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2021-02-23
Khan, M., Rehman, O., Rahman, I. M. H., Ali, S..  2020.  Lightweight Testbed for Cybersecurity Experiments in SCADA-based Systems. 2020 International Conference on Computing and Information Technology (ICCIT-1441). :1—5.

A rapid rise in cyber-attacks on Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been observed in the last decade. It becomes even more concerning that several of these attacks were on critical infrastructures that indeed succeeded and resulted into significant physical and financial damages. Experimental testbeds capable of providing flexible, scalable and interoperable platform for executing various cybersecurity experiments is highly in need by all stakeholders. A container-based SCADA testbed is presented in this work as a potential platform for executing cybersecurity experiments. Through this testbed, a network traffic containing ARP spoofing is generated that represents a Man in the middle (MITM) attack. While doing so, scanning of different systems within the network is performed which represents a reconnaissance attack. The network traffic generated by both ARP spoofing and network scanning are captured and further used for preparing a dataset. The dataset is utilized for training a network classification model through a machine learning algorithm. Performance of the trained model is evaluated through a series of tests where promising results are obtained.

2021-02-15
Av, N., Kumar, N. A..  2020.  Image Encryption Using Genetic Algorithm and Bit-Slice Rotation. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
Cryptography is a powerful means of delivering information in a secure manner. Over the years, many image encryption algorithms have been proposed based on the chaotic system to protect the digital image against cryptography attacks. In chaotic encryption, it jumbles the image to vary the framework of the image. This makes it difficult for the attacker to retrieve the original image. This paper introduces an efficient image encryption algorithm incorporating the genetic algorithm, bit plane slicing and bit plane rotation of the digital image. The digital image is sliced into eight planes and each plane is well rotated to give a fully encrypted image after the application of the Genetic Algorithm on each pixel of the image. This makes it less prone to attacks. For decryption, we perform the operations in the reverse order. The performance of this algorithm is measured using various similarity measures like Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM). The results exhibit that the proposed scheme provides a stronger level of encryption and an enhanced security level.
Lakshmanan, S. K., Shakkeera, L., Pandimurugan, V..  2020.  Efficient Auto key based Encryption and Decryption using GICK and GDCK methods. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :1102–1106.
Security services and share information is provided by the computer network. The computer network is by default there is not security. The Attackers can use this provision to hack and steal private information. Confidentiality, creation, changes, and truthful of data is will be big problems in the network. Many types of research have given many methods regarding this, from these methods Generating Initial Chromosome Key called Generating Dynamic Chromosome Key (GDCK), which is a novel approach. With the help of the RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman) algorithm, GICK and GDCK have created an initial key. The proposed method has produced new techniques using genetic fitness function for the sender and receiver. The outcome of GICK and GDCK has been verified by NIST (National Institute of Standards Technology) tools and analyzes randomness of auto-generated keys with various methods. The proposed system has involved three examines; it has been yield better P-Values 6.44, 7.05, and 8.05 while comparing existing methods.
Bisht, K., Deshmukh, M..  2020.  Encryption algorithm based on knight’s tour and n-neighbourhood addition. 2020 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN). :31–36.
This paper presents a new algorithm for image encryption by extending the Knight's Tour Problem (KTP). The idea behind the proposed algorithm is to generate a Knight Tour (KT) matrix (m,n) and then divide the image according to the size of knight tour matrix into several sub matrices. Finally, apply n-neighborhood addition modulo encryption algorithm according to the solution of KT matrix over each m × n partition of the image. The proposed algorithm provides image encryption without using the cover images. Results obtained from experiments have shown that the proposed algorithm is efficient, simple and does not disclose any information from encrypted image.
Rabieh, K., Mercan, S., Akkaya, K., Baboolal, V., Aygun, R. S..  2020.  Privacy-Preserving and Efficient Sharing of Drone Videos in Public Safety Scenarios using Proxy Re-encryption. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :45–52.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) also known as drones are being used in many applications where they can record or stream videos. One interesting application is the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and public safety applications where drones record videos and send them to a control center for further analysis. These videos are shared by various clients such as law enforcement or emergency personnel. In such cases, the recording might include faces of civilians or other sensitive information that might pose privacy concerns. While the video can be encrypted and stored in the cloud that way, it can still be accessed once the keys are exposed to third parties which is completely insecure. To prevent such insecurity, in this paper, we propose proxy re-encryption based sharing scheme to enable third parties to access only limited videos without having the original encryption key. The costly pairing operations in proxy re-encryption are not used to allow rapid access and delivery of the surveillance videos to third parties. The key management is handled by a trusted control center, which acts as the proxy to re-encrypt the data. We implemented and tested the approach in a realistic simulation environment using different resolutions under ns-3. The implementation results and comparisons indicate that there is an acceptable overhead while it can still preserve the privacy of drivers and passengers.
