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2021-05-13
Wang, Xiaoyu, Gao, Yuanyuan, Zhang, Guangna, Guo, Mingxi.  2020.  Prediction of Optimal Power Allocation for Enhancing Security-Reliability Tradeoff with the Application of Artificial Neural Networks. 2020 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computer Technology, Information Science and Communications (CTISC). :40–45.
In this paper, we propose a power allocation scheme in order to improve both secure and reliable performance in the wireless two-hop threshold-selection decode-and-forward (DF) relaying networks, which is so crucial to set a threshold value related the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the source signal at relay nodes for perfect decoding. We adapt the maximal-ratio combining (MRC) receiving SNR from the direct and relaying paths both at the destination and at the eavesdropper. Particularly worth mentioning is that the closed expression form of outage probability and intercept probability is driven, which can quantify the security and reliability, respectively. We also make endeavors to utilize a metric to tradeoff the security and the reliability (SRT) and find out the relevance between them in the balanced case. But beyond that, in the pursuit of tradeoff performance, power allocation tends to depend on the threshold value. In other words, it provides a new method optimizing total power to the source and the relay by the threshold value. The results are obtained from analysis, confirmed by simulation, and predicted by artificial neural networks (ANNs), which is trained with back propagation (BP) algorithm, and thus the feasibility of the proposed method is verified.
Mahmoud, Loreen, Praveen, Raja.  2020.  Artificial Neural Networks for detecting Intrusions: A survey. 2020 Fifth International Conference on Research in Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (ICRCICN). :41–48.
Nowadays, the networks attacks became very sophisticated and hard to be recognized, The traditional types of intrusion detection systems became inefficient in predicting new types of attacks. As the IDS is an important factor in securing the network in the real time, many new effective IDS approaches have been proposed. In this paper, we intend to discuss different Artificial Neural Networks based IDS approaches, also we are going to categorize them in four categories (normal ANN, DNN, CNN, RNN) and make a comparison between them depending on different performance parameters (accuracy, FNR, FPR, training time, epochs and the learning rate) and other factors like the network structure, the classification type, the used dataset. At the end of the survey, we will mention the merits and demerits of each approach and suggest some enhancements to avoid the noticed drawbacks.
Venceslai, Valerio, Marchisio, Alberto, Alouani, Ihsen, Martina, Maurizio, Shafique, Muhammad.  2020.  NeuroAttack: Undermining Spiking Neural Networks Security through Externally Triggered Bit-Flips. 2020 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.
Due to their proven efficiency, machine-learning systems are deployed in a wide range of complex real-life problems. More specifically, Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) emerged as a promising solution to the accuracy, resource-utilization, and energy-efficiency challenges in machine-learning systems. While these systems are going mainstream, they have inherent security and reliability issues. In this paper, we propose NeuroAttack, a cross-layer attack that threatens the SNNs integrity by exploiting low-level reliability issues through a high-level attack. Particularly, we trigger a fault-injection based sneaky hardware backdoor through a carefully crafted adversarial input noise. Our results on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) and SNNs show a serious integrity threat to state-of-the art machine-learning techniques.
Liu, Shuyong, Jiang, Hongrui, Li, Sizhao, Yang, Yang, Shen, Linshan.  2020.  A Feature Compression Technique for Anomaly Detection Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2020 IEEE 14th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :39–42.
Anomaly detection classification technology based on deep learning is one of the crucial technologies supporting network security. However, as the data increasing, this traditional model cannot guarantee that the false alarm rate is minimized while meeting the high detection rate. Additionally, distribution of imbalanced abnormal samples will lead to an increase in the error rate of the classification results. In this work, since CNN is effective in network intrusion classification, we embed a compressed feature layer in CNN (Convolutional Neural Networks). The purpose is to improve the efficiency of network intrusion detection. After our model was trained for 55 epochs and we set the learning rate of the model to 0.01, the detection rate reaches over 98%.
Monakhov, Yuri, Monakhov, Mikhail, Telny, Andrey, Mazurok, Dmitry, Kuznetsova, Anna.  2020.  Improving Security of Neural Networks in the Identification Module of Decision Support Systems. 2020 Ural Symposium on Biomedical Engineering, Radioelectronics and Information Technology (USBEREIT). :571–574.
