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Gomathi, R. M., Keerthana, Kare, Priyanka, Kamatham, Anandhi, T..  2020.  Energy Efficient Data Gathering Scheme in Underwater Sensor Networks. 2020 5th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :480—485.
In this paper, an energy routing algorithm, called SAODV (secure Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector) is designed for ad hoc mobile networks. SAODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing. It is an on demand algorithm, meaning that it builds routes between nodes only as desired by source nodes. It maintains these routes as long as they are needed by the sources. Additionally, SAODV forms trees which connect multicast group members. The trees are composed of the group members and the nodes needed to connect the members. Extensive simulations are conducted to study the power consumption, the end-to-end delay, and the network throughput of our protocols compared with existing protocols. Efficiently handling losses in wireless environments, therefore, has significant importance. Even under benign conditions, various factors, like fading, interference, multi-path effects, and collisions, lead to heavy loss rates on wireless links.
Ozmen, Alper, Yildiz, Huseyin Ugur, Tavli, Bulent.  2020.  Impact of Minimizing the Eavesdropping Risks on Lifetime of Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. 2020 28th Telecommunications Forum (℡FOR). :1—4.
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) are often deployed in hostile environments, and they face many security threats. Moreover, due to the harsh characteristics of the underwater environment, UASNs are vulnerable to malicious attacks. One of the most dangerous security threats is the eavesdropping attack, where an adversary silently collects the information exchanged between the sensor nodes. Although careful assignment of transmission power levels and optimization of data flow paths help alleviate the extent of eavesdropping attacks, the network lifetime can be negatively affected since routing could be established using sub-optimal paths in terms of energy efficiency. In this work, two optimization models are proposed where the first model minimizes the potential eavesdropping risks in the network while the second model maximizes the network lifetime under a certain level of an eavesdropping risk. The results show that network lifetimes obtained when the eavesdropping risks are minimized significantly shorter than the network lifetimes obtained without considering any eavesdropping risks. Furthermore, as the countermeasures against the eavesdropping risks are relaxed, UASN lifetime is shown to be prolonged, significantly.
Kore, Ashwini, Patil, Shailaja.  2020.  Robust Cross-Layer Security Framework For Internet of Things Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :142—147.

The significant development of Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm for monitoring the real-time applications using the wireless communication technologies leads to various challenges. The secure data transmission and privacy is one of the key challenges of IoT enabled Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) communications. Due to heterogeneity of attackers like Man-in-Middle Attack (MIMA), the present single layered security solutions are not sufficient. In this paper, the robust cross-layer trust computation algorithm for MIMA attacker detection proposed for IoT enabled WSNs called IoT enabled Cross-Layer Man-in-Middle Attack Detection System (IC-MADS). In IC-MADS, first robust clustering method proposed to form the clusters and cluster head (CH) preference. After clustering, for every sensor node, its trust value computed using the parameters of three layers such as MAC, Physical, and Network layers to protect the network communications in presence of security threats. The simulation results prove that IC-MADS achieves better protection against MIMA attacks with minimum overhead and energy consumption.

