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Mishra, Shilpi, Arora, Himanshu, Parakh, Garvit, Khandelwal, Jayesh.  2022.  Contribution of Blockchain in Development of Metaverse. 2022 7th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :845–850.
Metaverse is becoming the new standard for social networks and 3D virtual worlds when Facebook officially rebranded to Metaverse in October 2021. Many relevant technologies are used in the metaverse to offer 3D immersive and customized experiences at the user’s fingertips. Despite the fact that the metaverse receives a lot of attention and advantages, one of the most pressing concerns for its users is the safety of their digital material and data. As a result of its decentralization, immutability, and transparency, blockchain is a possible alternative. Our goal is to conduct a comprehensive assessment of blockchain systems in the metaverse to properly appreciate its function in the metaverse. To begin with, the paper introduces blockchain and the metaverse and explains why it’s necessary for the metaverse to adopt blockchain technology. Aside from these technological considerations, this article focuses on how blockchain-based approaches for the metaverse may be used from a privacy and security standpoint. There are several technological challenegs that need to be addressed for making the metaverse a reality. The influence of blockchain on important key technologies with in metaverse, such as Artifical Intelligence, big data and the Internet-of-Things (IoT) is also examined. Several prominent initiatives are also shown to demonstrate the importance of blockchain technology in the development of metaverse apps and services. There are many possible possibilities for future development and research in the application of blockchain technology in the metaverse.
Sun, Chuang, Cao, Junwei, Huo, Ru, Du, Lei, Cheng, Xiangfeng.  2022.  Metaverse Applications in Energy Internet. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :7–12.
With the increasing number of distributed energy sources and the growing demand for free exchange of energy, Energy internet (EI) is confronted with great challenges of persistent connection, stable transmission, real-time interaction, and security. The new definition of metaverse in the EI field is proposed as a potential solution for these challenges by establishing a massive and comprehensive fusion 3D network, which can be considered as the advanced stage of EI. The main characteristics of the metaverse such as reality to virtualization, interaction, persistence, and immersion are introduced. Specifically, we present the key enabling technologies of the metaverse including virtual reality, artificial intelligence, blockchain, and digital twin. Meanwhile, the potential applications are presented from the perspectives of immersive user experience, virtual power station, management, energy trading, new business, device maintenance. Finally, some challenges of metaverse in EI are concluded.
Xu, Xinyun, Li, Bing, Wang, Yuhao.  2022.  Exploration of the principle of 6G communication technology and its development prospect. 2022 International Conference on Electronics and Devices, Computational Science (ICEDCS). :100–103.
Nowadays, 5G has been widely used in various fields. People are starting to turn their attention to 6G. Therefore, at the beginning, this paper describes in detail the principle and performance of 6G, and introduces the key technologies of 6G, Cavity technology and THz technology. Based on the high-performance indicators of 6G, we then study the possible application changes brought by 6G, for example, 6G technology will make remote surgery and remote control possible. 6G technology will make remote surgery and remote control possible. 6G will speed up the interconnection of everything, allowing closer and faster connection between cars. Next, virtual reality is discussed. 6G technology will enable better development of virtual reality technology and enhance people's immersive experience. Finally, we present the issues that need to be addressed with 6G technology, such as cybersecurity issues and energy requirements. As well as the higher challenges facing 6G technology, such as connectivity and communication on a larger social plane.
Peng, Haoran, Chen, Pei-Chen, Chen, Pin-Hua, Yang, Yung-Shun, Hsia, Ching-Chieh, Wang, Li-Chun.  2022.  6G toward Metaverse: Technologies, Applications, and Challenges. 2022 IEEE VTS Asia Pacific Wireless Communications Symposium (APWCS). :6–10.
Metaverse opens up a new social networking paradigm where people can experience a real interactive feeling without physical space constraints. Social interactions are gradually evolving from text combined with pictures and videos to 3-dimensional virtual reality, making the social experience increasingly physical, implying that more metaverse applications with immersive experiences will be developed in the future. However, the increasing data dimensionality and volume for new metaverse applications present a significant challenge in data acquisition, security, and sharing. Furthermore, metaverse applications require high capacity and ultrareliability for the wireless system to guarantee the quality of user experience, which cannot be addressed in the current fifth-generation system. Therefore, reaching the metaverse is dependent on the revolution in the sixth-generation (6G) wireless communication, which is expected to provide low-latency, high-throughput, and secure services. This article provides a comprehensive view of metaverse applications and investigates the fundamental technologies for the 6G toward metaverse.
