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2021-05-13
Suriano, Antonio, Striccoli, Domenico, Piro, Giuseppe, Bolla, Raffele, Boggia, Gennaro.  2020.  Attestation of Trusted and Reliable Service Function Chains in the ETSI-NFV Framework. 2020 6th IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft). :479—486.

The new generation of digital services are natively conceived as an ordered set of Virtual Network Functions, deployed across boundaries and organizations. In this context, security threats, variable network conditions, computational and memory capabilities and software vulnerabilities may significantly weaken the whole service chain, thus making very difficult to combat the newest kinds of attacks. It is thus extremely important to conceive a flexible (and standard-compliant) framework able to attest the trustworthiness and the reliability of each single function of a Service Function Chain. At the time of this writing, and to the best of authors knowledge, the scientific literature addressed all of these problems almost separately. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a novel methodology, properly tailored within the ETSI-NFV framework. From one side, Software-Defined Controllers continuously monitor the properties and the performance indicators taken from networking domains of each single Virtual Network Function available in the architecture. From another side, a high-level orchestrator combines, on demand, the suitable Virtual Network Functions into a Service Function Chain, based on the user requests, targeted security requirements, and measured reliability levels. The paper concludes by further explaining the functionalities of the proposed architecture through a use case.

2021-04-27
Mane, Y. D., Khot, U. P..  2020.  A Systematic Way to Implement Private Tor Network with Trusted Middle Node. 2020 International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1—6.

Initially, legitimate users were working under a normal web browser to do all activities over the internet [1]. To get more secure service and to get protection against Bot activity, the legitimate users switched their activity from Normal web browser to low latency anonymous communication such as Tor Browser. The Traffic monitoring in Tor Network is difficult as the packets are traveling from source to destination in an encrypted fashion and the Tor network hides its identity from destination. But lately, even the illegitimate users such as attackers/criminals started their activity on the Tor browser. The secured Tor network makes the detection of Botnet more difficult. The existing tools for botnet detection became inefficient against Tor-based bots because of the features of the Tor browser. As the Tor Browser is highly secure and because of the ethical issues, doing practical experiments on it is not advisable which could affect the performance and functionality of the Tor browser. It may also affect the endanger users in situations where the failure of Tor's anonymity has severe consequences. So, in the proposed research work, Private Tor Networks (PTN) on physical or virtual machines with dedicated resources have been created along with Trusted Middle Node. The motivation behind the trusted middle node is to make the Private Tor network more efficient and to increase its performance.

