Visible to the public Biblio

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Amerini, I., Galteri, L., Caldelli, R., Bimbo, A. Del.  2019.  Deepfake Video Detection through Optical Flow Based CNN. 2019 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision Workshop (ICCVW). :1205—1207.
Recent advances in visual media technology have led to new tools for processing and, above all, generating multimedia contents. In particular, modern AI-based technologies have provided easy-to-use tools to create extremely realistic manipulated videos. Such synthetic videos, named Deep Fakes, may constitute a serious threat to attack the reputation of public subjects or to address the general opinion on a certain event. According to this, being able to individuate this kind of fake information becomes fundamental. In this work, a new forensic technique able to discern between fake and original video sequences is given; unlike other state-of-the-art methods which resorts at single video frames, we propose the adoption of optical flow fields to exploit possible inter-frame dissimilarities. Such a clue is then used as feature to be learned by CNN classifiers. Preliminary results obtained on FaceForensics++ dataset highlight very promising performances.
Uto, K., Mura, M. D., Chanussot, J..  2018.  Spatial Resolution Enhancement of Optical Images Based on Tensor Decomposition. IGARSS 2018 - 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. :8058-8061.

There is an inevitable trade-off between spatial and spectral resolutions in optical remote sensing images. A number of data fusion techniques of multimodal images with different spatial and spectral characteristics have been developed to generate optical images with both spatial and spectral high resolution. Although some of the techniques take the spectral and spatial blurring process into account, there is no method that attempts to retrieve an optical image with both spatial and spectral high resolution, a spectral blurring filter and a spectral response simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a new framework of spatial resolution enhancement by a fusion of multiple optical images with different characteristics based on tensor decomposition. An optical image with both spatial and spectral high resolution, together with a spatial blurring filter and a spectral response, is generated via canonical polyadic (CP) decomposition of a set of tensors. Experimental results featured that relatively reasonable results were obtained by regularization based on nonnegativity and coupling.

Chen, D., Liao, J., Yuan, L., Yu, N., Hua, G..  2017.  Coherent Online Video Style Transfer. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV). :1114–1123.

Training a feed-forward network for the fast neural style transfer of images has proven successful, but the naive extension of processing videos frame by frame is prone to producing flickering results. We propose the first end-to-end network for online video style transfer, which generates temporally coherent stylized video sequences in near realtime. Two key ideas include an efficient network by incorporating short-term coherence, and propagating short-term coherence to long-term, which ensures consistency over a longer period of time. Our network can incorporate different image stylization networks and clearly outperforms the per-frame baseline both qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, it can achieve visually comparable coherence to optimization-based video style transfer, but is three orders of magnitude faster.

Gupta, A., Johnson, J., Alahi, A., Fei-Fei, L..  2017.  Characterizing and Improving Stability in Neural Style Transfer. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV). :4087–4096.

Recent progress in style transfer on images has focused on improving the quality of stylized images and speed of methods. However, real-time methods are highly unstable resulting in visible flickering when applied to videos. In this work we characterize the instability of these methods by examining the solution set of the style transfer objective. We show that the trace of the Gram matrix representing style is inversely related to the stability of the method. Then, we present a recurrent convolutional network for real-time video style transfer which incorporates a temporal consistency loss and overcomes the instability of prior methods. Our networks can be applied at any resolution, do not require optical flow at test time, and produce high quality, temporally consistent stylized videos in real-time.

Huang, H., Wang, H., Luo, W., Ma, L., Jiang, W., Zhu, X., Li, Z., Liu, W..  2017.  Real-Time Neural Style Transfer for Videos. 2017 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR). :7044–7052.

Recent research endeavors have shown the potential of using feed-forward convolutional neural networks to accomplish fast style transfer for images. In this work, we take one step further to explore the possibility of exploiting a feed-forward network to perform style transfer for videos and simultaneously maintain temporal consistency among stylized video frames. Our feed-forward network is trained by enforcing the outputs of consecutive frames to be both well stylized and temporally consistent. More specifically, a hybrid loss is proposed to capitalize on the content information of input frames, the style information of a given style image, and the temporal information of consecutive frames. To calculate the temporal loss during the training stage, a novel two-frame synergic training mechanism is proposed. Compared with directly applying an existing image style transfer method to videos, our proposed method employs the trained network to yield temporally consistent stylized videos which are much more visually pleasant. In contrast to the prior video style transfer method which relies on time-consuming optimization on the fly, our method runs in real time while generating competitive visual results.

Birch, G. C., Woo, B. L., LaCasse, C. F., Stubbs, J. J., Dagel, A. L..  2017.  Computational optical physical unclonable functions. 2017 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :1–6.