Joykutty, A. M., Baranidharan, B..  2020.  Cognitive Radio Networks: Recent Advances in Spectrum Sensing Techniques and Security. 2020 International Conference on Smart Electronics and Communication (ICOSEC). :878–884.
Wireless networks are very significant in the present world owing to their widespread use and its application in domains like disaster management, smart cities, IoT etc. A wireless network is made up of a group of wireless nodes that communicate with each other without using any formal infrastructure. The topology of the wireless network is not fixed and it can vary. The huge increase in the number of wireless devices is a challenge owing to the limited availability of wireless spectrum. Opportunistic spectrum access by Cognitive radio enables the efficient usage of limited spectrum resources. The unused channels assigned to the primary users may go waste in idle time. Cognitive radio systems will sense the unused channel space and assigns it temporarily for secondary users. This paper discusses about the recent trends in the two most important aspects of Cognitive radio namely spectrum sensing and security.
Oakley, I..  2020.  Solutions to Black Hole Attacks in MANETs. 2020 12th International Symposium on Communication Systems, Networks and Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP). :1–6.
Self-organising networks, such as mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), are growing more and more in importance each day. However, due to their nature and constraints MANETs are vulnerable to a wide array of attacks, such as black hole attacks. Furthermore, there are numerous routing protocols in use in MANETs, and what works for one might not for another. In this paper, we present a review of previous surveys of black hole attack solutions, followed by a collation of recently published papers categorised by original routing protocol and evaluated on a set of common metrics. Finally, we suggest areas for further research.
Fiade, A., Triadi, A. Yudha, Sulhi, A., Masruroh, S. Ummi, Handayani, V., Suseno, H. Bayu.  2020.  Performance Analysis of Black Hole Attack and Flooding Attack AODV Routing Protocol on VANET (Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network). 2020 8th International Conference on Cyber and IT Service Management (CITSM). :1–5.
Wireless technology is widely used today and is growing rapidly. One of the wireless technologies is VANET where the network can communicate with vehicles (V2V) which can prevent accidents on the road. Energy is also a problem in VANET so it needs to be used efficiently. The presence of malicious nodes or nodes can eliminate and disrupt the process of data communication. The routing protocol used in this study is AODV. The purpose of this study is to analyze the comparison of blackhole attack and flooding attack against energy-efficient AODV on VANET. This research uses simulation methods and several supporting programs such as OpenStreetMap, SUMO, NS2, NAM, and AWK to test the AODV routing protocol. Quality of service (QOS) parameters used in this study are throughput, packet loss, and end to end delay. Energy parameters are also used to examine the energy efficiency used. This study uses the number of variations of nodes consisting of 20 nodes, 40 nodes, 60 nodes, and different network conditions, namely normal network conditions, network conditions with black hole attacks, and network conditions with flooding attacks. The results obtained can be concluded that the highest value of throughput when network conditions are normal, the greatest value of packet loss when there is a black hole attack, the highest end to end delay value and the largest remaining energy when there is a flooding attack.
Chowdary, S. S., Ghany, M. A. Abd El, Hofmann, K..  2020.  IoT based Wireless Energy Efficient Smart Metering System Using ZigBee in Smart Cities. 2020 7th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :1–4.
Electricity has become the primary need of human life. The emerging of IoT concept recently in our lives, has offered the chance to establish energy efficient smart devices, systems and cities. Due to the urging need for conserving energy, this paper proposes an IoT based wireless energy efficient smart metering systems for smart cities. A network of smart meters is achieved to deliver the energy consumption data to the Energy/Utility provider. The star and mesh topologies are used in creating the network of smart meters in order to increase the distance of coverage. The proposed system offers an easily operated application for users as well as a Website and database for electricity Supplier Company. The proposed system design has an accuracy level of 95% and it is about 35% lower cost than its peer in the global market. The proposed design reduced the power consumption by 25%.
Krasnov, A. N., Prakhova, M. Y., Novikova, U. V..  2020.  Ensuring Cybersecurity of Data Transmission in Limited Energy Consumption Networks. 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1—5.

In the northern gas fields, most data are transmitted via wireless networks, which requires special transmission security measures. Herewith, the gas field infrastructure dictates cybersecurity modules to not only meet standard requirements but also ensure reduced energy consumption. The paper discusses the issue of building such a module for a process control system based on the RTP-04M recorder operating in conjunction with an Android-based mobile device. The software options used for the RSA and Diffie-Hellman data encryption and decryption algorithms on both the RTP-04M and the Android-based mobile device sides in the Keil μVision4 and Android Studio software environments, respectively, have shown that the Diffie-Hellman algorithm is preferable. It provides significant savings in RAM and CPU resources and power consumption of the recorder. In terms of energy efficiency, the implemented programs have been analyzed in the Android Studio (Android Profiler) and Simplicity Studio (Advanced Energy Monitor) environments. The integration of this module into the existing software will improve the field's PCS cybersecurity level due to protecting data transmitted from third-party attacks.

