimed at disrupting the legitimate users from accessing the services. It is easier for an insider having legitimate access to the system to deceive any security controls resulting in insider attack. This paper proposes an Early Detection and Isolation Policy (EDIP)to mitigate insider-assisted DDoS attacks. EDIP detects insider among all legitimate clients present in the system at proxy level and isolate it from innocent clients by migrating it to attack proxy. Further an effective algorithm for detection and isolation of insider is developed with the aim of maximizing attack isolation while minimizing disruption to benign clients. In addition, concept of load balancing is used to prevent proxies from getting overloaded.

2017-03-08
Sokol, P., Husak, M., Lipták, F..  2015.  Deploying Honeypots and Honeynets: Issue of Privacy. 2015 10th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :397–403.

Honey pots and honey nets are popular tools in the area of network security and network forensics. The deployment and usage of these tools are influenced by a number of technical and legal issues, which need to be carefully considered together. In this paper, we outline privacy issues of honey pots and honey nets with respect to technical aspects. The paper discusses the legal framework of privacy, legal ground to data processing, and data collection. The analysis of legal issues is based on EU law and is supported by discussions on privacy and related issues. This paper is one of the first papers which discuss in detail privacy issues of honey pots and honey nets in accordance with EU law.

Buda, A., Främling, K., Borgman, J., Madhikermi, M., Mirzaeifar, S., Kubler, S..  2015.  Data supply chain in Industrial Internet. 2015 IEEE World Conference on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS). :1–7.

The Industrial Internet promises to radically change and improve many industry's daily business activities, from simple data collection and processing to context-driven, intelligent and pro-active support of workers' everyday tasks and life. The present paper first provides insight into a typical industrial internet application architecture, then it highlights one fundamental arising contradiction: “Who owns the data is often not capable of analyzing it”. This statement is explained by imaging a visionary data supply chain that would realize some of the Industrial Internet promises. To concretely implement such a system, recent standards published by The Open Group are presented, where we highlight the characteristics that make them suitable for Industrial Internet applications. Finally, we discuss comparable solutions and concludes with new business use cases.

2017-03-07
Kim, J., Moon, I., Lee, K., Suh, S. C., Kim, I..  2015.  Scalable Security Event Aggregation for Situation Analysis. 2015 IEEE First International Conference on Big Data Computing Service and Applications. :14–23.

Cyber-attacks have been evolved in a way to be more sophisticated by employing combinations of attack methodologies with greater impacts. For instance, Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) employ a set of stealthy hacking processes running over a long period of time, making it much hard to detect. With this trend, the importance of big-data security analytics has taken greater attention since identifying such latest attacks requires large-scale data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present SEAS-MR (Security Event Aggregation System over MapReduce) that facilitates scalable security event aggregation for comprehensive situation analysis. The introduced system provides the following three core functions: (i) periodic aggregation, (ii) on-demand aggregation, and (iii) query support for effective analysis. We describe our design and implementation of the system over MapReduce and high-level query languages, and report our experimental results collected through extensive settings on a Hadoop cluster for performance evaluation and design impacts.

Puttonen, J., Afolaranmi, S. O., Moctezuma, L. G., Lobov, A., Lastra, J. L. M..  2015.  Security in Cloud-Based Cyber-Physical Systems. 2015 10th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing (3PGCIC). :671–676.

Cyber-physical systems combine data processing and physical interaction. Therefore, security in cyber-physical systems involves more than traditional information security. This paper surveys recent research on security in cloud-based cyber-physical systems. In addition, this paper especially analyzes the security issues in modern production devices and smart mobility services, which are examples of cyber-physical systems from different application domains.