Visible to the public Biblio

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Bouzegag, Y., Teguig, D., Maali, A., Sadoudi, S..  2020.  On the Impact of SSDF Attacks in Hard Combination Schemes in Cognitive Radio Networks. 020 1st International Conference on Communications, Control Systems and Signal Processing (CCSSP). :19–24.
One of the critical threats menacing the Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CSS) in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) is the Spectrum Sensing Data Falsification (SSDF) reports, which can deceive the decision of Fusion Center (FC) about the Primary User (PU) spectrum accessibility. In CSS, each CR user performs Energy Detection (ED) technique to detect the status of licensed frequency bands of the PU. This paper investigates the performance of different hard-decision fusion schemes (OR-rule, AND-rule, and MAJORITY-rule) in the presence of Always Yes and Always No Malicious User (AYMU and ANMU) over Rayleigh and Gaussian channels. More precisely, comparative study is conducted to evaluate the impact of such malicious users in CSS on the performance of various hard data combining rules in terms of miss detection and false alarm probabilities. Furthermore, computer simulations are carried out to show that the hard-decision fusion scheme with MAJORITY-rule is the best among hard-decision combination under AYMU attacks, OR-rule has the best detection performance under ANMU.
Joykutty, A. M., Baranidharan, B..  2020.  Cognitive Radio Networks: Recent Advances in Spectrum Sensing Techniques and Security. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :878–884.
Wireless networks are very significant in the present world owing to their widespread use and its application in domains like disaster management, smart cities, IoT etc. A wireless network is made up of a group of wireless nodes that communicate with each other without using any formal infrastructure. The topology of the wireless network is not fixed and it can vary. The huge increase in the number of wireless devices is a challenge owing to the limited availability of wireless spectrum. Opportunistic spectrum access by Cognitive radio enables the efficient usage of limited spectrum resources. The unused channels assigned to the primary users may go waste in idle time. Cognitive radio systems will sense the unused channel space and assigns it temporarily for secondary users. This paper discusses about the recent trends in the two most important aspects of Cognitive radio namely spectrum sensing and security.
Morozov, M. Y., Perfilov, O. Y., Malyavina, N. V., Teryokhin, R. V., Chernova, I. V..  2020.  Combined Approach to SSDF-Attacks Mitigation in Cognitive Radio Networks. 2020 Systems of Signals Generating and Processing in the Field of on Board Communications. :1–4.
Cognitive radio systems aim to solve the issue of spectrum scarcity through implementation of dynamic spectrum management and cooperative spectrum access. However, the structure of such systems introduced unique types of vulnerabilities and attacks, one of which is spectrum sensing data falsification attack (SSDF). In such attacks malicious users provide incorrect observations to the fusion center of the system, which may result in severe quality of service degradation and interference for licensed users. In this paper we investigate this type of attacks and propose a combined approach to their mitigation. On the first step a reputational method is used to isolate the initially untrustworthy nodes, on the second step specialized q-out-of-m fusion rule is utilized to mitigate the remains of attack. In this paper we present theoretical analysis of the proposed combined method.
Thanuja, T. C., Daman, K. A., Patil, A. S..  2020.  Optimized Spectrum sensing Techniques for Enhanced Throughput in Cognitive Radio Network. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :137–141.
The wireless communication is a backbone for a development of a nation. But spectrum is finite resource and issues like spectrum scarcity, loss of signal quality, transmission delay, raised in wireless communication system due to growth of wireless applications and exponentially increased number of users. Secondary use of a spectrum using Software Defined Radio (SDR) is one of the solutions which is also supported by TRAI. The spectrum sensing is key process in communication based on secondary use of spectrum. But energy consumption, added delay, primary users security are some threats in this system. Here in this paper we mainly focused on throughput optimization in secondary use of spectrum based on optimal sensing time and number of Secondary users during cooperative spectrum sensing in Cognitive radio networks.
Venkataramana, B., Jadhav, A..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols under Black Hole Attack in Cognitive Radio Mesh Network. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :98–102.
Wireless technology is rapidly proliferating. Devices such as Laptops, PDAs and cell-phones gained a lot of importance due to the use of wireless technology. Nowadays there is also a huge demand for spectrum allocation and there is a need to utilize the maximum available spectrum in efficient manner. Cognitive Radio (CR) Network is one such intelligent radio network, designed to utilize the maximum licensed bandwidth to un-licensed users. Cognitive Radio has the capability to understand unused spectrum at a given time at a specific location. This capability helps to minimize the interference to the licensed users and improves the performance of the network. Routing protocol selection is one of the main strategies to design any wireless or wired networks. In Cognitive radio networks the selected routing protocol should be best in terms of establishing an efficient route, addressing challenges in network topology and should be able to reduce bandwidth consumption. Performance analysis of the protocols helps to select the best protocol in the network. Objective of this study is to evaluate performance of various cognitive radio network routing protocols like Spectrum Aware On Demand Routing Protocol (SORP), Spectrum Aware Mesh Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks (SAMER) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) with and without black hole attack using various performance parameters like Throughput, E2E delay and Packet delivery ratio with the help of NS2 simulator.
Taggu, Amar, Marchang, Ningrinla.  2019.  Random-Byzantine Attack Mitigation in Cognitive Radio Networks using a Multi-Hidden Markov Model System. 2019 International Conference on Electrical and Computing Technologies and Applications (ICECTA). :1—5.
Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN) are opportunistic networks which aim to harness the white space in the television frequency spectrum, on a need-to-need basis, without interfering the incumbent, called the Primary User (PU). Cognitive radios (CR) that sense the spectrum periodically for sensing the PU activity, are called Secondary Users (SU). CRNs are susceptible to two major attacks, Byzantine attacks and Primary User Emulation Attack (PUEA). Both the attacks are capable of rendering a CRN useless, by either interfering with the PU itself or capturing the entire channel for themselves. Byzantine attacks detection and mitigation is an important security issue in CRN. Hence, the current work proposes using a multi-Hidden Markov Model system with an aim to detect different types of random-Byzantine attacks. Simulation results show good detection rate across all the attacks.
Simpson, Oluyomi, Sun, Yichuang.  2019.  A Stochastic based Physical Layer Security in Cognitive Radio Networks: Cognitive Relay to Fusion Center. 2019 IEEE 38th International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC). :1—7.
Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) are found to be, without difficulty wide-open to external malicious threats. Secure communication is an important prerequisite for forthcoming fifth-generation (5G) systems, and CRs are not exempt. A framework for developing the accomplishable benefits of physical layer security (PLS) in an amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) in a cognitive radio network (CRN) using a stochastic geometry is proposed. In the CRN the spectrum sensing data from secondary users (SU) are collected by a fusion center (FC) with the assistance of access points (AP) as cognitive relays, and when malicious eavesdropping SU are listening. In this paper we focus on the secure transmission of active APs relaying their spectrum sensing data to the FC. Closed expressions for the average secrecy rate are presented. Analytical formulations and results substantiate our analysis and demonstrate that multiple antennas at the APs is capable of improving the security of an AF-CSSCRN. The obtained numerical results also show that increasing the number of FCs, leads to an increase in the secrecy rate between the AP and its correlated FC.
Chandrala, M S, Hadli, Pooja, Aishwarya, R, Jejo, Kevin C, Sunil, Y, Sure, Pallaviram.  2019.  A GUI for Wideband Spectrum Sensing using Compressive Sampling Approaches. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
Cognitive Radio is a prominent solution for effective spectral resource utilization. The rapidly growing device to device (D2D) communications and the next generation networks urge the cognitive radio networks to facilitate wideband spectrum sensing in order to assure newer spectral opportunities. As Nyquist sampling rates are formidable owing to complexity and cost of the ADCs, compressive sampling approaches are becoming increasingly popular. One such approach exploited in this paper is the Modulated Wideband Converter (MWC) to recover the spectral support. On the multiple measurement vector (MMV) framework provided by the MWC, threshold based Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Sparse Bayesian Learning (SBL) algorithms are employed for support recovery. We develop a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that assists a beginner to simulate the RF front-end of a MWC and thereby enables the user to explore support recovery as a function of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), number of measurement vectors and threshold. The GUI enables the user to explore spectrum sensing in DVB-T, 3G and 4G bands and recovers the support using OMP or SBL approach. The results show that the performance of SBL is better than that of OMP at a lower SNR values.
Simpson, Oluyomi, Sun, Yichuang.  2019.  A Stochastic Method to Physical Layer Security of an Amplify-and-Forward Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Secondary User to Relay. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :197—202.
In this paper, a framework for capitalizing on the potential benefits of physical layer security in an amplify-and-forward cooperative spectrum sensing (AF-CSS) in a cognitive radio network (CRN) using a stochastic geometry is proposed. In the CRN network the sensing data from secondary users (SUs) are collected by a fusion center (FC) with the help of access points (AP) as relays, and when malicious eavesdropping secondary users (SUs) are listening. We focus on the secure transmission of active SUs transmitting their sensing data to the AP. Closed expressions for the average secrecy rate are presented. Numerical results corroborate our analysis and show that multiple antennas at the APs can enhance the security of the AF-CSS-CRN. The obtained numerical results show that average secrecy rate between the AP and its correlated FC decreases when the number of AP is increased. Nevertheless, we find that an increase in the number of AP initially increases the overall average secrecy rate, with a perilous value at which the overall average secrecy rate then decreases. While increasing the number of active SUs, there is a decrease in the secrecy rate between the sensor and its correlated AP.
Srinu, Sesham, Reddy, M. Kranthi Kumar, Temaneh-Nyah, Clement.  2019.  Physical layer security against cooperative anomaly attack using bivariate data in distributed CRNs. 2019 11th International Conference on Communication Systems Networks (COMSNETS). :410—413.
Wireless communication network (WCN) performance is primarily depends on physical layer security which is critical among all other layers of OSI network model. It is typically prone to anomaly/malicious user's attacks owing to openness of wireless channels. Cognitive radio networking (CRN) is a recently emerged wireless technology that is having numerous security challenges because of its unlicensed access of wireless channels. In CRNs, the security issues occur mainly during spectrum sensing and is more pronounced during distributed spectrum sensing. In recent past, various anomaly effects are modelled and developed detectors by applying advanced statistical techniques. Nevertheless, many of these detectors have been developed based on sensing data of one variable (energy measurement) and degrades their performance drastically when the data is contaminated with multiple anomaly nodes, that attack the network cooperatively. Hence, one has to develop an efficient multiple anomaly detection algorithm to eliminate all possible cooperative attacks. To achieve this, in this work, the impact of anomaly on detection probability is verified beforehand in developing an efficient algorithm using bivariate data to detect possible attacks with mahalanobis distance measure. Result discloses that detection error of cooperative attacks by anomaly has significant impact on eigenvalue-based sensing.
Chao, Chih-Min, Lee, Wei-Che, Wang, Cong-Xiang, Huang, Shin-Chung, Yang, Yu-Chich.  2018.  A Flexible Anti-Jamming Channel Hopping for Cognitive Radio Networks. 2018 Sixth International Symposium on Computing and Networking Workshops (CANDARW). :549-551.

