Visible to the public Biblio

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Figueiredo, N. M., Rodríguez, M. C..  2020.  Trustworthiness in Sensor Networks A Reputation-Based Method for Weather Stations. 2020 International Conference on Omni-layer Intelligent Systems (COINS). :1–6.
Trustworthiness is a soft-security feature that evaluates the correct behavior of nodes in a network. More specifically, this feature tries to answer the following question: how much should we trust in a certain node? To determine the trustworthiness of a node, our approach focuses on two reputation indicators: the self-data trust, which evaluates the data generated by the node itself taking into account its historical data; and the peer-data trust, which utilizes the nearest nodes' data. In this paper, we show how these two indicators can be calculated using the Gaussian Overlap and Pearson correlation. This paper includes a validation of our trustworthiness approach using real data from unofficial and official weather stations in Portugal. This is a representative scenario of the current situation in many other areas, with different entities providing different kinds of data using autonomous sensors in a continuous way over the networks.
Khan, Samar, Khodke, Priti A., Bhagat, Amol P..  2018.  An Approach to Fault Tolerant Key Generation and Secure Spread Spectrum Communiction. 2018 International Conference on Research in Intelligent and Computing in Engineering (RICE). :1—6.
Wireless communications have encountered a considerable improvement and have integrated human life through various applications, mainly by the widespread of mobile ad hoc and sensor networks. A fundamental characteristic of wireless communications are in their broadcast nature, which allows accessibility of information without placing restrictions on a user's location. However, accessibility also makes wireless communications vulnerable to eavesdropping. To enhance the security of network communication, we propose a separate key generation server which is responsible for key generation using complex random algorithm. The key will remain in database in encrypted format. To prevent brute force attack, we propose various group key generation algorithms in which every group will have separate group key to verify group member's identity. The group key will be verified with the session information before decryption, so that our system will prevent attack if any attacker knows the group key. To increase the security of the system, we propose three level encryption securities: Client side encryption using AES, Server side encryption using AES, and Artificial noise generation and addition. By using this our system is free from brute force attack as we are using three level message security and complex Random key generation algorithms.
Chen, Yanping, Ma, Long, Xia, Hong, Gao, Cong, Wang, Zhongmin, Yu, Zhong.  2019.  Trust-Based Distributed Kalman Filter Estimation Fusion under Malicious Cyber Attacks. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :2255—2260.

We consider distributed Kalman filter for dynamic state estimation over wireless sensor networks. It is promising but challenging when network is under cyber attacks. Since the information exchange between nodes, the malicious attacks quickly spread across the entire network, which causing large measurement errors and even to the collapse of sensor networks. Aiming at the malicious network attack, a trust-based distributed processing frame is proposed. Which allows neighbor nodes to exchange information, and a series of trusted nodes are found using truth discovery. As a demonstration, distributed Cooperative Localization is considered, and numerical results are provided to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach by considering random, false data injection and replay attacks.

Wang, Chong Xiao, Song, Yang, Tay, Wee Peng.  2018.  PRESERVING PARAMETER PRIVACY IN SENSOR NETWORKS. 2018 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP). :1316–1320.
We consider the problem of preserving the privacy of a set of private parameters while allowing inference of a set of public parameters based on observations from sensors in a network. We assume that the public and private parameters are correlated with the sensor observations via a linear model. We define the utility loss and privacy gain functions based on the Cramér-Rao lower bounds for estimating the public and private parameters, respectively. Our goal is to minimize the utility loss while ensuring that the privacy gain is no less than a predefined privacy gain threshold, by allowing each sensor to perturb its own observation before sending it to the fusion center. We propose methods to determine the amount of noise each sensor needs to add to its observation under the cases where prior information is available or unavailable.
Wang, Chong Xiao, Song, Yang, Tay, Wee Peng.  2018.  PRESERVING PARAMETER PRIVACY IN SENSOR NETWORKS. 2018 IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP). :1316–1320.
We consider the problem of preserving the privacy of a set of private parameters while allowing inference of a set of public parameters based on observations from sensors in a network. We assume that the public and private parameters are correlated with the sensor observations via a linear model. We define the utility loss and privacy gain functions based on the Cramér-Rao lower bounds for estimating the public and private parameters, respectively. Our goal is to minimize the utility loss while ensuring that the privacy gain is no less than a predefined privacy gain threshold, by allowing each sensor to perturb its own observation before sending it to the fusion center. We propose methods to determine the amount of noise each sensor needs to add to its observation under the cases where prior information is available or unavailable.
Thulasiraman, Preetha, Wang, Yizhong.  2019.  A Lightweight Trust-Based Security Architecture for RPL in Mobile IoT Networks. 2019 16th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–6.