Ayers, H., Crews, P., Teo, H., McAvity, C., Levy, A., Levis, P..  2020.  Design Considerations for Low Power Internet Protocols. 2020 16th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :103–111.
Low-power wireless networks provide IPv6 connectivity through 6LoWPAN, a set of standards to aggressively compress IPv6 packets over small maximum transfer unit (MTU) links such as 802.15.4.The entire purpose of IP was to interconnect different networks, but we find that different 6LoWPAN implementations fail to reliably communicate with one another. These failures are due to stacks implementing different subsets of the standard out of concern for code size. We argue that this failure stems from 6LoWPAN's design, not implementation, and is due to applying traditional Internet protocol design principles to low- power networks.We propose three design principles for Internet protocols on low-power networks, designed to prevent similar failures in the future. These principles are based around the importance of providing flexible tradeoffs between code size and energy efficiency. We apply these principles to 6LoWPAN and show that the modified protocol provides a wide range of implementation strategies while allowing implementations with different strategies to reliably communicate.
Portaluri, G., Giordano, S..  2020.  Gambling on fairness: a fair scheduler for IIoT communications based on the shell game. 2020 IEEE 25th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). :1–6.
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) paradigm represents nowadays the cornerstone of the industrial automation since it has introduced new features and services for different environments and has granted the connection of industrial machine sensors and actuators both to local processing and to the Internet. One of the most advanced network protocol stack for IoT-IIoT networks that have been developed is 6LoWPAN which supports IPv6 on top of Low-power Wireless Personal Area Networks (LoWPANs). 6LoWPAN is usually coupled with the IEEE 802.15.4 low-bitrate and low-energy MAC protocol that relies on the time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) technique. In TSCH networks, a coordinator node synchronizes all end-devices and specifies whether (and when) they can transmit or not in order to improve their energy efficiency. In this scenario, the scheduling strategy adopted by the coordinator plays a crucial role that impacts dramatically on the network performance. In this paper, we present a novel scheduling strategy for time-slot allocation in IIoT communications which aims at the improvement of the overall network fairness. The proposed strategy mimics the well-known shell game turning the totally unfair mechanics of this game into a fair scheduling strategy. We compare our proposal with three allocation strategies, and we evaluate the fairness of each scheduler showing that our allocator outperforms the others.
Labib, N. S., Brust, M. R., Danoy, G., Bouvry, P..  2019.  Trustworthiness in IoT – A Standards Gap Analysis on Security, Data Protection and Privacy. 2019 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN). :1–7.
With the emergence of new digital trends like Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilising such technologies as they promise a better and optimised management, improved energy efficiency and a better quality living through a wide array of value-added services. However, as sensing, actuation, communication and control become increasingly more sophisticated, such promising data-driven systems generate, process, and exchange larger amounts of security-critical and privacy-sensitive data, which makes them attractive targets of attacks. In turn this affirms the importance of trustworthiness in IoT and emphasises the need of a solid technical and regulatory foundation. The goal of this paper is to first introduce the concept of trustworthiness in IoT, its main pillars namely, security, privacy and data protection, and then analyse the state-of-the-art in research and standardisation for each of these subareas. Throughout the paper, we develop and refer to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a promising value-added service example of mobile IoT devices. The paper then presents a thorough gap analysis and concludes with recommendations for future work.
Ramapatruni, S., Narayanan, S. N., Mittal, S., Joshi, A., Joshi, K..  2019.  Anomaly Detection Models for Smart Home Security. 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :19–24.
Recent years have seen significant growth in the adoption of smart homes devices. These devices provide convenience, security, and energy efficiency to users. For example, smart security cameras can detect unauthorized movements, and smoke sensors can detect potential fire accidents. However, many recent examples have shown that they open up a new cyber threat surface. There have been several recent examples of smart devices being hacked for privacy violations and also misused so as to perform DDoS attacks. In this paper, we explore the application of big data and machine learning to identify anomalous activities that can occur in a smart home environment. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is trained on network level sensor data, created from a test bed with multiple sensors and smart devices. The generated HMM model is shown to achieve an accuracy of 97% in identifying potential anomalies that indicate attacks. We present our approach to build this model and compare with other techniques available in the literature.
Hossain, M. S., Ramli, M. R., Lee, J. M., Kim, D.-S..  2019.  Fog Radio Access Networks in Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) and Load Balancing Technology. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :750—754.