In cognitive radio networks (CRNs), secondary users (SUs) are vulnerable to malicious attacks because an SU node's opportunistic access cannot be protected from adversaries. How to design a channel hopping scheme to protect SU nodes from jamming attacks is thus an important issue in CRNs. Existing anti-jamming channel hopping schemes have some limitations: Some require SU nodes to exchange secrets in advance; some require an SU node to be either a receiver or a sender, and some are not flexible enough. Another issue for existing anti-jamming channel hopping schemes is that they do not consider different nodes may have different traffic loads. In this paper, we propose an anti-jamming channel hopping protocol, Load Awareness Anti-jamming channel hopping (LAA) scheme. Nodes running LAA are able to change their channel hopping sequences based on their sending and receiving traffic. Simulation results verify that LAA outperforms existing anti-jamming schemes.

Bouabdellah, Mounia, Ghribi, Elias, Kaabouch, Naima.  2019.  RSS-Based Localization with Maximum Likelihood Estimation for PUE Attacker Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :1-6.

With the rapid proliferation of mobile users, the spectrum scarcity has become one of the issues that have to be addressed. Cognitive Radio technology addresses this problem by allowing an opportunistic use of the spectrum bands. In cognitive radio networks, unlicensed users can use licensed channels without causing harmful interference to licensed users. However, cognitive radio networks can be subject to different security threats which can cause severe performance degradation. One of the main attacks on these networks is the primary user emulation in which a malicious node emulates the characteristics of the primary user signals. In this paper, we propose a detection technique of this attack based on the RSS-based localization with the maximum likelihood estimation. The simulation results show that the proposed technique outperforms the RSS-based localization method in detecting the primary user emulation attacker.

Bouabdellah, Mounia, El Bouanani, Faissal, Ben-azza, Hussain.  2018.  Secrecy Outage Performance for Dual-Hop Underlay Cognitive Radio System over Nakagami-m Fading. Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on Smart Digital Environment. :70–75.