Military communities have come to rely heavily on commercial off the shelf (COTS) standards and technologies for Internet of Things (IoT) operations. One of the major obstacles to military use of COTS IoT devices is the security of data transfer. In this paper, we successfully design and develop a lightweight, trust-based security architecture to support routing in a mobile IoT network. Specifically, we modify the RPL IoT routing algorithm using common security techniques, including a nonce identity value, timestamp, and network whitelist. Our approach allows RPL to select a routing path over a mobile IoT wireless network based on a computed node trust value and average received signal strength indicator (ARSSI) value across network members. We conducted simulations using the Cooja network simulator and Wireshark to validate the algorithm against stipulated threat models. We demonstrate that our algorithm can protect the network against Denial of Service (DoS) and Sybil based identity attacks. We also show that the control overhead required for our algorithm is less than 5% and that the packet delivery rate improves by nearly 10%.

Baranov, Nikita, Bashkin, Mikhail, Bashkin, Vladimir.  2019.  Self-Healing Anonymous Routing in Unstable Sensor Networks. 2019 7th International Conference on Future Internet of Things and Cloud (FiCloud). :88–95.
A lightweight decentralized adaptive anonymous routing scheme is presented that combines onion routing for the initial global route request and threshold-based secret sharing for the subsequent local route tuning/healing. The encrypted propagation of the partial routes information allows to handle minor network topology changes locally, without new route requests and with a limited deanonymization of participants. The intermediate node can discover/decrypt the local routing data only together with its designated neigbour (threshold-based secret sharing is used) and only in the event of a topology change.
Belej, Olexander, Nestor, Natalia, Polotai, Orest, Sadeckii, Jan.  2019.  Features of Application of Data Transmission Protocols in Wireless Networks of Sensors. 2019 3rd International Conference on Advanced Information and Communications Technologies (AICT). :317–322.
This article discusses the vulnerabilities and complexity of designing secure IoT-solutions, and then presents proven approaches to protecting devices and gateways. Specifically, security mechanisms such as device authentication (including certificate-based authentication), device authentication, and application a verification of identification are described. The authors consider a protocol of message queue telemetry transport for speech and sensor networks on the Internet, its features, application variants, and characteristic procedures. The principle of "publishersubscriber" is considered. An analysis of information elements and messages is carried out. The urgency of the theme is due to the rapid development of "publisher-subscriber" architecture, for which the protocol is most characteristic.
Marchang, Jims, Ibbotson, Gregg, Wheway, Paul.  2019.  Will Blockchain Technology Become a Reality in Sensor Networks? 2019 Wireless Days (WD). :1–4.
The need for sensors to deliver, communicate, collect, alert, and share information in various applications has made wireless sensor networks very popular. However, due to its limited resources in terms of computation power, battery life and memory storage of the sensor nodes, it is challenging to add security features to provide the confidentiality, integrity, and availability. Blockchain technology ensures security and avoids the need of any trusted third party. However, applying Blockchain in a resource-constrained wireless sensor network is a challenging task because Blockchain is power, computation, and memory hungry in nature and demands heavy bandwidth due to control overheads. In this paper, a new routing and a private communication Blockchain framework is designed and tested with Constant Bit rate (CBR). The proposed Load Balancing Multi-Hop (LBMH) routing shares and enhances the battery life of the Cluster Heads and reduce control overhead during Block updates, but due to limited storage and energy of the sensor nodes, Blockchain in sensor networks may never become a reality unless computation, storage and battery life are readily available at low cost.
Rani, Rinki, Kumar, Sushil, Dohare, Upasana.  2019.  Trust Evaluation for Light Weight Security in Sensor Enabled Internet of Things: Game Theory Oriented Approach. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:8421–8432.
In sensor-enabled Internet of Things (IoT), nodes are deployed in an open and remote environment, therefore, are vulnerable to a variety of attacks. Recently, trust-based schemes have played a pivotal role in addressing nodes' misbehavior attacks in IoT. However, the existing trust-based schemes apply network wide dissemination of the control packets that consume excessive energy in the quest of trust evaluation, which ultimately weakens the network lifetime. In this context, this paper presents an energy efficient trust evaluation (EETE) scheme that makes use of hierarchical trust evaluation model to alleviate the malicious effects of illegitimate sensor nodes and restricts network wide dissemination of trust requests to reduce the energy consumption in clustered-sensor enabled IoT. The proposed EETE scheme incorporates three dilemma game models to reduce additional needless transmissions while balancing the trust throughout the network. Specially: 1) a cluster formation game that promotes the nodes to be cluster head (CH) or cluster member to avoid the extraneous cluster; 2) an optimal cluster formation dilemma game to affirm the minimum number of trust recommendations for maintaining the balance of the trust in a cluster; and 3) an activity-based trust dilemma game to compute the Nash equilibrium that represents the best strategy for a CH to launch its anomaly detection technique which helps in mitigation of malicious activity. Simulation results show that the proposed EETE scheme outperforms the current trust evaluation schemes in terms of detection rate, energy efficiency and trust evaluation time for clustered-sensor enabled IoT.
Chen, Alexander B., Behl, Madhur, Goodall, Jonathan L..  2018.  Trust Me, My Neighbors Say It's Raining Outside: Ensuring Data Trustworthiness for Crowdsourced Weather Stations. Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Systems for Built Environments. :25-28.