The recent trend of military is to combined Internet of Things (IoT) knowledge to their field for enhancing the impact in battlefield. That's why Internet of battlefield (IoBT) is our concern. This paper discusses how Fog Radio Access Network(F-RAN) can provide support for local computing in Industrial IoT and IoBT. F-RAN can play a vital role because of IoT devices are becoming popular and the fifth generation (5G) communication is also an emerging issue with ultra-low latency, energy consumption, bandwidth efficiency and wide range of coverage area. To overcome the disadvantages of cloud radio access networks (C-RAN) F-RAN can be introduced where a large number of F-RAN nodes can take part in joint distributed computing and content sharing scheme. The F-RAN in IoBT is effective for enhancing the computing ability with fog computing and edge computing at the network edge. Since the computing capability of the fog equipment are weak, to overcome the difficulties of fog computing in IoBT this paper illustrates some challenging issues and solutions to improve battlefield efficiency. Therefore, the distributed computing load balancing problem of the F-RAN is researched. The simulation result indicates that the load balancing strategy has better performance for F-RAN architecture in the battlefield.

Fraiji, Yosra, Ben Azzouz, Lamia, Trojet, Wassim, Saidane, Leila Azouz.  2018.  Cyber security issues of Internet of electric vehicles. 2018 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1—6.

The use of Electric Vehicle (EV) is growing rapidly due to its environmental benefits. However, the major problem of these vehicles is their limited battery, the lack of charging stations and the re-charge time. Introducing Information and Communication Technologies, in the field of EV, will improve energy efficiency, energy consumption predictions, availability of charging stations, etc. The Internet of Vehicles based only on Electric Vehicles (IoEV) is a complex system. It is composed of vehicles, humans, sensors, road infrastructure and charging stations. All these entities communicate using several communication technologies (ZigBee, 802.11p, cellular networks, etc). IoEV is therefore vulnerable to significant attacks such as DoS, false data injection, modification. Hence, security is a crucial factor for the development and the wide deployment of Internet of Electric Vehicles (IoEV). In this paper, we present an overview of security issues of the IoEV architecture and we highlight open issues that make the IoEV security a challenging research area in the future.