2020-12-21
Raza, A., Ulanskyi, V..  2020.  A General Approach to Assessing the Trustworthiness of System Condition Prognostication. 2020 IEEE Aerospace Conference. :1–8.
This paper proposes a mathematical model for assessing the trustworthiness of the system condition prognosis. The set of mutually exclusive events at the time of predictive checking are analyzed. Correct and incorrect decisions correspond to events such as true-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative. General expressions for computing the probabilities of possible decisions when predicting the system condition at discrete times are proposed. The paper introduces the effectiveness indicators of predictive maintenance in the form of average operating costs, total error probability, and a posteriori probability of failure-free operation in the upcoming interval. We illustrate the developed approach by calculating the probabilities of correct and incorrect decisions for a specific stochastic deterioration process.
Enkhtaivan, B., Inoue, A..  2020.  Mediating Data Trustworthiness by Using Trusted Hardware between IoT Devices and Blockchain. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Internet of Things (SmartIoT). :314–318.
In recent years, with the progress of data analysis methods utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) technology, concepts of smart cities collecting data from IoT devices and creating values by analyzing it have been proposed. However, making sure that the data is not tampered with is of the utmost importance. One way to do this is to utilize blockchain technology to record and trace the history of the data. Park and Kim proposed ensuring the trustworthiness of the data by utilizing an IoT device with a trusted execution environment (TEE). Also, Guan et al. proposed authenticating an IoT device and mediating data using a TEE. For the authentication, they use the physically unclonable function of the IoT device. Usually, IoT devices suffer from the lack of resources necessary for creating transactions for the blockchain ledger. In this paper, we present a secure protocol in which a TEE acts as a proxy to the IoT devices and creates the necessary transactions for the blockchain. We use an authenticated encryption method on the data transmission between the IoT device and TEE to authenticate the device and ensure the integrity and confidentiality of the data generated by the IoT devices.
Liu, Q., Wu, W., Liu, Q., Huangy, Q..  2020.  T2DNS: A Third-Party DNS Service with Privacy Preservation and Trustworthiness. 2020 29th International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN). :1–11.
We design a third-party DNS service named T2DNS. T2DNS serves client DNS queries with the following features: protecting clients from channel and server attackers, providing trustworthiness proof to clients, being compatible with the existing Internet infrastructure, and introducing bounded overhead. T2DNS's privacy preservation is achieved by a hybrid protocol of encryption and obfuscation, and its service proxy is implemented on Intel SGX. We overcome the challenges of scaling the initialization process, bounding the obfuscation overhead, and tuning practical system parameters. We prototype T2DNS, and experiment results show that T2DNS is fully functional, has acceptable overhead in comparison with other solutions, and is scalable to the number of clients.
Figueiredo, N. M., Rodríguez, M. C..  2020.  Trustworthiness in Sensor Networks A Reputation-Based Method for Weather Stations. 2020 International Conference on Omni-layer Intelligent Systems (COINS). :1–6.
Trustworthiness is a soft-security feature that evaluates the correct behavior of nodes in a network. More specifically, this feature tries to answer the following question: how much should we trust in a certain node? To determine the trustworthiness of a node, our approach focuses on two reputation indicators: the self-data trust, which evaluates the data generated by the node itself taking into account its historical data; and the peer-data trust, which utilizes the nearest nodes' data. In this paper, we show how these two indicators can be calculated using the Gaussian Overlap and Pearson correlation. This paper includes a validation of our trustworthiness approach using real data from unofficial and official weather stations in Portugal. This is a representative scenario of the current situation in many other areas, with different entities providing different kinds of data using autonomous sensors in a continuous way over the networks.
Nasution, A. P., Suryani, V., Wardana, A. A..  2020.  IoT Object Security towards On-off Attack Using Trustworthiness Management. 2020 8th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT). :1–6.
Internet of Things (IoT) can create the world with the integration of the physical things with the seamlessly network of information purposely to give a sophisticated and smart service for human life. A variety of threats and attacks to IoT object, however, can lead to the misuse of data or information to the IoT objects. One of the attacks is On-off Attack in which the attacker acts not only as an object with a good manner by sending the valid trust value but also sometimes as a bad object by sending invalid one. To respond this action, there is a need for the object security to such attacks. Here the writer used the Trustworthiness Management as a method to cope with this attack. Trustworthiness Management can use the aspect of trust value security as a reference for detecting an attack to the object. In addition, with the support of security system using the authentication provided by MQTT, it is expected that it can provide an additional security. The approach used in this research was the test on On-Off Attack detection directly to the object connected to the network. The results of the test were then displayed on the webpage made using PHP and MySQL database as the storage of the values sent by the object to the server. The test on the On-off Attack detection was successfully conducted with the success level of 100% and the execution to detection took 0.5518318 seconds. This then showed that Trustworthiness Management can be used as one of the methods to cope with On-off Attack.
Neises, J., Moldovan, G., Walloschke, T., Popovici, B..  2020.  Trustworthiness in Supply Chains : A modular extensible Approach applied to Industrial IoT. 2020 Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS). :1–6.
Typical transactions in cross-company Industry 4.0 supply chains require a dynamically evaluable form of trustworthiness. Therefore, specific requirements on the parties involved, down to the machine level, for automatically verifiable operations shall facilitate the realization of the economic advantages of future flexible process chains in production. The core of the paper is a modular and extensible model for the assessment of trustworthiness in industrial IoT based on the Industrial Internet Security Framework of the Industrial Internet Consortium, which among other things defines five trustworthiness key characteristics of NIST. This is the starting point for a flexible model, which contains features as discussed in ISO/IEC JTC 1/AG 7 N51 or trustworthiness profiles as used in regulatory requirements. Specific minimum and maximum requirement parameters define the range of trustworthy operation. An automated calculation of trustworthiness in a dynamic environment based on an initial trust metric is presented. The evaluation can be device-based, connection-based, behaviour-based and context-based and thus become part of measurable, trustworthy, monitorable Industry 4.0 scenarios. Finally, the dynamic evaluation of automatable trust models of industrial components is illustrated based on the Multi-Vendor-Industry of the Horizon 2020 project SecureIoT. (grant agreement number 779899).
Jithish, J., Sankaran, S., Achuthan, K..  2020.  Towards Ensuring Trustworthiness in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Game-Theoretic Approach. 2020 International Conference on COMmunication Systems NETworkS (COMSNETS). :626–629.