Riedel, Paul, Riesner, Michael, Wendt, Karsten, Aßmann, Uwe.  2022.  Data-Driven Digital Twins in Surgery utilizing Augmented Reality and Machine Learning. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :580–585.
On the one hand, laparoscopic surgery as medical state-of-the-art method is minimal invasive, and thus less stressful for patients. On the other hand, laparoscopy implies higher demands on physicians, such as mental load or preparation time, hence appropriate technical support is essential for quality and suc-cess. Medical Digital Twins provide an integrated and virtual representation of patients' and organs' data, and thus a generic concept to make complex information accessible by surgeons. In this way, minimal invasive surgery could be improved significantly, but requires also a much more complex software system to achieve the various resulting requirements. The biggest challenges for these systems are the safe and precise mapping of the digital twin to reality, i.e. dealing with deformations, movement and distortions, as well as balance out the competing requirement for intuitive and immersive user access and security. The case study ARAILIS is presented as a proof in concept for such a system and provides a starting point for further research. Based on the insights delivered by this prototype, a vision for future Medical Digital Twins in surgery is derived and discussed.
ISSN: 2694-2941
Aliman, Nadisha-Marie, Kester, Leon.  2022.  VR, Deepfakes and Epistemic Security. 2022 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Virtual Reality (AIVR). :93–98.
In recent years, technological advancements in the AI and VR fields have increasingly often been paired with considerations on ethics and safety aimed at mitigating unintentional design failures. However, cybersecurity-oriented AI and VR safety research has emphasized the need to additionally appraise instantiations of intentional malice exhibited by unethical actors at pre- and post-deployment stages. On top of that, in view of ongoing malicious deepfake developments that can represent a threat to the epistemic security of a society, security-aware AI and VR design strategies require an epistemically-sensitive stance. In this vein, this paper provides a theoretical basis for two novel AIVR safety research directions: 1) VR as immersive testbed for a VR-deepfake-aided epistemic security training and 2) AI as catalyst within a deepfake-aided so-called cyborgnetic creativity augmentation facilitating an epistemically-sensitive threat modelling. For illustration, we focus our use case on deepfake text – an underestimated deepfake modality. In the main, the two proposed transdisciplinary lines of research exemplify how AIVR safety to defend against unethical actors could naturally converge toward AIVR ethics whilst counteracting epistemic security threats.
ISSN: 2771-7453
Veeraiah, Vivek, Kumar, K Ranjit, Lalitha Kumari, P., Ahamad, Shahanawaj, Bansal, Rohit, Gupta, Ankur.  2022.  Application of Biometric System to Enhance the Security in Virtual World. 2022 2nd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering (ICACITE). :719–723.
Virtual worlds was becoming increasingly popular in a variety of fields, including education, business, space exploration, and video games. Establishing the security of virtual worlds was becoming more critical as they become more widely used. Virtual users were identified using a behavioral biometric system. Improve the system's ability to identify objects by fusing scores from multiple sources. Identification was based on a review of user interactions in virtual environments and a comparison with previous recordings in the database. For behavioral biometric systems like the one described, it appears that score-level biometric fusion was a promising tool for improving system performance. As virtual worlds become more immersive, more people will want to participate in them, and more people will want to be able to interact with each other. Each region of the Meta-verse was given a glimpse of the current state of affairs and the trends to come. As hardware performance and institutional and public interest continue to improve, the Meta-verse's development is hampered by limitations like computational method limits and a lack of realized collaboration between virtual world stakeholders and developers alike. A major goal of the proposed research was to verify the accuracy of the biometric system to enhance the security in virtual world. In this study, the precision of the proposed work was compared to that of previous work.
Wei-Kocsis, Jin, Sabounchi, Moein, Yang, Baijian, Zhang, Tonglin.  2022.  Cybersecurity Education in the Age of Artificial Intelligence: A Novel Proactive and Collaborative Learning Paradigm. 2022 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE). :1–5.
