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Chen, Yifang, Kang, Xiangui, Wang, Z. Jane, Zhang, Qiong.  2018.  Densely Connected Convolutional Neural Network for Multi-purpose Image Forensics Under Anti-forensic Attacks. Proceedings of the 6th ACM Workshop on Information Hiding and Multimedia Security. :91–96.

Multiple-purpose forensics has been attracting increasing attention worldwide. However, most of the existing methods based on hand-crafted features often require domain knowledge and expensive human labour and their performances can be affected by factors such as image size and JPEG compression. Furthermore, many anti-forensic techniques have been applied in practice, making image authentication more difficult. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop methods that can automatically learn general and robust features for image operation detectors with the capability of countering anti-forensics. In this paper, we propose a new convolutional neural network (CNN) approach for multi-purpose detection of image manipulations under anti-forensic attacks. The dense connectivity pattern, which has better parameter efficiency than the traditional pattern, is explored to strengthen the propagation of general features related to image manipulation detection. When compared with three state-of-the-art methods, experiments demonstrate that the proposed CNN architecture can achieve a better performance (i.e., with a 11% improvement in terms of detection accuracy under anti-forensic attacks). The proposed method can also achieve better robustness against JPEG compression with maximum improvement of 13% on accuracy under low-quality JPEG compression.