Sajyth, RB, Sujatha, G.  2018.  Design of Data Confidential and Reliable Bee Clustering Routing Protocol in MANET. 2018 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1—7.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) requires extraneous energy effectualness and legion intelligence for which a best clustered based approach is pertained called the “Bee-Ad Hoc-C”. In MANET the mechanism of multi-hop routing is imperative but may leads to a challenging issue like lack of data privacy during communication. ECC (Elliptical Curve Cryptography) is integrated with the Bee clustering approach to provide an energy efficient and secure data delivery system. Even though it ensures data confidentiality, data reliability is still disputable such as data dropping attack, Black hole attack (Attacker router drops the data without forwarding to destination). In such cases the technique of overhearing is utilized by the neighbor routers and the packet forwarding statistics are measured based on the ratio between the received and forwarded packets. The presence of attack is detected if the packet forwarding ratio is poor in the network which paves a way to the alternate path identification for a reliable data transmission. The proposed work is an integration of SC-AODV along with ECC in Bee clustering approach with an extra added overhearing technique which n on the whole ensures data confidentiality, data reliability and energy efficiency.
Uyan, O. Gokhan, Gungor, V. Cagri.  2019.  Lifetime Analysis of Underwater Wireless Networks Concerning Privacy with Energy Harvesting and Compressive Sensing. 2019 27th Signal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU). :1–4.
Underwater sensor networks (UWSN) are a division of classical wireless sensor networks (WSN), which are designed to accomplish both military and civil operations, such as invasion detection and underwater life monitoring. Underwater sensor nodes operate using the energy provided by integrated limited batteries, and it is a serious challenge to replace the battery under the water especially in harsh conditions with a high number of sensor nodes. Here, energy efficiency confronts as a very important issue. Besides energy efficiency, data privacy is another essential topic since UWSN typically generate delicate sensing data. UWSN can be vulnerable to silent positioning and listening, which is injecting similar adversary nodes into close locations to the network to sniff transmitted data. In this paper, we discuss the usage of compressive sensing (CS) and energy harvesting (EH) to improve the lifetime of the network whilst we suggest a novel encryption decision method to maintain privacy of UWSN. We also deploy a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model to optimize the encryption decision cases which leads to an improved network lifetime.
Sani, Abubakar Sadiq, Yuan, Dong, Bao, Wei, Dong, Zhao Yang, Vucetic, Branka, Bertino, Elisa.  2019.  Universally Composable Key Bootstrapping and Secure Communication Protocols for the Energy Internet. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 14:2113–2127.
The Energy Internet is an advanced smart grid solution to increase energy efficiency by jointly operating multiple energy resources via the Internet. However, such an increasing integration of energy resources requires secure and efficient communication in the Energy Internet. To address such a requirement, we propose a new secure key bootstrapping protocol to support the integration and operation of energy resources. By using a universal composability model that provides a strong security notion for designing and analyzing cryptographic protocols, we define an ideal functionality that supports several cryptographic primitives used in this paper. Furthermore, we provide an ideal functionality for key bootstrapping and secure communication, which allows exchanged session keys to be used for secure communication in an ideal manner. We propose the first secure key bootstrapping protocol that enables a user to verify the identities of other users before key bootstrapping. We also present a secure communication protocol for unicast and multicast communications. The ideal functionalities help in the design and analysis of the proposed protocols. We perform some experiments to validate the performance of our protocols, and the results show that our protocols are superior to the existing related protocols and are suitable for the Energy Internet. As a proof of concept, we apply our functionalities to a practical key bootstrapping protocol, namely generic bootstrapping architecture.
Bundalo, Zlatko, Veljko, Momčilo, Bundalo, Dušanka, Kuzmić, Goran, Sajić, Mirko, Ramakić, Adnan.  2019.  Energy Efficient Embedded Systems for LED Lighting Control in Traffic. 2019 8th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO). :1–4.
The paper considers, proposes and describes possibilities and ways for application, design and implementation of energy efficient microprocessor based embedded systems for LED lighting control in the traffic. Using LED lighting technology and appropriate designed embedded systems it is possible to implement very efficient and smart systems for very wide range of applications in the traffic. This type of systems can be widely used in many places in the traffic where there is needed quality lighting and low energy consumption. Application of such systems enables to increase energy consumption efficiency, quality of lighting and security of traffic and to decrease total costs for the lighting. Way of design and use of such digital embedded system to effectively increase functionality and efficiency of lighting in the traffic is proposed and described. It is also proposed and described one practically designed and implemented simple and universal embedded system for LED lighting control for many applications in the traffic.
Ko, Eunbi, M, Delphin Raj K, Yum, Sun-Ho, Shin, Soo-Young, Namgung, Jung-Il, Park, Soo-Hyun.  2019.  Selection Mechanism for Underwater Multi-Media Communication. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :130–132.
As the ocean covers 70% of the Earth's surface, it becomes inevitable to develop or extend underwater applications. Compared to Visible Light medium, Acoustic medium has been widely used to transmit the data from source to destination in underwater communication. Data transmission, however, has the limitation such as propagation delay, reliability, power constraints, etc. Although underwater MAC protocols have been developed to overcome these challenges, there are still some drawbacks due to the harsh underwater environment. Therefore, the selection mechanism for underwater multi-media communication is proposed inside Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. In this paper, the main focus is to select the appropriate medium based on the distance between nodes and transmission power. The result of performance evaluation shows that this multimedia approach can complement the existing underwater single medium communication. As a result, underwater multimedia mechanism increases the reliability and energy efficiency in data transmission.
Kumar, A. Ranjith, Sivagami, A..  2019.  Balanced Load Clustering with Trusted Multipath Relay Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network. 2019 Innovations in Power and Advanced Computing Technologies (i-PACT). 1:1–6.