This Innovative Practice Work-in-Progress paper presents a virtual, proactive, and collaborative learning paradigm that can engage learners with different backgrounds and enable effective retention and transfer of the multidisciplinary AI-cybersecurity knowledge. While progress has been made to better understand the trustworthiness and security of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, little has been done to translate this knowledge to education and training. There is a critical need to foster a qualified cybersecurity workforce that understands the usefulness, limitations, and best practices of AI technologies in the cybersecurity domain. To address this import issue, in our proposed learning paradigm, we leverage multidisciplinary expertise in cybersecurity, AI, and statistics to systematically investigate two cohesive research and education goals. First, we develop an immersive learning environment that motivates the students to explore AI/machine learning (ML) development in the context of real-world cybersecurity scenarios by constructing learning models with tangible objects. Second, we design a proactive education paradigm with the use of hackathon activities based on game-based learning, lifelong learning, and social constructivism. The proposed paradigm will benefit a wide range of learners, especially underrepresented students. It will also help the general public understand the security implications of AI. In this paper, we describe our proposed learning paradigm and present our current progress of this ongoing research work. In the current stage, we focus on the first research and education goal and have been leveraging cost-effective Minecraft platform to develop an immersive learning environment where the learners are able to investigate the insights of the emerging AI/ML concepts by constructing related learning modules via interacting with tangible AI/ML building blocks.
ISSN: 2377-634X
Kaufmann, Kaspar, Wyssenbach, Thomas, Schwaninger, Adrian.  2022.  Exploring the effects of segmentation when learning with Virtual Reality and 2D displays: a study with airport security officers. 2022 IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1–1.
With novel 3D imaging technology based on computed tomography (CT) set to replace the current 2D X-ray systems, airports face the challenge of adequately preparing airport security officers (screeners) through knowledge building. Virtual reality (VR) bears the potential to greatly facilitate this process by allowing learners to experience and engage in immersive virtual scenarios as if they were real. However, while general aspects of immersion have been explored frequently, less is known about the benefits of immersive technology for instructional purposes in practical settings such as airport security.In the present study, we evaluated how different display technologies (2D vs VR) and segmentation (system-paced vs learner-paced) affected screeners' objective and subjective knowledge gain, cognitive load, as well as aspects of motivation and technology acceptance. By employing a 2 x 2 between-subjects design, four experimental groups experienced uniform learning material featuring information about 3D CT technology and its application in airport security: 2D system-paced, 2D learner-paced, VR system-paced, and VR learner-paced. The instructional material was presented as an 11 min multimedia lesson featuring words (i.e., narration, onscreen text) and pictures in dynamic form (i.e., video, animation). Participants of the learner-paced groups were prompted to initialize the next section of the multimedia lesson by pressing a virtual button after short segments of information. Additionally, a control group experiencing no instructional content was included to evaluate the effectiveness of the instructional material. The data was collected at an international airport with screeners having no prior 3D CT experience (n=162).The results show main effects on segmentation for objective learning outcomes (favoring system-paced), germane cognitive load on display technology (supporting 2D). These results contradict the expected benefits of VR and segmentation, respectively. Overall, the present study offers valuable insight on how to implement instructional material for a practical setting.
ISSN: 2153-0742
Briggs, Shannon, Chabot, Sam, Sanders, Abraham, Peveler, Matthew, Strzalkowski, Tomek, Braasch, Jonas.  2022.  Multiuser, multimodal sensemaking cognitive immersive environment with a task-oriented dialog system. 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–3.
This paper is a conceptual paper that explores how the sensemaking process by intelligence analysts completed within a cognitive immersive environment might be impacted by the inclusion of a progressive dialog system. The tools enabled in the sensemaking room (a specific instance within the cognitive immersive environment) were informed by tools from the intelligence analysis domain. We explore how a progressive dialog system would impact the use of tools such as the collaborative brainstorming exercise [1]. These structured analytic techniques are well established in intelligence analysis training literature, and act as ways to access the intended users' cognitive schema as they use the cognitive immersive room and move through the sensemaking process. A prior user study determined that the sensemaking room encouraged users to be more concise and representative with information while using the digital brainstorming tool. We anticipate that addition of the progressive dialog function will enable a more cohesive link between information foraging and sensemaking behaviors for analysts.
Li, Shijie, Liu, Junjiao, Pan, Zhiwen, Lv, Shichao, Si, Shuaizong, Sun, Limin.  2022.  Anomaly Detection based on Robust Spatial-temporal Modeling for Industrial Control Systems. 2022 IEEE 19th International Conference on Mobile Ad Hoc and Smart Systems (MASS). :355—363.
