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Teoh, T. T., Nguwi, Y. Y., Elovici, Y., Cheung, N. M., Ng, W. L..  2017.  Analyst Intuition Based Hidden Markov Model on High Speed, Temporal Cyber Security Big Data. 2017 13th International Conference on Natural Computation, Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery (ICNC-FSKD). :2080–2083.
Hidden Markov Models (HMM) are probabilistic models that can be used for forecasting time series data. It has seen success in various domains like finance [1-5], bioinformatics [6-8], healthcare [9-11], agriculture [12-14], artificial intelligence[15-17]. However, the use of HMM in cyber security found to date is numbered. We believe the properties of HMM being predictive, probabilistic, and its ability to model different naturally occurring states form a good basis to model cyber security data. It is hence the motivation of this work to provide the initial results of our attempts to predict security attacks using HMM. A large network datasets representing cyber security attacks have been used in this work to establish an expert system. The characteristics of attacker's IP addresses can be extracted from our integrated datasets to generate statistical data. The cyber security expert provides the weight of each attribute and forms a scoring system by annotating the log history. We applied HMM to distinguish between a cyber security attack, unsure and no attack by first breaking the data into 3 cluster using Fuzzy K mean (FKM), then manually label a small data (Analyst Intuition) and finally use HMM state-based approach. By doing so, our results are very encouraging as compare to finding anomaly in a cyber security log, which generally results in creating huge amount of false detection.
Carroll, T.E., Crouse, M., Fulp, E.W., Berenhaut, K.S..  2014.  Analysis of network address shuffling as a moving target defense. Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :701-706.

Address shuffling is a type of moving target defense that prevents an attacker from reliably contacting a system by periodically remapping network addresses. Although limited testing has demonstrated it to be effective, little research has been conducted to examine the theoretical limits of address shuffling. As a result, it is difficult to understand how effective shuffling is and under what circumstances it is a viable moving target defense. This paper introduces probabilistic models that can provide insight into the performance of address shuffling. These models quantify the probability of attacker success in terms of network size, quantity of addresses scanned, quantity of vulnerable systems, and the frequency of shuffling. Theoretical analysis shows that shuffling is an acceptable defense if there is a small population of vulnerable systems within a large network address space, however shuffling has a cost for legitimate users. These results will also be shown empirically using simulation and actual traffic traces.

Mehdi, Mohamad, Bouguila, Nizar, Bentahar, Jamal.  2014.  Correlated Multi-dimensional Qos Metrics for Trust Evaluation Within Web Services. Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems. :1605–1606.

Trust and reputation techniques have offered favorable solutions to the web service selection problem. In distributed systems, service consumers identify pools of service providers that offer similar functionalities. Therefore, the selection task is mostly influenced by the non-functional requirements of the consumers captured by a varied number of QoS metrics. In this paper, we present a QoS-aware trust model that leverages the correlation information among various QoS metrics. We compute the trustworthiness of web services based on probability theory by exploiting two statistical distributions, namely, Dirichlet and generalized Dirichlet, which represent the distributions of the outcomes of multi-dimensional correlated QoS metrics. We employ the Dirichlet and generalized Dirichlet when the QoS metrics are positively or negatively correlated, respectively. Experimental results endorse the advantageous capability of our model in capturing the correlation among QoS metrics and estimating the trustworthiness and reputation of service providers.