In recent years, neural networks have been implemented while solving various tasks. Deep learning algorithms provide state of the art performance in computer vision, NLP, speech recognition, speaker recognition and many other fields. In spite of the good performance, neural networks have significant drawback- they have been found to be vulnerable to adversarial examples resulting from adding small-magnitude perturbations to inputs. While being imperceptible to a human eye, such perturbations lead to significant drop in classification accuracy. It is demonstrated by many studies related to neural network security. Considering the pros and cons of neural networks, as well as a variety of their applications, developing of the methods to improve the robustness of neural networks against adversarial attacks becomes an urgent task. In the article authors propose the “minimalistic” attacker model of the decision support system identification unit, adaptive recommendations on security enhancing, and a set of protective methods. Suggested methods allow for significant increase in classification accuracy under adversarial attacks, as it is demonstrated by an experiment outlined in this article.
Li, Yizhi.  2020.  Research on Application of Convolutional Neural Network in Intrusion Detection. 2020 7th International Forum on Electrical Engineering and Automation (IFEEA). :720–723.
At present, our life is almost inseparable from the network, the network provides a lot of convenience for our life. However, a variety of network security incidents occur very frequently. In recent years, with the continuous development of neural network technology, more and more researchers have applied neural network to intrusion detection, which has developed into a new research direction in intrusion detection. As long as the neural network is provided with input data including network data packets, through the process of self-learning, the neural network can separate abnormal data features and effectively detect abnormal data. Therefore, the article innovatively proposes an intrusion detection method based on deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), which is used to test on public data sets. The results show that the model has a higher accuracy rate and a lower false negative rate than traditional intrusion detection methods.
Sheptunov, Sergey A., Sukhanova, Natalia V..  2020.  The Problems of Design and Application of Switching Neural Networks in Creation of Artificial Intelligence. 2020 International Conference Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (IT QM IS). :428–431.
The new switching architecture of the neural networks was proposed. The switching neural networks consist of the neurons and the switchers. The goal is to reduce expenses on the artificial neural network design and training. For realization of complex models, algorithms and methods of management the neural networks of the big size are required. The number of the interconnection links “everyone with everyone” grows with the number of neurons. The training of big neural networks requires the resources of supercomputers. Time of training of neural networks also depends on the number of neurons in the network. Switching neural networks are divided into fragments connected by the switchers. Training of switcher neuron network is provided by fragments. On the basis of switching neural networks the devices of associative memory were designed with the number of neurons comparable to the human brain.
Nakhushev, Rakhim S., Sukhanova, Natalia V..  2020.  Application of the Neural Networks for Cryptographic Information Security. 2020 International Conference Quality Management, Transport and Information Security, Information Technologies (IT QM IS). :421–423.
The object of research is information security. The tools used for research are artificial neural networks. The goal is to increase the cryptography security. The problems are: the big volume of information, the expenses for neural networks design and training. It is offered to use the neural network for the cryptographic transformation of information.
Sheng, Mingren, Liu, Hongri, Yang, Xu, Wang, Wei, Huang, Junheng, Wang, Bailing.  2020.  Network Security Situation Prediction in Software Defined Networking Data Plane. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Advances in Electrical Engineering and Computer Applications( AEECA). :475–479.
Software-Defined Networking (SDN) simplifies network management by separating the control plane from the data forwarding plane. However, the plane separation technology introduces many new loopholes in the SDN data plane. In order to facilitate taking proactive measures to reduce the damage degree of network security events, this paper proposes a security situation prediction method based on particle swarm optimization algorithm and long-short-term memory neural network for network security events on the SDN data plane. According to the statistical information of the security incident, the analytic hierarchy process is used to calculate the SDN data plane security situation risk value. Then use the historical data of the security situation risk value to build an artificial neural network prediction model. Finally, a prediction model is used to predict the future security situation risk value. Experiments show that this method has good prediction accuracy and stability.