Industrial Control Systems (ICS) are increasingly facing the threat of False Data Injection (FDI) attacks. As an emerging intrusion detection scheme for ICS, process-based Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) can effectively detect the anomalies caused by FDI attacks. Specifically, such IDS establishes anomaly detection model which can describe the normal pattern of industrial processes, then perform real-time anomaly detection on industrial process data. However, this method suffers low detection accuracy due to the complexity and instability of industrial processes. That is, the process data inherently contains sophisticated nonlinear spatial-temporal correlations which are hard to be explicitly described by anomaly detection model. In addition, the noise and disturbance in process data prevent the IDS from distinguishing the real anomaly events. In this paper, we propose an Anomaly Detection approach based on Robust Spatial-temporal Modeling (AD-RoSM). Concretely, to explicitly describe the spatial-temporal correlations within the process data, a neural based state estimation model is proposed by utilizing 1D CNN for temporal modeling and multi-head self attention mechanism for spatial modeling. To perform robust anomaly detection in the presence of noise and disturbance, a composite anomaly discrimination model is designed so that the outputs of the state estimation model can be analyzed with a combination of threshold strategy and entropy-based strategy. We conducted extensive experiments on two benchmark ICS security datasets to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Sagar, Maloth, C, Vanmathi.  2022.  Network Cluster Reliability with Enhanced Security and Privacy of IoT Data for Anomaly Detection Using a Deep Learning Model. 2022 Third International Conference on Intelligent Computing Instrumentation and Control Technologies (ICICICT). :1670—1677.

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), which contain devices to aid with physical infrastructure activities, comprise sensors, actuators, control units, and physical objects. CPS sends messages to physical devices to carry out computational operations. CPS mainly deals with the interplay among cyber and physical environments. The real-time network data acquired and collected in physical space is stored there, and the connection becomes sophisticated. CPS incorporates cyber and physical technologies at all phases. Cyber Physical Systems are a crucial component of Internet of Things (IoT) technology. The CPS is a traditional concept that brings together the physical and digital worlds inhabit. Nevertheless, CPS has several difficulties that are likely to jeopardise our lives immediately, while the CPS's numerous levels are all tied to an immediate threat, therefore necessitating a look at CPS security. Due to the inclusion of IoT devices in a wide variety of applications, the security and privacy of users are key considerations. The rising level of cyber threats has left current security and privacy procedures insufficient. As a result, hackers can treat every person on the Internet as a product. Deep Learning (DL) methods are therefore utilised to provide accurate outputs from big complex databases where the outputs generated can be used to forecast and discover vulnerabilities in IoT systems that handles medical data. Cyber-physical systems need anomaly detection to be secure. However, the rising sophistication of CPSs and more complex attacks means that typical anomaly detection approaches are unsuitable for addressing these difficulties since they are simply overwhelmed by the volume of data and the necessity for domain-specific knowledge. The various attacks like DoS, DDoS need to be avoided that impact the network performance. In this paper, an effective Network Cluster Reliability Model with enhanced security and privacy levels for the data in IoT for Anomaly Detection (NSRM-AD) using deep learning model is proposed. The security levels of the proposed model are contrasted with the proposed model and the results represent that the proposed model performance is accurate

Al-Haija, Qasem Abu.  2021.  On the Security of Cyber-Physical Systems Against Stochastic Cyber-Attacks Models. 2021 IEEE International IOT, Electronics and Mechatronics Conference (IEMTRONICS). :1—6.
Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are widely deployed and employed in many recent real applications such as automobiles with sensing technology for crashes to protect passengers, automated homes with various smart appliances and control units, and medical instruments with sensing capability of glucose levels in blood to keep track of normal body function. In spite of their significance, CPS infrastructures are vulnerable to cyberattacks due to the limitations in the computing, processing, memory, power, and transmission capabilities for their endpoint/edge appliances. In this paper, we consider a short systematic investigation for the models and techniques of cyberattacks and threats rate against Cyber Physical Systems with multiple subsystems and redundant elements such as, network of computing devices or storage modules. The cyberattacks are assumed to be externally launched against the Cyber Physical System during a prescribed operational time unit following stochastic distribution models such as Poisson probability distribution, negative-binomial probability distribution and other that have been extensively employed in the literature and proved their efficiency in modeling system attacks and threats.