The emergence of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) is a potential paradigm shift for the usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). From predominantly a facilitator of information and communication services, the role of ICT in the present age has expanded to the management of objects and resources in the physical world. Thus, it is imperative to devise mechanisms to ensure the trustworthiness of data to secure vulnerable devices against security threats. This work presents an analytical framework based on non-cooperative game theory to evaluate the trustworthiness of individual sensor nodes that constitute the CPS. The proposed game-theoretic model captures the factors impacting the trustworthiness of CPS sensor nodes. Further, the model is used to estimate the Nash equilibrium solution of the game, to derive a trust threshold criterion. The trust threshold represents the minimum trust score required to be maintained by individual sensor nodes during CPS operation. Sensor nodes with trust scores below the threshold are potentially malicious and may be removed or isolated to ensure the secure operation of CPS.

Cheng, Z., Chow, M.-Y..  2020.  An Augmented Bayesian Reputation Metric for Trustworthiness Evaluation in Consensus-based Distributed Microgrid Energy Management Systems with Energy Storage. 2020 2nd IEEE International Conference on Industrial Electronics for Sustainable Energy Systems (IESES). 1:215–220.
Consensus-based distributed microgrid energy management system is one of the most used distributed control strategies in the microgrid area. To improve its cybersecurity, the system needs to evaluate the trustworthiness of the participating agents in addition to the conventional cryptography efforts. This paper proposes a novel augmented reputation metric to evaluate the agents' trustworthiness in a distributed fashion. The proposed metric adopts a novel augmentation method to substantially improve the trust evaluation and attack detection performance under three typical difficult-to-detect attack patterns. The proposed metric is implemented and validated on a real-time HIL microgrid testbed.
Huang, H., Zhou, S., Lin, J., Zhang, K., Guo, S..  2020.  Bridge the Trustworthiness Gap amongst Multiple Domains: A Practical Blockchain-based Approach. ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
In isolated network domains, global trustworthiness (e.g., consistent network view) is critical to the multiple-domain business partners who aim to perform the trusted corporations depending on each isolated network view. However, to achieve such global trustworthiness across distributed network domains is a challenge. This is because when multiple-domain partners are required to exchange their local domain views with each other, it is difficult to ensure the data trustworthiness among them. In addition, the isolated domain view in each partner is prone to be destroyed by malicious falsification attacks. To this end, we propose a blockchain-based approach that can ensure the trustworthiness among multiple-party domains. In this paper, we mainly present the design and implementation of the proposed trustworthiness-protection system. A cloud-based prototype and a local testbed are developed based on Ethereum. Finally, experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed prototype and testbed.
2020-12-14
Hadiansyah, R., Suryani, V., Wardana, A. A..  2020.  IoT Object Security towards the Sybil Attack Using the Trustworthiness Management. 2020 8th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT). :1–4.

Internet of Things (IoT), commonly referred to a physical object connected to network, refers to a paradigm in information technology integrating the advances in terms of sensing, computation and communication to improve the service in daily life. This physical object consists of sensors and actuators that are capable of changing the data to offer the improvement of service quality in daily life. When a data exchange occurs, the exchanged data become sensitive; making them vulnerable to any security attacks, one of which, for example, is Sybil attack. This paper aimed to propose a method of trustworthiness management based upon the authentication and trust value. Once performing the test on three scenarios, the system was found to be capable of detecting the Sybil attack rapidly and accurately. The average of time to detect the Sybil attacks was 9.3287 seconds and the average of time required to detect the intruder object in the system was 18.1029 seconds. The accuracy resulted in each scenario was found 100% indicating that the detection by the system to Sybil attack was 100% accurate.