Zhang, Yunxiang, Rao, Zhuyi.  2020.  Research on Information Security Evaluation Based on Artificial Neural Network. 2020 3rd International Conference on Advanced Electronic Materials, Computers and Software Engineering (AEMCSE). :424–428.

In order to improve the information security ability of the network information platform, the information security evaluation method is proposed based on artificial neural network. Based on the comprehensive analysis of the security events in the construction of the network information platform, the risk assessment model of the network information platform is constructed based on the artificial neural network theory. The weight calculation algorithm of artificial neural network and the minimum artificial neural network pruning algorithm are also given, which can realize the quantitative evaluation of network information security. The fuzzy neural network weighted control method is used to control the information security, and the non-recursive traversal method is adopted to realize the adaptive training of information security assessment process. The adaptive learning of the artificial neural network is carried out according to the conditions, and the ability of information encryption and transmission is improved. The information security assessment is realized. The simulation results show that the method is accurate and ensures the information security.

2021-02-23
Khan, M., Rehman, O., Rahman, I. M. H., Ali, S..  2020.  Lightweight Testbed for Cybersecurity Experiments in SCADA-based Systems. 2020 International Conference on Computing and Information Technology (ICCIT-1441). :1—5.

A rapid rise in cyber-attacks on Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) has been observed in the last decade. It becomes even more concerning that several of these attacks were on critical infrastructures that indeed succeeded and resulted into significant physical and financial damages. Experimental testbeds capable of providing flexible, scalable and interoperable platform for executing various cybersecurity experiments is highly in need by all stakeholders. A container-based SCADA testbed is presented in this work as a potential platform for executing cybersecurity experiments. Through this testbed, a network traffic containing ARP spoofing is generated that represents a Man in the middle (MITM) attack. While doing so, scanning of different systems within the network is performed which represents a reconnaissance attack. The network traffic generated by both ARP spoofing and network scanning are captured and further used for preparing a dataset. The dataset is utilized for training a network classification model through a machine learning algorithm. Performance of the trained model is evaluated through a series of tests where promising results are obtained.

2021-02-15
Av, N., Kumar, N. A..  2020.  Image Encryption Using Genetic Algorithm and Bit-Slice Rotation. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
Cryptography is a powerful means of delivering information in a secure manner. Over the years, many image encryption algorithms have been proposed based on the chaotic system to protect the digital image against cryptography attacks. In chaotic encryption, it jumbles the image to vary the framework of the image. This makes it difficult for the attacker to retrieve the original image. This paper introduces an efficient image encryption algorithm incorporating the genetic algorithm, bit plane slicing and bit plane rotation of the digital image. The digital image is sliced into eight planes and each plane is well rotated to give a fully encrypted image after the application of the Genetic Algorithm on each pixel of the image. This makes it less prone to attacks. For decryption, we perform the operations in the reverse order. The performance of this algorithm is measured using various similarity measures like Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM). The results exhibit that the proposed scheme provides a stronger level of encryption and an enhanced security level.
Lakshmanan, S. K., Shakkeera, L., Pandimurugan, V..  2020.  Efficient Auto key based Encryption and Decryption using GICK and GDCK methods. 2020 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Sustainable Systems (ICISS). :1102–1106.
Security services and share information is provided by the computer network. The computer network is by default there is not security. The Attackers can use this provision to hack and steal private information. Confidentiality, creation, changes, and truthful of data is will be big problems in the network. Many types of research have given many methods regarding this, from these methods Generating Initial Chromosome Key called Generating Dynamic Chromosome Key (GDCK), which is a novel approach. With the help of the RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman) algorithm, GICK and GDCK have created an initial key. The proposed method has produced new techniques using genetic fitness function for the sender and receiver. The outcome of GICK and GDCK has been verified by NIST (National Institute of Standards Technology) tools and analyzes randomness of auto-generated keys with various methods. The proposed system has involved three examines; it has been yield better P-Values 6.44, 7.05, and 8.05 while comparing existing methods.
Bisht, K., Deshmukh, M..  2020.  Encryption algorithm based on knight’s tour and n-neighbourhood addition. 2020 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN). :31–36.