Ahmad, Syed Farhan, Ferjani, Mohamed Yassine, Kasliwal, Keshav.  2021.  Enhancing Security in the Industrial IoT Sector using Quantum Computing. 2021 28th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits, and Systems (ICECS). :1—5.
The development of edge computing and machine learning technologies have led to the growth of Industrial IoT systems. Autonomous decision making and smart manufacturing are flourishing in the current age of Industry 4.0. By providing more compute power to edge devices and connecting them to the internet, the so-called Cyber Physical Systems are prone to security threats like never before. Security in the current industry is based on cryptographic techniques that use pseudorandom number keys. Keys generated by a pseudo-random number generator pose a security threat as they can be predicted by a malicious third party. In this work, we propose a secure Industrial IoT Architecture that makes use of true random numbers generated by a quantum random number generator (QRNG). CITRIOT's FireConnect IoT node is used to show the proof of concept in a quantum-safe network where the random keys are generated by a cloud based quantum device. We provide an implementation of QRNG on both real quantum computer and quantum simulator. Then, we compare the results with pseudorandom numbers generated by a classical computer.
Khanzadi, Pouria, Kordnoori, Shirin, Vasigh, Zahra, Mostafaei, Hamidreza, Akhtarkavan, Ehsan.  2021.  A Cyber Physical System based Stochastic Process Language With NuSMV Model Checker. 2021 International Conference on Intelligent Technology, System and Service for Internet of Everything (ITSS-IoE). :1—8.
Nowadays, cyber physical systems are playing an important role in human life in which they provide features that make interactions between human and machine easier. To design and analysis such systems, the main problem is their complexity. In this paper, we propose a description language for cyber physical systems based on stochastic processes. The proposed language is called SPDL (Stochastic Description Process Language). For designing SPDL, two main parts are considered for Cyber Physical Systems (CSP): embedded systems and physical environment. Then these parts are defined as stochastic processes and CPS is defined as a tuple. Syntax and semantics of SPDL are stated based on the proposed definition. Also, the semantics are defined as by set theory. For implementation of SPDL, dependencies between words of a requirements are extracted as a tree data structure. Based on the dependencies, SPDL is used for describing the CPS. Also, a lexical analyzer and a parser based on a defined BNF grammar for SPDL is designed and implemented. Finally, SPDL of CPS is transformed to NuSMV which is a symbolic model checker. The Experimental results show that SPDL is capable of describing cyber physical systems by natural language.
Wang, Jun, Wang, Wen, Wu, Dan, Lei, Ting, Liu, DunNan, Li, PeiJun, Su, Shu.  2021.  Research on Business Model of Internet of Vehicles Platform Based on Token Economy. 2021 2nd International Conference on Big Data Economy and Information Management (BDEIM). :120–124.
With the increasing number of electric vehicles, the scale of the market also increases. In the past, the electric vehicle market had problems such as opaque information, numerous levels and data leakage, which were criticized for the impact of the overall development and policies of the electric vehicle industry. In view of the problems existing in the transparency and security of big data management transactions of the Internet of vehicles, this paper combs the commercial operation framework of the Internet of Vehicles Platform, analyses the feasibility and necessity of establishing the token system of the Internet of Vehicles Platform, and constructs the token economic system architecture of the Internet of Vehicles Platform and its development path.
Sabir, Zakaria, Amine, Aouatif.  2021.  Connected Vehicles using NDN: Security Concerns and Remaining Challenges. 2021 7th International Conference on Optimization and Applications (ICOA). :1–6.
Vehicular networks have been considered as a hopeful technology to enhance road safety, which is a crossing area of Internet of Things (IoT) and Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Current Internet architecture using the TCP/IP model and based on host-to-host is limited when it comes to vehicular communications which are characterized by high speed and dynamic topology. Thus, using Named Data Networking (NDN) in connected vehicles may tackle the issues faced with the TCP/IP model. In this paper, we investigate the security concerns of applying NDN in vehicular environments and discuss the remaining challenges in order to guide researchers in this field to choose their future research direction.
Jawad, Sidra, Munsif, Hadeera, Azam, Arsal, Ilahi, Arham Hasib, Zafar, Saima.  2021.  Internet of Things-based Vehicle Tracking and Monitoring System. 2021 15th International Conference on Open Source Systems and Technologies (ICOSST). :1–5.