In this paper, the security performance of a dual-hop underlay cognitive radio (CR) system is investigated. In this system, we consider that the transmitted information by a source node S is forwarded by a multi-antenna relay R to its intended destination D. The relay performs the maximal-ratio combining (MRC) technique to process the multiple copies of the received signal. We also consider the presence of an eavesdropper who is attempting to intercept the transmitted information at both communication links, (i.e, S-R and R-D). In underlay cognitive radio networks (CRN), the source and the relay are required to adjust their transmission power to avoid causing interference to the primary user. Under this constraint, a closed-form expression of the secrecy outage probability is derived subject to Nakagami-m fading model. The derived expression is validated using Monte-Carlo simulation for various values of fading severity parameters as well as the number of MRC branches.

Sadkhan, S. B., Reda, D. M..  2018.  Cryptosystem Security Evaluation Based on Diagonal Game and Information Theory. 2018 International Conference on Engineering Technology and their Applications (IICETA). :118–123.

security evaluation of cryptosystem is a critical topic in cryptology. It is used to differentiate among cryptosystems' security. The aim of this paper is to produce a new model for security evaluation of cryptosystems, which is a combination of two theories (Game Theory and Information Theory). The result of evaluation method can help researchers to choose the appropriate cryptosystems in Wireless Communications Networks such as Cognitive Radio Networks.

HamlAbadi, K. G., Saghiri, A. M., Vahdati, M., TakhtFooladi, M. Dehghan, Meybodi, M. R..  2017.  A Framework for Cognitive Recommender Systems in the Internet of Things (IoT). 2017 IEEE 4th International Conference on Knowledge-Based Engineering and Innovation (KBEI). :0971–0976.

Internet of Things (IoT) will be emerged over many of devices that are dynamically networked. Because of distributed and dynamic nature of IoT, designing a recommender system for them is a challenging problem. Recently, cognitive systems are used to design modern frameworks in different types of computer applications such as cognitive radio networks and cognitive peer-to-peer networks. A cognitive system can learn to improve its performance while operating under its unknown environment. In this paper, we propose a framework for cognitive recommender systems in IoT. To the best of our knowledge, there is no recommender system based on cognitive systems in the IoT. The proposed algorithm is compared with the existing recommender systems.

Chen, W., Hong, L., Shetty, S., Lo, D., Cooper, R..  2016.  Cross-Layered Security Approach with Compromised Nodes Detection in Cooperative Sensor Networks. 2016 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium Workshops (IPDPSW). :499–508.

Cooperative MIMO communication is a promising technology which enables realistic solution for improving communication performance with MIMO technique in wireless networks that are composed of size and cost constrained devices. However, the security problems inherent to cooperative communication also arise. Cryptography can ensure the confidentiality in the communication and routing between authorized participants, but it usually cannot prevent the attacks from compromised nodes which may corrupt communications by sending garbled signals. In this paper, we propose a cross-layered approach to enhance the security in query-based cooperative MIMO sensor networks. The approach combines efficient cryptographic technique implemented in upper layer with a novel information theory based compromised nodes detection algorithm in physical layer. In the detection algorithm, a cluster of K cooperative nodes are used to identify up to K - 1 active compromised nodes. When the compromised nodes are detected, the key revocation is performed to isolate the compromised nodes and reconfigure the cooperative MIMO sensor network. During this process, beamforming is used to avoid the information leaking. The proposed security scheme can be easily modified and applied to cognitive radio networks. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm for compromised nodes detection is effective and efficient, and the accuracy of received information is significantly improved.

Wang, M., Li, Z., Lin, Y..  2017.  A Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Cognitive Radio Networks Based on Evidence Theory. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :226–232.

Reliable detection of intrusion is the basis of safety in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). So far, few scholars applied intrusion detection systems (IDSs) to combat intrusion against CRNs. In order to improve the performance of intrusion detection in CRNs, a distributed intrusion detection scheme has been proposed. In this paper, a method base on Dempster-Shafer's (D-S) evidence theory to detect intrusion in CRNs is put forward, in which the detection data and credibility of different local IDS Agent is combined by D-S in the cooperative detection center, so that different local detection decisions are taken into consideration in the final decision. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified by simulation, and the results reflect a noticeable performance improvement between the proposed scheme and the traditional method.