This paper presents a new algorithm for image encryption by extending the Knight's Tour Problem (KTP). The idea behind the proposed algorithm is to generate a Knight Tour (KT) matrix (m,n) and then divide the image according to the size of knight tour matrix into several sub matrices. Finally, apply n-neighborhood addition modulo encryption algorithm according to the solution of KT matrix over each m × n partition of the image. The proposed algorithm provides image encryption without using the cover images. Results obtained from experiments have shown that the proposed algorithm is efficient, simple and does not disclose any information from encrypted image.
Rabieh, K., Mercan, S., Akkaya, K., Baboolal, V., Aygun, R. S..  2020.  Privacy-Preserving and Efficient Sharing of Drone Videos in Public Safety Scenarios using Proxy Re-encryption. 2020 IEEE 21st International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration for Data Science (IRI). :45–52.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) also known as drones are being used in many applications where they can record or stream videos. One interesting application is the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and public safety applications where drones record videos and send them to a control center for further analysis. These videos are shared by various clients such as law enforcement or emergency personnel. In such cases, the recording might include faces of civilians or other sensitive information that might pose privacy concerns. While the video can be encrypted and stored in the cloud that way, it can still be accessed once the keys are exposed to third parties which is completely insecure. To prevent such insecurity, in this paper, we propose proxy re-encryption based sharing scheme to enable third parties to access only limited videos without having the original encryption key. The costly pairing operations in proxy re-encryption are not used to allow rapid access and delivery of the surveillance videos to third parties. The key management is handled by a trusted control center, which acts as the proxy to re-encrypt the data. We implemented and tested the approach in a realistic simulation environment using different resolutions under ns-3. The implementation results and comparisons indicate that there is an acceptable overhead while it can still preserve the privacy of drivers and passengers.
Chen, Z., Chen, J., Meng, W..  2020.  A New Dynamic Conditional Proxy Broadcast Re-Encryption Scheme for Cloud Storage and Sharing. 2020 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :569–576.
Security of cloud storage and sharing is concerned for years since a semi-trusted party, Cloud Server Provider (CSP), has access to user data on cloud server that may leak users' private data without constraint. Intuitively, an efficient solution of protecting cloud data is to encrypt it before uploading to the cloud server. However, a new requirement, data sharing, makes it difficult to manage secret keys among data owners and target users. Therefore conditional proxy broadcast re-encryption technology (CPBRE) is proposed in recent years to provide data encryption and sharing approaches for cloud environment. It enables a data owner to upload encrypted data to the cloud server and a third party proxy can re-encrypted cloud data under certain condition to a new ciphertext so that target users can decrypt re-encrypted data using their own private key. But few CPBRE schemes are applicable for a dynamic cloud environment. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic conditional proxy broadcast reencryption scheme that can be dynamic in system user setting and target user group. The initialization phase does not require a fixed system user setup so that users can join or leave the system in any time. And data owner can dynamically change the group of user he wants to share data with. We also provide security analysis which proves our scheme to be secure against CSP, and performance analysis shows that our scheme exceeds other schemes in terms of functionality and resource cost.
Huang, K..  2020.  Online/Offline Revocable Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Encryption for Edge Computing. 2020 12th International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation (ICMTMA). :563–568.
Multi-authority attribute-based encryption (MA-ABE) is a promising technique to achieve fine-grained access control over encrypted data in cross domain applications. However, the dynamic change of users' access privilege brings security problems, and the heavy encryption computational cost is issue for resource-constrained users in IoT. Moreover, the invalid or illegal ciphertext will waste system resources. We propose a large universe MA-CP-ABE scheme with revocation and online/offline encryption. In our scheme, an efficient revocation mechanism is designed to change users' access privilege timely. Most of the encryption operations have been executed in the user's initialization phase by adding reusable ciphertext pool besides splitting the encryption algorithm to online encryption and offline encryption. Moreover, the scheme supports ciphertext verification and only valid ciphertext can be stored and transmitted. The proposed scheme is proven statically secure under the q-DPBDHE2 assumption. The performance analysis results indicate that the proposed scheme is efficient and suitable for resource constrained users in edge computing for IoT.