Chen, Z., Chen, J., Meng, W..  2020.  A New Dynamic Conditional Proxy Broadcast Re-Encryption Scheme for Cloud Storage and Sharing. 2020 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :569–576.
Security of cloud storage and sharing is concerned for years since a semi-trusted party, Cloud Server Provider (CSP), has access to user data on cloud server that may leak users' private data without constraint. Intuitively, an efficient solution of protecting cloud data is to encrypt it before uploading to the cloud server. However, a new requirement, data sharing, makes it difficult to manage secret keys among data owners and target users. Therefore conditional proxy broadcast re-encryption technology (CPBRE) is proposed in recent years to provide data encryption and sharing approaches for cloud environment. It enables a data owner to upload encrypted data to the cloud server and a third party proxy can re-encrypted cloud data under certain condition to a new ciphertext so that target users can decrypt re-encrypted data using their own private key. But few CPBRE schemes are applicable for a dynamic cloud environment. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic conditional proxy broadcast reencryption scheme that can be dynamic in system user setting and target user group. The initialization phase does not require a fixed system user setup so that users can join or leave the system in any time. And data owner can dynamically change the group of user he wants to share data with. We also provide security analysis which proves our scheme to be secure against CSP, and performance analysis shows that our scheme exceeds other schemes in terms of functionality and resource cost.
Huang, K..  2020.  Online/Offline Revocable Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Encryption for Edge Computing. 2020 12th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA). :563–568.
Multi-authority attribute-based encryption (MA-ABE) is a promising technique to achieve fine-grained access control over encrypted data in cross domain applications. However, the dynamic change of users' access privilege brings security problems, and the heavy encryption computational cost is issue for resource-constrained users in IoT. Moreover, the invalid or illegal ciphertext will waste system resources. We propose a large universe MA-CP-ABE scheme with revocation and online/offline encryption. In our scheme, an efficient revocation mechanism is designed to change users' access privilege timely. Most of the encryption operations have been executed in the user's initialization phase by adding reusable ciphertext pool besides splitting the encryption algorithm to online encryption and offline encryption. Moreover, the scheme supports ciphertext verification and only valid ciphertext can be stored and transmitted. The proposed scheme is proven statically secure under the q-DPBDHE2 assumption. The performance analysis results indicate that the proposed scheme is efficient and suitable for resource constrained users in edge computing for IoT.
Zhu, L., Zhou, X., Zhang, X..  2020.  A Reversible Meaningful Image Encryption Scheme Based on Block Compressive Sensing. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Information Communication and Signal Processing (ICICSP). :326–330.
An efficient and reversible meaningful image encryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The plain image is first compressed and encrypted simultaneously by Adaptive Block Compressive Sensing (ABCS) framework to create a noise-like secret image. Next, Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding is employed to embed the secret image into a carrier image to generate the final meaningful cipher image. In this scheme, ABCS improves the compression and efficiency performance, and the embedding and extraction operations are absolutely reversible. The simulation results and security analyses are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness, compression, secrecy of the proposed scheme.
Reshma, S., Shaila, K., Venugopal, K. R..  2020.  DEAVD - Data Encryption and Aggregation using Voronoi Diagram for Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :635–638.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are applied in environmental monitoring, military surveillance, etc., whereas these applications focuses on providing security for sensed data and the nodes are available for a long time. Hence, we propose DEAVD protocol for secure data exchange with limited usage of energy. The DEAVD protocol compresses data to reduces the energy consumption and implements an energy efficient encryption and decryption technique using voronoi diagram paradigm. Thus, there is an improvement in the proposed protocol with respect to security due to the concept adapted during data encryption and aggregation.
Zhang, Z., Wang, Z., Li, S..  2020.  Research and Implementation on an Efficient Public Key Encryption Algorithm with Keyword Search Scheme. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA). :314–319.
With the rapid development of network storage service, a number of companies and individuals have stored data on a third-party server. Encryption is an effective means of protecting the confidentiality and privacy of data, but retrieval on the encrypted data is a very difficult task. Thus, searchable encryption has become a hot topic in recent years. The paper first introduces the existing searchable encryption algorithms. Then studies the new PEKS scheme (NPEKS) and analyzes its performance and efficiency. In the end, based on NPEKS, introduced attribute encryption, designed a scheme which is suitable for corporate cloud storage environment. This scheme not only has the advantages of simplicity and efficiency, but also can realize the secret retrieval of the third-party data. Experiments show that comparing with existing PEKS schemes and other improved schemes, this scheme has the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency. In addition, its security is the same as existing PEKS schemes.
Drakopoulos, G., Giotopoulos, K., Giannoukou, I., Sioutas, S..  2020.  Unsupervised Discovery Of Semantically Aware Communities With Tensor Kruskal Decomposition: A Case Study In Twitter. 2020 15th International Workshop on Semantic and Social Media Adaptation and Personalization (SMA. :1–8.