Fihri, W. F., Ghazi, H. E., Kaabouch, N., Majd, B. A. E..  2017.  Bayesian decision model with trilateration for primary user emulation attack localization in cognitive radio networks. 2017 International Symposium on Networks, Computers and Communications (ISNCC). :1–6.

Primary user emulation (PUE) attack is one of the main threats affecting cognitive radio (CR) networks. The PUE can forge the same signal as the real primary user (PU) in order to use the licensed channel and cause deny of service (DoS). Therefore, it is important to locate the position of the PUE in order to stop and avoid any further attack. Several techniques have been proposed for localization, including the received signal strength indication RSSI, Triangulation, and Physical Network Layer Coding. However, the area surrounding the real PU is always affected by uncertainty. This uncertainty can be described as a lost (cost) function and conditional probability to be taken into consideration while proclaiming if a PU/PUE is the real PU or not. In this paper, we proposed a combination of a Bayesian model and trilateration technique. In the first part a trilateration technique is used to have a good approximation of the PUE position making use of the RSSI between the anchor nodes and the PU/PUE. In the second part, a Bayesian decision theory is used to claim the legitimacy of the PU based on the lost function and the conditional probability to help to determine the existence of the PUE attacker in the uncertainty area.

Shehzad, Muhammad Karam, Ahmed, Abbirah.  2016.  Unified Analysis of Semi-Blind Spectrum Sensing Techniques Under Low-SNR for CRNWs. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Signal Processing Systems. :208–211.

Spectrum sensing (signal detection) under low signal to noise ratio is a fundamental problem in cognitive radio networks. In this paper, we have analyzed maximum eigenvalue detection (MED) and energy detection (ED) techniques known as semi-blind spectrum sensing techniques. Simulations are performed by using independent and identically distributed (iid) signals to verify the results. Maximum eigenvalue detection algorithm exploits correlation in received signal samples and hence, performs same as energy detection algorithm under high signal to noise ratio. Energy detection performs well under low signal to noise ratio for iid signals and its performance reaches maximum eigenvalue detection under high signal to noise ratio. Both algorithms don't need any prior knowledge of primary user signal for detection and hence can be used in various applications.

Li, Jiaxun, Zhao, Haitao, Wang, Haijun, Zhou, Li, Wei, Jibo.  2016.  Multi-channel Access and Rendezvous in CRNs: Demo. Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing. :353–354.

Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising technology to increase the utilization of spectrum resource. A pivotal challenge in CR lies on secondary users' (SU) finding each other on the frequency band, i.e., the spectrum locating. In this demo, we implement two kinds of multi-channel rendezvous technology to solve the problem of spectrum locating: (i) the common control channel (CCC) based rendezvous scheme, which is simple and effective when a control channel is always available; and (ii) the channel-hopping (CH) based blind rendezvous, which could also obtain guaranteed rendezvous on all commonly available channels of pairwise SUs in a short time without a CCC. Furthermore, the cognitive nodes in the demonstration could adjust their communication channels autonomously according to the dynamic spectrum environment for continuous data transmission.

Cardoso, L.S., Massouri, A., Guillon, B., Ferrand, P., Hutu, F., Villemaud, G., Risset, T., Gorce, J.-M..  2014.  CorteXlab: A facility for testing cognitive radio networks in a reproducible environment. Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CROWNCOM), 2014 9th International Conference on. :503-507.

While many theoretical and simulation works have highlighted the potential gains of cognitive radio, several technical issues still need to be evaluated from an experimental point of view. Deploying complex heterogeneous system scenarios is tedious, time consuming and hardly reproducible. To address this problem, we have developed a new experimental facility, called CorteXlab, that allows complex multi-node cognitive radio scenarios to be easily deployed and tested by anyone in the world. Our objective is not to design new software defined radio (SDR) nodes, but rather to provide a comprehensive access to a large set of high performance SDR nodes. The CorteXlab facility offers a 167 m2 electromagnetically (EM) shielded room and integrates a set of 24 universal software radio peripherals (USRPs) from National Instruments, 18 PicoSDR nodes from Nutaq and 42 IoT-Lab wireless sensor nodes from Hikob. CorteXlab is built upon the foundations of the SensLAB testbed and is based the free and open-source toolkit GNU Radio. Automation in scenario deployment, experiment start, stop and results collection is performed by an experiment controller, called Minus. CorteXlab is in its final stages of development and is already capable of running test scenarios. In this contribution, we show that CorteXlab is able to easily cope with the usual issues faced by other testbeds providing a reproducible experiment environment for CR experimentation.