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Li, J. H., Schafer, D., Whelihan, D., Lassini, S., Evancich, N., Kwak, K. J., Vai, M., Whitman, H..  2018.  Designing Secure and Resilient Embedded Avionics Systems. 2018 IEEE Cybersecurity Development (SecDev). :139–139.

Over the past decade, the reliance on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to carry out critical missions has grown drastically. With an increased reliance on UAS as mission assets and the dependency of UAS on cyber resources, cyber security of UAS must be improved by adopting sound security principles and relevant technologies from the computing community. On the other hand, the traditional avionics community, being aware of the importance of cyber security, is looking at new architecture and designs that can accommodate both the traditional safety oriented principles as well as the cyber security principles and techniques. It is with the effective and timely convergence of these domains that a holistic approach and co-design can meet the unique requirements of modern systems and operations. In this paper, authors from both the cyber security and avionics domains describe our joint effort and insights obtained during the course of designing secure and resilient embedded avionics systems.

MüUller, W., Kuwertz, A., Mühlenberg, D., Sander, J..  2017.  Semantic Information Fusion to Enhance Situational Awareness in Surveillance Scenarios. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems (MFI). :397–402.

In recent years, the usage of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for security-related purposes has increased, ranging from military applications to different areas of civil protection. The deployment of UAS can support security forces in achieving an enhanced situational awareness. However, in order to provide useful input to a situational picture, sensor data provided by UAS has to be integrated with information about the area and objects of interest from other sources. The aim of this study is to design a high-level data fusion component combining probabilistic information processing with logical and probabilistic reasoning, to support human operators in their situational awareness and improving their capabilities for making efficient and effective decisions. To this end, a fusion component based on the ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) Analytics Architecture (ISR-AA) [1] is presented, incorporating an object-oriented world model (OOWM) for information integration, an expressive knowledge model and a reasoning component for detection of critical events. Approaches for translating the information contained in the OOWM into either an ontology for logical reasoning or a Markov logic network for probabilistic reasoning are presented.

Whelihan, D., Vai, M., Evanich, N., Kwak, K. J., Li, J., Britton, M., Frantz, B., Hadcock, D., Lynch, M., Schafer, D. et al..  2017.  Designing agility and resilience into embedded systems. MILCOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :249–254.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) such as Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) sense and actuate their environment in pursuit of a mission. The attack surface of these remotely located, sensing and communicating devices is both large, and exposed to adversarial actors, making mission assurance a challenging problem. While best-practice security policies should be followed, they are rarely enough to guarantee mission success as not all components in the system may be trusted and the properties of the environment (e.g., the RF environment) may be under the control of the attacker. CPS must thus be built with a high degree of resilience to mitigate threats that security cannot alleviate. In this paper, we describe the Agile and Resilient Embedded Systems (ARES) methodology and metric set. The ARES methodology pursues cyber security and resilience (CSR) as high level system properties to be developed in the context of the mission. An analytic process guides system developers in defining mission objectives, examining principal issues, applying CSR technologies, and understanding their interactions.

Yoohwan Kim, Juyeon Jo, Shrestha, S..  2014.  A server-based real-time privacy protection scheme against video surveillance by Unmanned Aerial Systems. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS), 2014 International Conference on. :684-691.

Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have raised a great concern on privacy recently. A practical method to protect privacy is needed for adopting UAS in civilian airspace. This paper examines the privacy policies, filtering strategies, existing techniques, then proposes a novel method based on the encrypted video stream and the cloud-based privacy servers. In this scheme, all video surveillance images are initially encrypted, then delivered to a privacy server. The privacy server decrypts the video using the shared key with the camera, and filters the image according to the privacy policy specified for the surveyed region. The sanitized video is delivered to the surveillance operator or anyone on the Internet who is authorized. In a larger system composed of multiple cameras and multiple privacy servers, the keys can be distributed using Kerberos protocol. With this method the privacy policy can be changed on demand in real-time and there is no need for a costly on-board processing unit. By utilizing the cloud-based servers, advanced image processing algorithms and new filtering algorithms can be applied immediately without upgrading the camera software. This method is cost-efficient and promotes video sharing among multiple subscribers, thus it can spur wide adoption.