Substantial empirical evidence, including the success of synthetic graph generation models as well as of analytical methodologies, suggests that large, real graphs have a recursive community structure. The latter results, in part at least, in other important properties of these graphs such as low diameter, high clustering coefficient values, heavy degree distribution tail, and clustered graph spectrum. Notice that this structure need not be official or moderated like Facebook groups, but it can also take an ad hoc and unofficial form depending on the functionality of the social network under study as for instance the follow relationship on Twitter or the connections between news aggregators on Reddit. Community discovery is paramount in numerous applications such as political campaigns, digital marketing, crowdfunding, and fact checking. Here a tensor representation for Twitter subgraphs is proposed which takes into consideration both the followfollower relationships but also the coherency in hashtags. Community structure discovery then reduces to the computation of Tucker tensor decomposition, a higher order counterpart of the well-known unsupervised learning method of singular value decomposition (SVD). Tucker decomposition clearly outperforms the SVD in terms of finding a more compact community size distribution in experiments done in Julia on a Twitter subgraph. This can be attributed to the facts that the proposed methodology combines both structural and functional Twitter elements and that hashtags carry an increased semantic weight in comparison to ordinary tweets.
Liang, Y., Bai, L., Shao, J., Cheng, Y..  2020.  Application of Tensor Decomposition Methods In Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography Sequences Processing. 2020 International Conference on Sensing, Measurement Data Analytics in the era of Artificial Intelligence (ICSMD). :401–406.
Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography (ECPT) is widely used in Nondestructive Testing (NDT) of metal defects where the defect information is sometimes affected by coil noise and edge noise, therefore, it is necessary to segment the ECPT image sequences to improve the detection effect, that is, segmenting the defect part from the background. At present, the methods widely used in ECPT are mostly based on matrix decomposition theory. In fact, tensor decomposition is a new hotspot in the field of image segmentation and has been widely used in many image segmentation scenes, but it is not a general method in ECPT. This paper analyzes the feasibility of the usage of tensor decomposition in ECPT and designs several experiments on different samples to verify the effects of two popular tensor decomposition algorithms in ECPT. This paper also compares the matrix decomposition methods and the tensor decomposition methods in terms of treatment effect, time cost, detection success rate, etc. Through the experimental results, this paper points out the advantages and disadvantages of tensor decomposition methods in ECPT and analyzes the suitable engineering application scenarios of tensor decomposition in ECPT.
Omori, T., Isono, Y., Kondo, K., Akamine, Y., Kidera, S..  2020.  k-Space Decomposition Based Super-resolution Three-dimensional Imaging Method for Millimeter Wave Radar. 2020 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf20). :1–6.
Millimeter wave imaging radar is indispensible for collision avoidance of self-driving system, especially in optically blurred visions. The range points migration (RPM) is one of the most promising imaging algorithms, which provides a number of advantages from synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in terms of accuracy, computational complexity, and potential for multifunctional imaging. The inherent problem in the RPM is that it suffers from lower angular resolution in narrower frequency band even if higher frequency e.g. millimeter wave, signal is exploited. To address this problem, the k-space decomposition based RPM has been developed. This paper focuses on the experimental validation of this method using the X-band or millimeter wave radar system, and demonstrated that our method significantly enhances the reconstruction accuracy in three-dimensional images for the two simple spheres and realistic vehicle targets.
Myasnikova, N., Beresten, M. P., Myasnikova, M. G..  2020.  Development of Decomposition Methods for Empirical Modes Based on Extremal Filtration. 2020 Moscow Workshop on Electronic and Networking Technologies (MWENT). :1–4.
The method of extremal filtration implementing the decomposition of signals into alternating components is considered. The history of the method development is described, its mathematical substantiation is given. The method suggests signal decomposition based on the removal of known components locally determined by their extrema. The similarity of the method with empirical modes decomposition in terms of the result is shown, and their comparison is also carried out. The algorithm of extremal filtration has a simple mathematical basis that does not require the calculation of transcendental functions, which provides it with higher performance with comparable results. The advantages and disadvantages of the extremal filtration method are analyzed, and the possibility of its application for solving various technical problems is shown, i.e. the formation of diagnostic features, rapid analysis of signals, spectral and time-frequency analysis, etc. The methods for calculating spectral characteristics are described: by the parameters of the distinguished components, based on the approximation on the extrema by bell-shaped pulses. The method distribution in case of wavelet transform of signals is described. The method allows obtaining rapid evaluation of the frequencies and amplitudes (powers) of the components, which can be used as diagnostic features in solving problems of recognition, diagnosis and monitoring. The possibility of using extremal filtration in real-time systems is shown.
Wu, Y., Olson, G. F., Peretti, L., Wallmark, O..  2020.  Harmonic Plane Decomposition: An Extension of the Vector-Space Decomposition - Part I. IECON 2020 The 46th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :985–990.