Vehicles play an integral part in the life of a human being by facilitating in everyday tasks. The major concern that arises with this fact is that the rate of vehicle thefts have increased exponentially and retrieving them becomes almost impossible as the responsible party completely alters the stolen vehicles, leaving them untraceable. Ultimately, tracking and monitoring of vehicles using on-vehicle sensors is a promising and an efficient solution. The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to play a vital role in revolutionizing the Security and Safety industry through a system of sensor networks by periodically sending the data from the sensors to the cloud for storage, from where it can be accessed to view or take any necessary actions (if required). The main contributions of this paper are the implementation and results of the prototype of a vehicle tracking and monitoring system. The system comprises of an Arduino UNO board connected to the Global Positioning System (GPS) module, Neo-6M, which senses the exact location of the vehicle in the form of latitude and longitude, and the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module, which sends the data to the Application Programming Interface (API) Cloud service, ThingSpeak, for storage and analyzing. An Android based mobile application is developed that utilizes the stored data from the Cloud and presents the user with the findings. Results show that the prototype is not only simple and cost effective, but also efficient and can be readily used by everyone from all walks of life to protect their vehicles.
Philipsen, Simon Grønfeldt, Andersen, Birger, Singh, Bhupjit.  2021.  Threats and Attacks to Modern Vehicles. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things and Intelligence Systems (IoTaIS). :22–27.
As modern vehicles are complex IoT devices with intelligence capable to connect to an external infrastructure and use Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication, there is a need to secure the communication to avoid being a target for cyber-attacks. Also, the organs of the car (sensors, communication, and control) each could have a vulnerability, that leads to accidents or potential deaths. Manufactures of cars have a huge responsibility to secure the safety of their costumers and should not skip the important security research, instead making sure to implement important security measures, which makes your car less likely to be attacked. This paper covers the relevant attacks and threats to modern vehicles and presents a security analysis with potential countermeasures. We discuss the future of modern and autonomous vehicles and conclude that more countermeasures must be taken to create a future and safe concept.
Qiu, Bin, Chen, Ke, He, Kexun, Fang, Xiyu.  2021.  Research on vehicle network intrusion detection technology based on dynamic data set. 2021 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Frontiers Technology of Information and Computer (ICFTIC). :386–390.
A new round of scientific and technological revolution and industrial reform promote the intelligent development of automobile and promote the deep integration of automobile with Internet, big data, communication and other industries. At the same time, it also brings network and data security problems to automobile, which is very easy to cause national security and social security risks. Intelligent vehicle Ethernet intrusion detection can effectively alleviate the security risk of vehicle network, but the complex attack means and vehicle compatibility have not been effectively solved. This research takes the vehicle Ethernet as the research object, constructs the machine learning samples for neural network, applies the self coding network technology combined with the original characteristics to the network intrusion detection algorithm, and studies a self-learning vehicle Ethernet intrusion detection algorithm. Through the application and test of vehicle terminal, the algorithm generated in this study can be used for vehicle terminal with Ethernet communication function, and can effectively resist 34 kinds of network attacks in four categories. This method effectively improves the network security defense capability of vehicle Ethernet, provides technical support for the network security of intelligent vehicles, and can be widely used in mass-produced intelligent vehicles with Ethernet.
Aman, Muhammad Naveed, Sikdar, Biplab.  2021.  AI Based Algorithm-Hardware Separation for IoV Security. 2021 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps). :1–6.
The Internet of vehicles is emerging as an exciting application to improve safety and providing better services in the form of active road signs, pay-as-you-go insurance, electronic toll, and fleet management. Internet connected vehicles are exposed to new attack vectors in the form of cyber threats and with the increasing trend of cyber attacks, the success of autonomous vehicles depends on their security. Existing techniques for IoV security are based on the un-realistic assumption that all the vehicles are equipped with the same hardware (at least in terms of computational capabilities). However, the hardware platforms used by various vehicle manufacturers are highly heterogeneous. Therefore, a security protocol designed for IoVs should be able to detect the computational capabilities of the underlying platform and adjust the security primitives accordingly. To solve this issue, this paper presents a technique for algorithm-hardware separation for IoV security. The proposed technique uses an iterative routine and the corresponding execution time to detect the computational capabilities of a hardware platform using an artificial intelligence based inference engine. The results on three different commonly used micro-controllers show that the proposed technique can effectively detect the type of hardware platform with up to 100% accuracy.