Clustering is one of an eminent mechanism which deals with large number of nodes and effective consumption of energy in wireless sensor networks (WSN). Balanced Load Clustering is used to balance the channel bandwidth by incorporating the concept of HMAC. Presently several research studies works to improve the quality of service and energy efficiency of WSN but the security issues are not taken care of. Relay based multipath trust is one of the methods to secure the network. To this end, a novel approach called Balanced Load Clustering with Trusted Multipath Relay Routing Protocol (BLC-TMR2) to improve the performance of the network. The proposed protocol consists of two algorithms. Initially in order to reduce the energy consumption of the network, balanced load clustering (BLC) concepts is introduced. Secondly to secure the network from the malicious activity trusted multipath relay routing protocol (TMR2) is used. Multipath routing is monitored by the relay node and it computed the trust values. Network simulation (NS2) software is used to obtain the results and the results prove that the proposed system performs better the earlier methods the in terms of efficiency, consumption, QoS and throughput.

Liu, Ying, He, Qiang, Zheng, Dequan, Zhang, Mingwei, Chen, Feifei, Zhang, Bin.  2019.  Data Caching Optimization in the Edge Computing Environment. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). :99–106.

With the rapid increase in the use of mobile devices in people's daily lives, mobile data traffic is exploding in recent years. In the edge computing environment where edge servers are deployed around mobile users, caching popular data on edge servers can ensure mobile users' fast access to those data and reduce the data traffic between mobile users and the centralized cloud. Existing studies consider the data cache problem with a focus on the reduction of network delay and the improvement of mobile devices' energy efficiency. In this paper, we attack the data caching problem in the edge computing environment from the service providers' perspective, who would like to maximize their venues of caching their data. This problem is complicated because data caching produces benefits at a cost and there usually is a trade-off in-between. In this paper, we formulate the data caching problem as an integer programming problem, and maximizes the revenue of the service provider while satisfying a constraint for data access latency. Extensive experiments are conducted on a real-world dataset that contains the locations of edge servers and mobile users, and the results reveal that our approach significantly outperform the baseline approaches.

Ullah, N., Ali, S. M., Khan, B., Mehmood, C. A., Anwar, S. M., Majid, M., Farid, U., Nawaz, M. A., Ullah, Z..  2019.  Energy Efficiency: Digital Signal Processing Interactions Within Smart Grid. 2019 International Conference on Engineering and Emerging Technologies (ICEET). :1–6.
Smart Grid (SG) is regarded as complex electrical power system due to massive penetration of Renewable Energy Resources and Distribution Generations. The implementation of adjustable speed drives, advance power electronic devices, and electric arc furnaces are incorporated in SG (the transition from conventional power system). Moreover, SG is an advance, automated, controlled, efficient, digital, and intelligent system that ensures pertinent benefits, such as: (a) consumer empowerment, (b) advanced communication infrastructure, (c) user-friendly system, and (d) supports bi-directional power flow. Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is key tool for SG deployment and provides key solutions to a vast array of complex SG challenges. This research provides a comprehensive study on DSP interactions within SG. The prominent challenges posed by conventional grid, such as: (a) monitoring and control, (b) Electric Vehicles infrastructure, (c) cyber data injection attack, (d) Demand Response management and (e) cyber data injection attack are thoroughly investigated in this research.
Chawla, Nikhil, Singh, Arvind, Rahman, Nael Mizanur, Kar, Monodeep, Mukhopadhyay, Saibal.  2019.  Extracting Side-Channel Leakage from Round Unrolled Implementations of Lightweight Ciphers. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :31–40.