In this first paper of a two-part series, the harmonic plane decomposition is introduced, which is an extension of the vector-space decomposition. In multiphase electrical machines with variable phase-pole configurations, the vector-space decomposition leads to a varying numbers of vector spaces when changing the configuration. Consequently, the model and current control become discontinuous. The method in this paper is based on samples of each single slot currents, similarly to a discrete Fourier transformation in the space domain that accounts for the winding configuration. It unifies the Clarke transformation for all possible phase-pole configurations such that a fixed number of orthogonal harmonic planes are created, which facilitates the current control during reconfigurations. The presented method is not only limited to the modeling of multiphase electrical machines but all kinds of existing machines can be modeled. In the second part of this series, the harmonic plane decomposition will be completed for all types of machine configurations.
Hu, X., Deng, C., Yuan, B..  2020.  Reduced-Complexity Singular Value Decomposition For Tucker Decomposition: Algorithm And Hardware. ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :1793–1797.
Tensors, as the multidimensional generalization of matrices, are naturally suited for representing and processing high-dimensional data. To date, tensors have been widely adopted in various data-intensive applications, such as machine learning and big data analysis. However, due to the inherent large-size characteristics of tensors, tensor algorithms, as the approaches that synthesize, transform or decompose tensors, are very computation and storage expensive, thereby hindering the potential further adoptions of tensors in many application scenarios, especially on the resource-constrained hardware platforms. In this paper, we propose a reduced-complexity SVD (Singular Vector Decomposition) scheme, which serves as the key operation in Tucker decomposition. By using iterative self-multiplication, the proposed scheme can significantly reduce the storage and computational costs of SVD, thereby reducing the complexity of the overall process. Then, corresponding hardware architecture is developed with 28nm CMOS technology. Our synthesized design can achieve 102GOPS with 1.09 mm2 area and 37.6 mW power consumption, and thereby providing a promising solution for accelerating Tucker decomposition.
Doğu, S., Alidoustaghdam, H., Dilman, İ, Akıncı, M. N..  2020.  The Capability of Truncated Singular Value Decomposition Method for Through the Wall Microwave Imaging. 2020 IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques in Wireless Communications (MTTW). 1:76–81.
In this study, a truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) based computationally efficient through the wall imaging (TWI) is addressed. Mainly, two different scenarios with identical and non-identical multiple scatterers behind the wall have been considered. The scattered data are processed with special scheme in order to improve quality of the results and measurements are performed at four different frequencies. Next, effects of selecting truncation threshold in TSVD methods are analyzed and a detailed quantitative comparison is provided to demonstrate capabilities of these TSVD methods over selection of truncation threshold.
Hemmati, A., Nasiri, H., Haeri, M. A., Ebadzadeh, M. M..  2020.  A Novel Correlation-Based CUR Matrix Decomposition Method. 2020 6th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :172–176.
Web data such as documents, images, and videos are examples of large matrices. To deal with such matrices, one may use matrix decomposition techniques. As such, CUR matrix decomposition is an important approximation technique for high-dimensional data. It approximates a data matrix by selecting a few of its rows and columns. However, a problem faced by most CUR decomposition matrix methods is that they ignore the correlation among columns (rows), which gives them lesser chance to be selected; even though, they might be appropriate candidates for basis vectors. In this paper, a novel CUR matrix decomposition method is proposed, in which calculation of the correlation, boosts the chance of selecting such columns (rows). Experimental results indicate that in comparison with other methods, this one has had higher accuracy in matrix approximation.
Rana, M. M., Mehedie, A. M. Alam, Abdelhadi, A..  2020.  Optimal Image Watermark Technique Using Singular Value Decomposition with PCA. 2020 22nd International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :342–347.
Image watermarking is very important phenomenon in modern society where intellectual property right of information is necessary. Considering this impending problem, there are many image watermarking methods exist in the literature each of having some key advantages and disadvantages. After summarising state-of-the-art literature survey, an optimum digital watermark technique using singular value decomposition with principle component analysis (PCA) is proposed and verified. Basically, the host image is compressed using PCA which reduces multi-dimensional data to effective low-dimensional information. In this scheme, the watermark is embedded using the discrete wavelet transformation-singular value decomposition approach. Simulation results show that the proposed method improves the system performance compared with the existing method in terms of the watermark embedding, and extraction time. Therefore, this work is valuable for image watermarking in modern life such as tracing copyright infringements and banknote authentication.
Uzhga-Rebrov, O., Kuleshova, G..  2020.  Using Singular Value Decomposition to Reduce Dimensionality of Initial Data Set. 2020 61st International Scientific Conference on Information Technology and Management Science of Riga Technical University (ITMS). :1–4.
The purpose of any data analysis is to extract essential information implicitly present in the data. To do this, it often seems necessary to transform the initial data into a form that allows one to identify and interpret the essential features of their structure. One of the most important tasks of data analysis is to reduce the dimension of the original data. The paper considers an approach to solving this problem based on singular value decomposition (SVD).
2021-02-03
Velaora, M., Roy, R. van, Guéna, F..  2020.  ARtect, an augmented reality educational prototype for architectural design. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :110—115.