Decision making in utilities, municipal, and energy companies depends on accurate and trustworthy weather information and predictions. Recently, crowdsourced personal weather stations (PWS) are being increasingly used to provide a higher spatial and temporal resolution of weather measurements. However, tools and methods to ensure the trustworthiness of the crowdsourced data in real-time are lacking. In this paper, we present a Reputation System for Crowdsourced Rainfall Networks (RSCRN) to assign trust scores to personal weather stations in a region. Using real PWS data from the Weather Underground service in the high flood risk region of Norfolk, Virginia, we evaluate the performance of the proposed RSCRN. The proposed method is able to converge to a confident trust score for a PWS within 10–20 observations after installation. Collectively, the results indicate that the trust score derived from the RSCRN can reflect the collective measure of trustworthiness to the PWS, ensuring both useful and trustworthy data for modeling and decision-making in the future.

Shirbhate, M. D., Solapure, S. S..  2018.  Improving existing 6LoWPAN RPL for content based routing. 2018 Second International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :632–635.

Internet of things has become a subject of interest across a different industry domain. It includes 6LoWPAN (Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network) which is used for a variety of application including home automation, sensor networks, manufacturing and industry application etc. However, gathering such a huge amount of data from such a different domain causes a problem of traffic congestion, high reliability, high energy efficiency etc. In order to address such problems, content based routing (CBR) technique is proposed, where routing paths are decided according to the type of content. By routing the correlated data to hop nodes for processing, a higher data aggregation ratio can be obtained, which in turns reducing the traffic congestion and minimizes the energy consumption. CBR is implemented on top of existing RPL (Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy network) and implemented in contiki operating system using cooja simulator. The analysis are carried out on the basis average power consumption, packet delivery ratio etc.

Jiang, Y., Hui, Q..  2017.  Kalman Filter with Diffusion Strategies for Detecting Power Grid False Data Injection Attacks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :254–259.