Zhu, L., Zhou, X., Zhang, X..  2020.  A Reversible Meaningful Image Encryption Scheme Based on Block Compressive Sensing. 2020 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Information Communication and Signal Processing (ICICSP). :326–330.
An efficient and reversible meaningful image encryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The plain image is first compressed and encrypted simultaneously by Adaptive Block Compressive Sensing (ABCS) framework to create a noise-like secret image. Next, Least Significant Bit (LSB) embedding is employed to embed the secret image into a carrier image to generate the final meaningful cipher image. In this scheme, ABCS improves the compression and efficiency performance, and the embedding and extraction operations are absolutely reversible. The simulation results and security analyses are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness, compression, secrecy of the proposed scheme.
Reshma, S., Shaila, K., Venugopal, K. R..  2020.  DEAVD - Data Encryption and Aggregation using Voronoi Diagram for Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 Fourth World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4). :635–638.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are applied in environmental monitoring, military surveillance, etc., whereas these applications focuses on providing security for sensed data and the nodes are available for a long time. Hence, we propose DEAVD protocol for secure data exchange with limited usage of energy. The DEAVD protocol compresses data to reduces the energy consumption and implements an energy efficient encryption and decryption technique using voronoi diagram paradigm. Thus, there is an improvement in the proposed protocol with respect to security due to the concept adapted during data encryption and aggregation.
Zhang, Z., Wang, Z., Li, S..  2020.  Research and Implementation on an Efficient Public Key Encryption Algorithm with Keyword Search Scheme. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analytics (ICCCBDA). :314–319.
With the rapid development of network storage service, a number of companies and individuals have stored data on a third-party server. Encryption is an effective means of protecting the confidentiality and privacy of data, but retrieval on the encrypted data is a very difficult task. Thus, searchable encryption has become a hot topic in recent years. The paper first introduces the existing searchable encryption algorithms. Then studies the new PEKS scheme (NPEKS) and analyzes its performance and efficiency. In the end, based on NPEKS, introduced attribute encryption, designed a scheme which is suitable for corporate cloud storage environment. This scheme not only has the advantages of simplicity and efficiency, but also can realize the secret retrieval of the third-party data. Experiments show that comparing with existing PEKS schemes and other improved schemes, this scheme has the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency. In addition, its security is the same as existing PEKS schemes.
Drakopoulos, G., Giotopoulos, K., Giannoukou, I., Sioutas, S..  2020.  Unsupervised Discovery Of Semantically Aware Communities With Tensor Kruskal Decomposition: A Case Study In Twitter. 2020 15th International Workshop on Semantic and Social Media Adaptation and Personalization (SMA. :1–8.
Substantial empirical evidence, including the success of synthetic graph generation models as well as of analytical methodologies, suggests that large, real graphs have a recursive community structure. The latter results, in part at least, in other important properties of these graphs such as low diameter, high clustering coefficient values, heavy degree distribution tail, and clustered graph spectrum. Notice that this structure need not be official or moderated like Facebook groups, but it can also take an ad hoc and unofficial form depending on the functionality of the social network under study as for instance the follow relationship on Twitter or the connections between news aggregators on Reddit. Community discovery is paramount in numerous applications such as political campaigns, digital marketing, crowdfunding, and fact checking. Here a tensor representation for Twitter subgraphs is proposed which takes into consideration both the followfollower relationships but also the coherency in hashtags. Community structure discovery then reduces to the computation of Tucker tensor decomposition, a higher order counterpart of the well-known unsupervised learning method of singular value decomposition (SVD). Tucker decomposition clearly outperforms the SVD in terms of finding a more compact community size distribution in experiments done in Julia on a Twitter subgraph. This can be attributed to the facts that the proposed methodology combines both structural and functional Twitter elements and that hashtags carry an increased semantic weight in comparison to ordinary tweets.
Liang, Y., Bai, L., Shao, J., Cheng, Y..  2020.  Application of Tensor Decomposition Methods In Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography Sequences Processing. 2020 International Conference on Sensing, Measurement Data Analytics in the era of Artificial Intelligence (ICSMD). :401–406.
Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography (ECPT) is widely used in Nondestructive Testing (NDT) of metal defects where the defect information is sometimes affected by coil noise and edge noise, therefore, it is necessary to segment the ECPT image sequences to improve the detection effect, that is, segmenting the defect part from the background. At present, the methods widely used in ECPT are mostly based on matrix decomposition theory. In fact, tensor decomposition is a new hotspot in the field of image segmentation and has been widely used in many image segmentation scenes, but it is not a general method in ECPT. This paper analyzes the feasibility of the usage of tensor decomposition in ECPT and designs several experiments on different samples to verify the effects of two popular tensor decomposition algorithms in ECPT. This paper also compares the matrix decomposition methods and the tensor decomposition methods in terms of treatment effect, time cost, detection success rate, etc. Through the experimental results, this paper points out the advantages and disadvantages of tensor decomposition methods in ECPT and analyzes the suitable engineering application scenarios of tensor decomposition in ECPT.
Omori, T., Isono, Y., Kondo, K., Akamine, Y., Kidera, S..  2020.  k-Space Decomposition Based Super-resolution Three-dimensional Imaging Method for Millimeter Wave Radar. 2020 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarConf20). :1–6.
Millimeter wave imaging radar is indispensible for collision avoidance of self-driving system, especially in optically blurred visions. The range points migration (RPM) is one of the most promising imaging algorithms, which provides a number of advantages from synthetic aperture radar (SAR), in terms of accuracy, computational complexity, and potential for multifunctional imaging. The inherent problem in the RPM is that it suffers from lower angular resolution in narrower frequency band even if higher frequency e.g. millimeter wave, signal is exploited. To address this problem, the k-space decomposition based RPM has been developed. This paper focuses on the experimental validation of this method using the X-band or millimeter wave radar system, and demonstrated that our method significantly enhances the reconstruction accuracy in three-dimensional images for the two simple spheres and realistic vehicle targets.
Myasnikova, N., Beresten, M. P., Myasnikova, M. G..  2020.  Development of Decomposition Methods for Empirical Modes Based on Extremal Filtration. 2020 Moscow Workshop on Electronic and Networking Technologies (MWENT). :1–4.
The method of extremal filtration implementing the decomposition of signals into alternating components is considered. The history of the method development is described, its mathematical substantiation is given. The method suggests signal decomposition based on the removal of known components locally determined by their extrema. The similarity of the method with empirical modes decomposition in terms of the result is shown, and their comparison is also carried out. The algorithm of extremal filtration has a simple mathematical basis that does not require the calculation of transcendental functions, which provides it with higher performance with comparable results. The advantages and disadvantages of the extremal filtration method are analyzed, and the possibility of its application for solving various technical problems is shown, i.e. the formation of diagnostic features, rapid analysis of signals, spectral and time-frequency analysis, etc. The methods for calculating spectral characteristics are described: by the parameters of the distinguished components, based on the approximation on the extrema by bell-shaped pulses. The method distribution in case of wavelet transform of signals is described. The method allows obtaining rapid evaluation of the frequencies and amplitudes (powers) of the components, which can be used as diagnostic features in solving problems of recognition, diagnosis and monitoring. The possibility of using extremal filtration in real-time systems is shown.
Wu, Y., Olson, G. F., Peretti, L., Wallmark, O..  2020.  Harmonic Plane Decomposition: An Extension of the Vector-Space Decomposition - Part I. IECON 2020 The 46th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :985–990.
In this first paper of a two-part series, the harmonic plane decomposition is introduced, which is an extension of the vector-space decomposition. In multiphase electrical machines with variable phase-pole configurations, the vector-space decomposition leads to a varying numbers of vector spaces when changing the configuration. Consequently, the model and current control become discontinuous. The method in this paper is based on samples of each single slot currents, similarly to a discrete Fourier transformation in the space domain that accounts for the winding configuration. It unifies the Clarke transformation for all possible phase-pole configurations such that a fixed number of orthogonal harmonic planes are created, which facilitates the current control during reconfigurations. The presented method is not only limited to the modeling of multiphase electrical machines but all kinds of existing machines can be modeled. In the second part of this series, the harmonic plane decomposition will be completed for all types of machine configurations.