ARtect is an Augmented Reality application developed with Unity 3D, which envisions an educational interactive and immersive tool for architects, designers, researchers, and artists. This digital instrument renders the competency to visualize custom-made 3D models and 2D graphics in interior and exterior environments. The user-friendly interface offers an accurate insight before the materialization of any architectural project, enabling evaluation of the design proposal. This practice could be integrated into learning architectural design process, saving resources of printed drawings, and 3D carton models during several stages of spatial conception.

Clark, D. J., Turnbull, B..  2020.  Experiment Design for Complex Immersive Visualisation. 2020 Military Communications and Information Systems Conference (MilCIS). :1—5.

Experimentation focused on assessing the value of complex visualisation approaches when compared with alternative methods for data analysis is challenging. The interaction between participant prior knowledge and experience, a diverse range of experimental or real-world data sets and a dynamic interaction with the display system presents challenges when seeking timely, affordable and statistically relevant experimentation results. This paper outlines a hybrid approach proposed for experimentation with complex interactive data analysis tools, specifically for computer network traffic analysis. The approach involves a structured survey completed after free engagement with the software platform by expert participants. The survey captures objective and subjective data points relating to the experience with the goal of making an assessment of software performance which is supported by statistically significant experimental results. This work is particularly applicable to field of network analysis for cyber security and also military cyber operations and intelligence data analysis.