Electronic power grid is a distributed network used for transferring electricity and power from power plants to consumers. Based on sensor readings and control system signals, power grid states are measured and estimated. As a result, most conventional attacks, such as denial-of-service attacks and random attacks, could be found by using the Kalman filter. However, false data injection attacks are designed against state estimation models. Currently, distributed Kalman filtering is proved effective in sensor networks for detection and estimation problems. Since meters are distributed in smart power grids, distributed estimation models can be used. Thus in this paper, we propose a diffusion Kalman filter for the power grid to have a good performance in estimating models and to effectively detect false data injection attacks.

Samudrala, A. N., Blum, R. S..  2017.  Asymptotic Analysis of a New Low Complexity Encryption Approach for the Internet of Things, Smart Cities and Smart Grid. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid and Smart Cities (ICSGSC). :200–204.

Parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks (WSN) using encrypted non-binary quantized data is studied. In a WSN, sensors transmit their observations to a fusion center through a wireless medium where the observations are susceptible to unauthorized eavesdropping. Encryption approaches for WSNs with fixed threshold binary quantization were previously explored. However, fixed threshold binary quantization limits parameter estimation to scalar parameters. In this paper, we propose a stochastic encryption approach for WSNs that can operate on non-binary quantized observations and has the capability for vector parameter estimation. We extend a binary stochastic encryption approach proposed previously, to a non-binary generalized case. Sensor outputs are quantized using a quantizer with R + 1 levels, where R $ε$ 1, 2, 3,..., encrypted by flipping them with certain flipping probabilities, and then transmitted. Optimal estimators using maximum-likelihood estimation are derived for both a legitimate fusion center (LFC) and a third party fusion center (TPFC) perspectives. We assume the TPFC is unaware of the encryption. Asymptotic analysis of the estimators is performed by deriving the Cramer-Rao lower bound for LFC estimation, and the asymptotic bias and variance for TPFC estimation. Numerical results validating the asymptotic analysis are presented.

Haakensen, T., Thulasiraman, P..  2017.  Enhancing Sink Node Anonymity in Tactical Sensor Networks Using a Reactive Routing Protocol. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :115–121.

Tactical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are deployed over a region of interest for mission centric operations. The sink node in a tactical WSN is the aggregation point of data processing. Due to its essential role in the network, the sink node is a high priority target for an attacker who wishes to disable a tactical WSN. This paper focuses on the mitigation of sink-node vulnerability in a tactical WSN. Specifically, we study the issue of protecting the sink node through a technique known as k-anonymity. To achieve k-anonymity, we use a specific routing protocol designed to work within the constraints of WSN communication protocols, specifically IEEE 802.15.4. We use and modify the Lightweight Ad hoc On-Demand Next Generation (LOADng) reactive-routing protocol to achieve anonymity. This modified LOADng protocol prevents an attacker from identifying the sink node without adding significant complexity to the regular sensor nodes. We simulate the modified LOADng protocol using a custom-designed simulator in MATLAB. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our protocol and also show some of the performance tradeoffs that come with this method.

Adhatarao, S. S., Arumaithurai, M., Fu, X..  2017.  FOGG: A Fog Computing Based Gateway to Integrate Sensor Networks to Internet. 2017 29th International Teletraffic Congress (ITC 29). 2:42–47.
Internet of Things (IoT) is a growing topic of interest along with 5G. Billions of IoT devices are expected to connect to the Internet in the near future. These devices differ from the traditional devices operated in the Internet. We observe that Information Centric Networking (ICN), is a more suitable architecture for the IoT compared to the prevailing IP basednetwork. However, we observe that recent works that propose to use ICN for IoT, either do not cover the need to integrate Sensor Networks with the Internet to realize IoT or do so inefficiently. Fog computing is a promising technology that has many benefits to offer especially for IoT. In this work, we discover a need to integrate various heterogeneous Sensor Networks with the Internet to realize IoT and propose FOGG: A Fog Computing Based Gateway to Integrate Sensor Networks to Internet. FOGG uses a dedicated device to function as an IoT gateway. FOGG provides the needed integration along with additional services like name/protocol translation, security and controller functionalities.
Praveena, A..  2017.  Achieving data security in wireless sensor networks using ultra encryption standard version \#x2014; IV algorithm. 2017 International Conference on Innovations in Green Energy and Healthcare Technologies (IGEHT). :1–5.