Lin, Hua Yi, Hsieh, Meng-Yen, Li, Kuan-Ching.  2021.  A Multi-level Security Key Management Protocol Based on Dynamic M-tree Structures for Internet of Vehicles. 2021 International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (SPECTS). :1–5.
With the gradually popular high-speed wireless networks and 5G environments, the quality and reliability of network services will be suited for mobile vehicles. In addition to communicating information between vehicles, they can also communicate information with surrounding roadside equipment, pedestrians or traffic signs, and thus improve the road safety of passers-by.Recently, various countries have continuously invested in research on autonomous driving and unmanned vehicles. The open communication environment of the Internet of Vehicles in 5G will expose all personal information in the field of wireless networks. This research is based on the consideration of information security and personal data protection. We will focus on how to protect the real-time transmission of information between mobile vehicles to prevent from imbedding or altering important transmission information by unauthorized vehicles, drivers or passers-by participating in communications. Moreover, this research proposes a multi-level security key management agreement based on a dynamic M-tree structure for Internet of Vehicles to achieve flexible and scalable key management on large-scale Internet of Vehicles.
Xu, Qichao, Zhao, Lifeng, Su, Zhou.  2021.  UAV-assisted Abnormal Vehicle Behavior Detection in Internet of Vehicles. 2021 40th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :7500–7505.
With advantages of low cost, high mobility, and flexible deployment, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) are employed to efficiently detect abnormal vehicle behaviors (AVBs) in the internet of vehicles (IoVs). However, due to limited resources including battery, computing, and communication, UAVs are selfish to work cooperatively. To solve the above problem, in this paper, a game theoretical UAV incentive scheme in IoVs is proposed. Specifically, the abnormal behavior model is first constructed, where three model categories are defined: velocity abnormality, distance abnormality, and overtaking abnormality. Then, the barging pricing framework is designed to model the interactions between UAVs and IoVs, where the transaction prices are determined with the abnormal behavior category detected by UAVs. At last, simulations are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed scheme.
Claude, Tuyisenge Jean, Viviane, Ishimwe, Paul, Iradukunda Jean, Didacienne, Mukanyiligira.  2021.  Development of Security Starting System for Vehicles Based on IoT. 2021 International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :505–510.
The transportation system is becoming tremendously important in today's human activities and the number of urban vehicles grows rapidly. The vehicle theft also has become a shared concern for all vehicle owners. However, the present anti-theft system which maybe high reliable, lack of proper mechanism for preventing theft before it happens. This work proposes the internet of things based smart vehicle security staring system; efficient security provided to the vehicle owners relies on securing car ignition system by using a developed android application running on smart phone connected to the designed system installed in vehicle. With this system it is non- viable to access the vehicle's functional system in case the ignition key has been stolen or lost. It gives the drivers the ability to stay connected with their vehicle. Whenever the ignition key is stolen or lost, it is impossible to start the vehicle as the ignition system is still locked on the vehicle start and only the authorized person will be able to start the vehicle at convenient time with the combination of ignition key and smart phone application. This study proposes to design the system that uses node MCU, Bluetooth low energy (BLE), transistors, power relays and android smartphone in system testing. In addition, it is cost effective and once installed in the vehicle there is no more cost of maintenance.
Ma, Lele.  2021.  One Layer for All: Efficient System Security Monitoring for Edge Servers. 2021 IEEE International Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IPCCC). :1–8.
Edge computing promises higher bandwidth and lower latency to end-users. However, edge servers usually have limited computing resources and are geographically distributed over the edge. This imposes new challenges for efficient system monitoring and control of edge servers.In this paper, we propose EdgeVMI, a framework to monitor and control services running on edge servers with lightweight virtual machine introspection(VMI). The key of our technique is to run the monitor in a lightweight virtual machine which can leverage hardware events for monitoring memory read and writes. In addition, the small binary size and memory footprints of the monitor could reduce the start/stop time of service, the runtime overhead, as well as the deployment efforts.Inspired by unikernels, we build our monitor with only the necessary system modules, libraries, and functionalities of a specific monitor task. To reduce the security risk of the monitoring behavior, we separate the monitor into two isolated modules: one acts as a sensor to collect security information and another acts as an actuator to conduct control commands. Our evaluation shows the effectiveness and the efficiency of the monitoring system, with an average performance overhead of 2.7%.