2020-12-07
Silva, J. L. da, Assis, M. M., Braga, A., Moraes, R..  2019.  Deploying Privacy as a Service within a Cloud-Based Framework. 2019 9th Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing (LADC). :1–4.
Continuous monitoring and risk assessment of privacy violations on cloud systems are needed by anyone who has business needs subject to privacy regulations. Compliance to such regulations in dynamic systems demands appropriate techniques, tools and instruments. As a Service concepts can be a good option to support this task. Previous work presented PRIVAaaS, a software toolkit that allows controlling and reducing data leakages, thus preserving privacy, by providing anonymization capabilities to query-based systems. This short paper discusses the implementation details and deployment environment of an evolution of PRIVAaaS as a MAPE-K control loop within the ATMOSPHERE Platform. ATMOSPHERE is both a framework and a platform enabling the implementation of trustworthy cloud services. By enabling PRIVAaaS within ATMOSPHERE, privacy is made one of several trustworthiness properties continuously monitored and assessed by the platform with a software-based, feedback control loop known as MAPE-K.
Allig, C., Leinmüller, T., Mittal, P., Wanielik, G..  2019.  Trustworthiness Estimation of Entities within Collective Perception. 2019 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC). :1–8.
The idea behind collective perception is to improve vehicles' awareness about their surroundings. Every vehicle shares information describing its perceived environment by means of V2X communication. Similar to other information shared using V2X communication, collective perception information is potentially safety relevant, which means there is a need to assess the reliability and quality of received information before further processing. Transmitted information may have been forged by attackers or contain inconsistencies e.g. caused by malfunctions. This paper introduces a novel approach for estimating a belief that a pair of entities, e.g. two remote vehicles or the host vehicle and a remote vehicle, within a Vehicular ad hoc Network (VANET) are both trustworthy. The method updates the belief based on the consistency of the data that both entities provide. The evaluation shows that the proposed method is able to identify forged information.
Yang, Z..  2019.  Fidelity: Towards Measuring the Trustworthiness of Neural Network Classification. 2019 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1–8.
With the increasing performance of neural networks on many security-critical tasks, the security concerns of machine learning have become increasingly prominent. Recent studies have shown that neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial examples: carefully crafted inputs with negligible perturbations on legitimate samples could mislead a neural network to produce adversary-selected outputs while humans can still correctly classify them. Therefore, we need an additional measurement on the trustworthiness of the results of a machine learning model, especially in adversarial settings. In this paper, we analyse the root cause of adversarial examples, and propose a new property, namely fidelity, of machine learning models to describe the gap between what a model learns and the ground truth learned by humans. One of its benefits is detecting adversarial attacks. We formally define fidelity, and propose a novel approach to quantify it. We evaluate the quantification of fidelity in adversarial settings on two neural networks. The study shows that involving the fidelity enables a neural network system to detect adversarial examples with true positive rate 97.7%, and false positive rate 1.67% on a studied neural network.
Labib, N. S., Brust, M. R., Danoy, G., Bouvry, P..  2019.  Trustworthiness in IoT – A Standards Gap Analysis on Security, Data Protection and Privacy. 2019 IEEE Conference on Standards for Communications and Networking (CSCN). :1–7.
With the emergence of new digital trends like Internet of Things (IoT), more industry actors and technical committees pursue research in utilising such technologies as they promise a better and optimised management, improved energy efficiency and a better quality living through a wide array of value-added services. However, as sensing, actuation, communication and control become increasingly more sophisticated, such promising data-driven systems generate, process, and exchange larger amounts of security-critical and privacy-sensitive data, which makes them attractive targets of attacks. In turn this affirms the importance of trustworthiness in IoT and emphasises the need of a solid technical and regulatory foundation. The goal of this paper is to first introduce the concept of trustworthiness in IoT, its main pillars namely, security, privacy and data protection, and then analyse the state-of-the-art in research and standardisation for each of these subareas. Throughout the paper, we develop and refer to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a promising value-added service example of mobile IoT devices. The paper then presents a thorough gap analysis and concludes with recommendations for future work.
Islam, M. M., Karmakar, G., Kamruzzaman, J., Murshed, M..  2019.  Measuring Trustworthiness of IoT Image Sensor Data Using Other Sensors’ Complementary Multimodal Data. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :775–780.
Trust of image sensor data is becoming increasingly important as the Internet of Things (IoT) applications grow from home appliances to surveillance. Up to our knowledge, there exists only one work in literature that estimates trustworthiness of digital images applied to forensic applications, based on a machine learning technique. The efficacy of this technique is heavily dependent on availability of an appropriate training set and adequate variation of IoT sensor data with noise, interference and environmental condition, but availability of such data cannot be assured always. Therefore, to overcome this limitation, a robust method capable of estimating trustworthy measure with high accuracy is needed. Lowering cost of sensors allow many IoT applications to use multiple types of sensors to observe the same event. In such cases, complementary multimodal data of one sensor can be exploited to measure trust level of another sensor data. In this paper, for the first time, we introduce a completely new approach to estimate the trustworthiness of an image sensor data using another sensor's numerical data. We develop a theoretical model using the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) framework. The efficacy of the proposed model in estimating trust level of an image sensor data is analyzed by observing a fire event using IoT image and temperature sensor data in a residential setup under different scenarios. The proposed model produces highly accurate trust level in all scenarios with authentic and forged image data.