Energy efficiency and security is a critical requirement for computing at edge nodes. Unrolled architectures for lightweight cryptographic algorithms have been shown to be energy-efficient, providing higher performance while meeting resource constraints. Hardware implementations of unrolled datapaths have also been shown to be resistant to side channel analysis (SCA) attacks due to a reduction in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and an increased complexity in the leakage model. This paper demonstrates optimal leakage models and an improved CFA attack which makes it feasible to extract first-order side-channel leakages from combinational logic in the initial rounds of unrolled datapaths. Several leakage models, targeting initial rounds, are explored and 1-bit hamming weight (HW) based leakage model is shown to be an optimal choice. Additionally, multi-band narrow bandpass filtering techniques in conjunction with correlation frequency analysis (CFA) is demonstrated to improve SNR by up to 4×, attributed to the removal of the misalignment effect in combinational logics and signal isolation. The improved CFA attack is performed on side channel signatures acquired for 7-round unrolled SIMON datapaths, implemented on Sakura-G (XILINX spartan 6, 45nm) based FPGA platform and a 24× reduction in minimum-traces-to-disclose (MTD) for revealing 80% of the key bits is demonstrated with respect to conventional time domain correlation power analysis (CPA). Finally, the proposed method is successfully applied to a fully-unrolled datapath for PRINCE and a parallel round-based datapath for Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) algorithm to demonstrate its general applicability.

Bardoutsos, Andreas, Filios, Gabriel, Katsidimas, Ioannis, Nikoletseas, Sotiris.  2019.  Energy Efficient Algorithm for Multihop BLE Networks on Resource-Constrained Devices. 2019 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS). :400–407.

Bluetooth Low Energy is a fast growing protocol which has gained wide acceptance during last years. Key features for this growth are its high data rate and its ultra low energy consumption, making it the perfect candidate for piconets. However, the lack of expandability without serious impact on its energy consumption profile, prevents its adoption on more complex systems which depend on long network lifetime. Thus, a lot of academic research has been focused on the solution of BLE expandability problem and BLE mesh has been introduced on the latest Bluetooth version. In our point of view, most of the related work cannot be efficiently implemented in networks which are mostly comprised of constrained-resource nodes. Thus, we propose a new energy efficient tree algorithm for BLE static constrained-resources networks, which achieves a longer network lifetime by both reducing as much as possible the number of needed connection events and balancing the energy dissipation in the network.

Zhou, Liming, Shan, Yingzi, Chen, Xiaopan.  2019.  An Anonymous Routing Scheme for Preserving Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :262-265.

Wireless sensor networks consist of various sensors that are deployed to monitor the physical world. And many existing security schemes use traditional cryptography theory to protect message content and contextual information. However, we are concerned about location security of nodes. In this paper, we propose an anonymous routing strategy for preserving location privacy (ARPLP), which sets a proxy source node to hide the location of real source node. And the real source node randomly selects several neighbors as receivers until the packets are transmitted to the proxy source. And the proxy source is randomly selected so that the adversary finds it difficult to obtain the location information of the real source node. Meanwhile, our scheme sets a branch area around the sink, which can disturb the adversary by increasing the routing branch. According to the analysis and simulation experiments, our scheme can reduce traffic consumption and communication delay, and improve the security of source node and base station.