Aliman, N.-M., Kester, L..  2020.  Malicious Design in AIVR, Falsehood and Cybersecurity-oriented Immersive Defenses. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR). :130—137.

Advancements in the AI field unfold tremendous opportunities for society. Simultaneously, it becomes increasingly important to address emerging ramifications. Thereby, the focus is often set on ethical and safe design forestalling unintentional failures. However, cybersecurity-oriented approaches to AI safety additionally consider instantiations of intentional malice – including unethical malevolent AI design. Recently, an analogous emphasis on malicious actors has been expressed regarding security and safety for virtual reality (VR). In this vein, while the intersection of AI and VR (AIVR) offers a wide array of beneficial cross-fertilization possibilities, it is responsible to anticipate future malicious AIVR design from the onset on given the potential socio-psycho-technological impacts. For a simplified illustration, this paper analyzes the conceivable use case of Generative AI (here deepfake techniques) utilized for disinformation in immersive journalism. In our view, defenses against such future AIVR safety risks related to falsehood in immersive settings should be transdisciplinarily conceived from an immersive co-creation stance. As a first step, we motivate a cybersecurity-oriented procedure to generate defenses via immersive design fictions. Overall, there may be no panacea but updatable transdisciplinary tools including AIVR itself could be used to incrementally defend against malicious actors in AIVR.

Lee, J..  2020.  CanvasMirror: Secure Integration of Third-Party Libraries in a WebVR Environment. 2020 50th Annual IEEE-IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks-Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :75—76.

Web technology has evolved to offer 360-degree immersive browsing experiences. This new technology, called WebVR, enables virtual reality by rendering a three-dimensional world on an HTML canvas. Unfortunately, there exists no browser-supported way of sharing this canvas between different parties. As a result, third-party library providers with ill intent (e.g., stealing sensitive information from end-users) can easily distort the entire WebVR site. To mitigate the new threats posed in WebVR, we propose CanvasMirror, which allows publishers to specify the behaviors of third-party libraries and enforce this specification. We show that CanvasMirror effectively separates the third-party context from the host origin by leveraging the privilege separation technique and safely integrates VR contents on a shared canvas.

Bahaei, S. Sheikh.  2020.  A Framework for Risk Assessment in Augmented Reality-Equipped Socio-Technical Systems. 2020 50th Annual IEEE-IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks-Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :77—78.

New technologies, such as augmented reality (AR) are used to enhance human capabilities and extend human functioning; nevertheless they may cause distraction and incorrect human functioning. Systems including socio entities (such as human) and technical entities (such as augmented reality) are called socio-technical systems. In order to do risk assessment in such systems, considering new dependability threats caused by augmented reality is essential, for example failure of an extended human function is a new type of dependability threat introduced to the system because of new technologies. In particular, it is required to identify these new dependability threats and extend modeling and analyzing techniques to be able to uncover their potential impacts. This research aims at providing a framework for risk assessment in AR-equipped socio-technical systems by identifying AR-extended human failures and AR-caused faults leading to human failures. Our work also extends modeling elements in an existing metamodel for modeling socio-technical systems, to enable AR-relevant dependability threats modeling. This extended metamodel is expected to be used for extending analysis techniques to analyze AR-equipped socio-technical systems.