Xia, H., Xiao, F., Zhang, S., Hu, C., Cheng, X..  2019.  Trustworthiness Inference Framework in the Social Internet of Things: A Context-Aware Approach. IEEE INFOCOM 2019 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :838–846.
The concept of social networking is integrated into Internet of things (IoT) to socialize smart objects by mimicking human behaviors, leading to a new paradigm of Social Internet of Things (SIoT). A crucial problem that needs to be solved is how to establish reliable relationships autonomously among objects, i.e., building trust. This paper focuses on exploring an efficient context-aware trustworthiness inference framework to address this issue. Based on the sociological and psychological principles of trust generation between human beings, the proposed framework divides trust into two types: familiarity trust and similarity trust. The familiarity trust can be calculated by direct trust and recommendation trust, while the similarity trust can be calculated based on external similarity trust and internal similarity trust. We subsequently present concrete methods for the calculation of different trust elements. In particular, we design a kernel-based nonlinear multivariate grey prediction model to predict the direct trust of a specific object, which acts as the core module of the entire framework. Besides, considering the fuzziness and uncertainty in the concept of trust, we introduce the fuzzy logic method to synthesize these trust elements. The experimental results verify the validity of the core module and the resistance to attacks of this framework.
More, P. H., Dongre, M. M..  2019.  Partially Predictable Vehicular Ad-hoc Network: Trustworthiness and Security. 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–5.
VANET is an emerging technology incorporating ad hoc network to accomplish intelligent communications between vehicles, improvement in road traffic efficiency and safety. In some situations movement of vehicles is in a certain range, over particular distance or just in a specific tendency. Such a network can be called as incompletely or partially predictable network. An efficient use of such network, position and motion of nodes as well as relative history in big data is an open issue in vehicular ad hoc network. A hybrid protocol which provides secure and trustworthiness evaluation based routing can be used in VANET. Here Secure Trustworthiness Evaluation Based Routing Protocol is implemented using NS2 software. Its performance is very good in terms of the Average End to End Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio and Normalized Routing Overhead.
Lemes, C. I., Naessens, V., Vieira, M..  2019.  Trustworthiness Assessment of Web Applications: Approach and Experimental Study using Input Validation Coding Practices. 2019 IEEE 30th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE). :435–445.
The popularity of web applications and their world-wide use to support business critical operations raised the interest of hackers on exploiting security vulnerabilities to perform malicious operations. Fostering trust calls for assessment techniques that provide indicators about the quality of a web application from a security perspective. This paper studies the problem of using coding practices to characterize the trustworthiness of web applications from a security perspective. The hypothesis is that applying feasible security practices results in applications having a reduced number of unknown vulnerabilities, and can therefore be considered more trustworthy. The proposed approach is instantiated for the concrete case of input validation practices, and includes a Quality Model to compute trustworthiness scores that can be used to compare different applications or different code elements in the same application. Experimental results show that the higher scores are obtained for more secure code, suggesting that it can be used in practice to characterize trustworthiness, also providing guidance to compare and/or improve the security of web applications.
Challagidad, P. S., Birje, M. N..  2019.  Determination of Trustworthiness of Cloud Service Provider and Cloud Customer. 2019 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing Communication Systems (ICACCS). :839–843.
In service-oriented computing environment (e.g. cloud computing), Cloud Customers (CCs) and Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) require to calculate the trust ranks of impending partner prior to appealing in communications. Determining trustworthiness dynamically is a demanding dilemma in an open and dynamic environment (such as cloud computing) because of many CSPs providing same types of services. Presently, there are very less number of dynamic trust evaluation scheme that permits CCs to evaluate CSPs trustworthiness from multi-dimensional perspectives. Similarly, there is no scheme that permits CSPs to evaluate trustworthiness of CCs. This paper proposes a Multidimensional Dynamic Trust Evaluation Scheme (MDTES) that facilitates CCs to evaluate the trustworthiness of CSPs from various viewpoints. Similar approach can be employed by CSPs to evaluate the trustworthiness of CCs. The proposed MDTES helps CCs to choose trustworthy CSP and to have desired QoS requirements and CSPs to choose desired and legal CCs. The simulation results illustrate the MDTES is dynamic and steady in distinguishing trustworthy and untrustworthy CSPs and CCs.
2020-12-02
Abeysekara, P., Dong, H., Qin, A. K..  2019.  Machine Learning-Driven Trust Prediction for MEC-Based IoT Services. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS). :188—192.