Nowadays wireless networks are fast, becoming more secure than their wired counterparts. Recent technological advances in wireless networking, IC fabrication and sensor technology have lead to the emergence of millimetre scale devices that collectively form a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and are radically changing the way in which we sense, process and transport signals of interest. They are increasingly become viable solutions to many challenging problems and will successively be deployed in many areas in the future such as in environmental monitoring, business, and military applications. However, deploying new technology, without security in mind has often proved to be unreasonably dangerous. This also applies to WSNs, especially those used in applications that monitor sensitive information (e.g., health care applications). There have been significant contributions to overcome many weaknesses in sensor networks like coverage problems, lack in power and making best use of limited network bandwidth, however; work in sensor network security is still in its infancy stage. Security in WSNs presents several well-known challenges stemming from all kinds of resource constraints of individual sensors. The problem of securing these networks emerges more and more as a hot topic. Symmetric key cryptography is commonly seen as infeasible and public key cryptography has its own key distribution problem. In contrast to this prejudice, this paper presents a new symmetric encryption standard algorithm which is an extension of the previous work of the authors i.e. UES version-II and III. Roy et al recently developed few efficient encryption methods such as UES version-I, Modified UES-I, UES version-II, UES version-III. The algorithm is named as Ultra Encryption Standard version — IV algorithm. It is a Symmetric key Cryptosystem which includes multiple encryption, bit-wise reshuffling method and bit-wise columnar transposition method. In the present - ork the authors have performed the encryption process at the bit-level to achieve greater strength of encryption. The proposed method i.e. UES-IV can be used to encrypt short message, password or any confidential key.

Ollesch, Julius.  2016.  Adaptive Steering of Cyber-physical Systems with Atomic Complex Event Processing Services: Doctoral Symposium. Proceedings of the 10th ACM International Conference on Distributed and Event-based Systems. :402–405.
Given the advent of cyber-physical systems (CPS), event-based control paradigms such as complex event processing (CEP) are vital enablers for adaptive analytical control mechanisms. CPS are becoming a high-profile research topic as they are key to disruptive digital innovations such as autonomous driving, industrial internet, smart grid and ambient assisted living. However, organizational and technological scalability of today's CEP approaches is limited by their monolithic architectures. This leads to the research idea for atomic CEP entities and the hypothesis that a network of small event-based control services is better suited for CPS development and operation than current centralised approaches. In addition, the paper summarizes preliminary results of the presented doctoral work and outlines questions for future research as well as an evaluation plan.
Malik, Adeel Mohammad, Borgh, Joakim, Ohlman, Börje.  2016.  Attribute-Based Encryption on a Resource Constrained Sensor in an Information-Centric Network. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Conference on Information-Centric Networking. :217–218.

The Information-Centric Networking (ICN) paradigm is drastically different from traditional host-centric IP networking. As a consequence of the disparity between the two, the security models are also very different. The security model for IP is based on securing the end-to-end communication link between the communicating nodes whereas the ICN security model is based on securing data objects often termed as Object Security. Just like the traditional security model, Object security also poses a challenge of key management. This is especially concerning for ICN as data cached in its encrypted form should be usable by several different users. Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) alleviates this problem by enabling data to be encrypted under a policy that suits several different types of users. Users with different sets of attributes can potentially decrypt the data hence eliminating the need to encrypt the data separately for each type of user. ABE is a more processing intensive task compared to traditional public key encryption methods hence posing a challenge for resource constrained environments with devices that have low memory and battery power. In this demo we show ABE encryption carried out on a resource constrained sensor platform. Encrypted data is transported over an ICN network and is decrypted only by clients that have the correct set of attributes.

Abbas, Waseem, Laszka, Aron, Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy, Koutsoukos, Xenofon.  2015.  Scheduling Intrusion Detection Systems in Resource-Bounded Cyber-Physical Systems. Proceedings of the First ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems-Security and/or PrivaCy. :55–66.

In order to be resilient to attacks, a cyber-physical system (CPS) must be able to detect attacks before they can cause significant damage. To achieve this, \emph{intrusion detection systems} (IDS) may be deployed, which can detect attacks and alert human operators, who can then intervene. However, the resource-constrained nature of many CPS poses a challenge, since reliable IDS can be computationally expensive. Consequently, computational nodes may not be able to perform intrusion detection continuously, which means that we have to devise a schedule for performing intrusion detection. While a uniformly random schedule may be optimal in a purely cyber system, an optimal schedule for protecting CPS must also take into account the physical properties of the system, since the set of adversarial actions and their consequences depend on the physical systems. Here, in the context of water distribution networks, we study IDS scheduling problems in two settings and under the constraints on the available battery supplies. In the first problem, the objective is to design, for a given duration of time $T$, scheduling schemes for IDS so that the probability of detecting an attack is maximized within that duration. We propose efficient heuristic algorithms for this general problem and evaluate them on various networks. In the second problem, our objective is to design scheduling schemes for IDS so that the overall lifetime of the network is maximized while ensuring that an intruder attack is always detected. Various strategies to deal with this problem are presented and evaluated for various networks.

Mendes, L.D.P., Rodrigues, J.J.P.C., Lloret, J., Sendra, S..  2014.  Cross-Layer Dynamic Admission Control for Cloud-Based Multimedia Sensor Networks. Systems Journal, IEEE. 8:235-246.

Cloud-based communications system is now widely used in many application fields such as medicine, security, environment protection, etc. Its use is being extended to the most demanding services like multimedia delivery. However, there are a lot of constraints when cloud-based sensor networks use the standard IEEE 802.15.3 or IEEE 802.15.4 technologies. This paper proposes a channel characterization scheme combined to a cross-layer admission control in dynamic cloud-based multimedia sensor networks to share the network resources among any two nodes. The analysis shows the behavior of two nodes using different network access technologies and the channel effects for each technology. Moreover, the existence of optimal node arrival rates in order to improve the usage of dynamic admission control when network resources are used is also shown. An extensive simulation study was performed to evaluate and validate the efficiency of the proposed dynamic admission control for cloud-based multimedia sensor networks.

Alam, S.M. Iftekharul, Fahmy, Sonia.  2014.  A Practical Approach for Provenance Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks. Ad Hoc Netw.. 16:28–45.

Assessing the trustworthiness of sensor data and transmitters of this data is critical for quality assurance. Trust evaluation frameworks utilize data provenance along with the sensed data values to compute the trustworthiness of each data item. However, in a sizeable multi-hop sensor network, provenance information requires a large and variable number of bits in each packet, resulting in high energy dissipation due to the extended period of radio communication. In this paper, we design energy-efficient provenance encoding and construction schemes, which we refer to as Probabilistic Provenance Flow (PPF). Our work demonstrates the feasibility of adapting the Probabilistic Packet Marking (PPM) technique in IP traceback to wireless sensor networks. We design two bit-efficient provenance encoding schemes along with a complementary vanilla scheme. Depending on the network size and bit budget, we select the best method based on mathematical approximations and numerical analysis. We integrate PPF with provenance-based trust frameworks and investigate the trade-off between trustworthiness of data items and transmission overhead. We conduct TOSSIM simulations with realistic wireless links, and perform testbed experiments on 15–20 TelosB motes to demonstrate the effectiveness of PPF. Our results show that the encoding schemes of PPF have identical performance with a low bit budget (∼32-bit), requiring 33% fewer packets and 30% less energy than PPM variants to construct provenance. With a twofold increase in bit budget, PPF with the selected encoding scheme reduces energy consumption by 46–60%.