We propose a distributed machine-learning architecture to predict trustworthiness of sensor services in Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) based Internet of Things (IoT) services, which aligns well with the goals of MEC and requirements of modern IoT systems. The proposed machine-learning architecture models training a distributed trust prediction model over a topology of MEC-environments as a Network Lasso problem, which allows simultaneous clustering and optimization on large-scale networked-graphs. We then attempt to solve it using Alternate Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) in a way that makes it suitable for MEC-based IoT systems. We present analytical and simulation results to show the validity and efficiency of the proposed solution.

2020-11-23
Sutton, A., Samavi, R., Doyle, T. E., Koff, D..  2018.  Digitized Trust in Human-in-the-Loop Health Research. 2018 16th Annual Conference on Privacy, Security and Trust (PST). :1–10.
In this paper, we propose an architecture that utilizes blockchain technology for enabling verifiable trust in collaborative health research environments. The architecture supports the human-in-the-loop paradigm for health research by establishing trust between participants, including human researchers and AI systems, by making all data transformations transparent and verifiable by all participants. We define the trustworthiness of the system and provide an analysis of the architecture in terms of trust requirements. We then evaluate our architecture by analyzing its resiliency to common security threats and through an experimental realization.
2020-06-19
Chowdhury, Abdullahi, Karmakar, Gour, Kamruzzaman, Joarder.  2019.  Trusted Autonomous Vehicle: Measuring Trust using On-Board Unit Data. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :787—792.

Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) play an essential role in ensuring safe, reliable and faster transportation with the help of an Intelligent Transportation system. The trustworthiness of vehicles in VANETs is extremely important to ensure the authenticity of messages and traffic information transmitted in extremely dynamic topographical conditions where vehicles move at high speed. False or misleading information may cause substantial traffic congestions, road accidents and may even cost lives. Many approaches exist in literature to measure the trustworthiness of GPS data and messages of an Autonomous Vehicle (AV). To the best of our knowledge, they have not considered the trustworthiness of other On-Board Unit (OBU) components of an AV, along with GPS data and transmitted messages, though they have a substantial relevance in overall vehicle trust measurement. In this paper, we introduce a novel model to measure the overall trustworthiness of an AV considering four different OBU components additionally. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with a traffic simulation model developed by Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) using realistic traffic data and considering different levels of uncertainty.

2020-06-01
Halba, Khalid, Griffor, Edward, Kamongi, Patrick, Roth, Thomas.  2019.  Using Statistical Methods and Co-Simulation to Evaluate ADS-Equipped Vehicle Trustworthiness. 2019 Electric Vehicles International Conference (EV). :1–5.

With the increasing interest in studying Automated Driving System (ADS)-equipped vehicles through simulation, there is a growing need for comprehensive and agile middleware to provide novel Virtual Analysis (VA) functions of ADS-equipped vehicles towards enabling a reliable representation for pre-deployment test. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Universal Cyber-physical systems Environment for Federation (UCEF) is such a VA environment. It provides Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) capable of ensuring synchronized interactions across multiple simulation platforms such as LabVIEW, OMNeT++, Ricardo IGNITE, and Internet of Things (IoT) platforms. UCEF can aid engineers and researchers in understanding the impact of different constraints associated with complex cyber-physical systems (CPS). In this work UCEF is used to produce a simulated Operational Domain Design (ODD) for ADS-equipped vehicles where control (drive cycle/speed pattern), sensing (obstacle detection, traffic signs and lights), and threats (unusual signals, hacked sources) are represented as UCEF federates to simulate a drive cycle and to feed it to vehicle dynamics simulators (e.g. OpenModelica or Ricardo IGNITE) through the Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI). In this way we can subject the vehicle to a wide range of scenarios, collect data on the resulting interactions, and analyze those interactions using metrics to understand trustworthiness impact. Trustworthiness is defined here as in the NIST Framework for Cyber-Physical Systems, and is comprised of system reliability, resiliency, safety, security, and privacy. The goal of this work is to provide an example of an experimental design strategy using Fractional Factorial Design for statistically assessing the most important safety metrics in ADS-equipped vehicles.