Physical unclonable functions (PUFs) are devices which are easily probed but difficult to predict. Optical PUFs have been discussed within the literature, with traditional optical PUFs typically using spatial light modulators, coherent illumination, and scattering volumes; however, these systems can be large, expensive, and difficult to maintain alignment in practical conditions. We propose and demonstrate a new kind of optical PUF based on computational imaging and compressive sensing to address these challenges with traditional optical PUFs. This work describes the design, simulation, and prototyping of this computational optical PUF (COPUF) that utilizes incoherent polychromatic illumination passing through an additively manufactured refracting optical polymer element. We demonstrate the ability to pass information through a COPUF using a variety of sampling methods, including the use of compressive sensing. The sensitivity of the COPUF system is also explored. We explore non-traditional PUF configurations enabled by the COPUF architecture. The double COPUF system, which employees two serially connected COPUFs, is proposed and analyzed as a means to authenticate and communicate between two entities that have previously agreed to communicate. This configuration enables estimation of a message inversion key without the calculation of individual COPUF inversion keys at any point in the PUF life cycle. Our results show that it is possible to construct inexpensive optical PUFs using computational imaging. This could lead to new uses of PUFs in places where electrical PUFs cannot be utilized effectively, as low cost tags and seals, and potentially as authenticating and communicating devices.

Jin, Y., Eriksson, J..  2017.  Fully Automatic, Real-Time Vehicle Tracking for Surveillance Video. 2017 14th Conference on Computer and Robot Vision (CRV). :147–154.

We present an object tracking framework which fuses multiple unstable video-based methods and supports automatic tracker initialization and termination. To evaluate our system, we collected a large dataset of hand-annotated 5-minute traffic surveillance videos, which we are releasing to the community. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publicly available dataset of such long videos, providing a diverse range of real-world object variation, scale change, interaction, different resolutions and illumination conditions. In our comprehensive evaluation using this dataset, we show that our automatic object tracking system often outperforms state-of-the-art trackers, even when these are provided with proper manual initialization. We also demonstrate tracking throughput improvements of 5× or more vs. the competition.

Chammas, E., Mokbel, C., Likforman-Sulem, L..  2015.  Arabic handwritten document preprocessing and recognition. 2015 13th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR). :451–455.

Arabic handwritten documents present specific challenges due to the cursive nature of the writing and the presence of diacritical marks. Moreover, one of the largest labeled database of Arabic handwritten documents, the OpenHart-NIST database includes specific noise, namely guidelines, that has to be addressed. We propose several approaches to process these documents. First a guideline detection approach has been developed, based on K-means, that detects the documents that include guidelines. We then propose a series of preprocessing at text-line level to reduce the noise effects. For text-lines including guidelines, a guideline removal preprocessing is described and existing keystroke restoration approaches are assessed. In addition, we propose a preprocessing that combines noise removal and deskewing by removing line fragments from neighboring text lines, while searching for the principal orientation of the text-line. We provide recognition results, showing the significant improvement brought by the proposed processings.

Gómez-Valverde, J. J., Ortuño, J. E., Guerra, P., Hermann, B., Zabihian, B., Rubio-Guivernau, J. L., Santos, A., Drexler, W., Ledesma-Carbayo, M. J..  2015.  Evaluation of speckle reduction with denoising filtering in optical coherence tomography for dermatology. 2015 IEEE 12th International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI). :494–497.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has shown a great potential as a complementary imaging tool in the diagnosis of skin diseases. Speckle noise is the most prominent artifact present in OCT images and could limit the interpretation and detection capabilities. In this work we evaluate various denoising filters with high edge-preserving potential for the reduction of speckle noise in 256 dermatological OCT B-scans. Our results show that the Enhanced Sigma Filter and the Block Matching 3-D (BM3D) as 2D denoising filters and the Wavelet Multiframe algorithm considering adjacent B-scans achieved the best results in terms of the enhancement quality metrics used. Our results suggest that a combination of 2D filtering followed by a wavelet based compounding algorithm may significantly reduce speckle, increasing signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios, without the need of extra acquisitions of the same frame.

Choi, S., Zage, D., Choe, Y. R., Wasilow, B..  2015.  Physically Unclonable Digital ID. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Mobile Services. :105–111.

The Center for Strategic and International Studies estimates the annual cost from cyber crime to be more than \$400 billion. Most notable is the recent digital identity thefts that compromised millions of accounts. These attacks emphasize the security problems of using clonable static information. One possible solution is the use of a physical device known as a Physically Unclonable Function (PUF). PUFs can be used to create encryption keys, generate random numbers, or authenticate devices. While the concept shows promise, current PUF implementations are inherently problematic: inconsistent behavior, expensive, susceptible to modeling attacks, and permanent. Therefore, we propose a new solution by which an unclonable, dynamic digital identity is created between two communication endpoints such as mobile devices. This Physically Unclonable Digital ID (PUDID) is created by injecting a data scrambling PUF device at the data origin point that corresponds to a unique and matching descrambler/hardware authentication at the receiving end. This device is designed using macroscopic, intentional anomalies, making them inexpensive to produce. PUDID is resistant to cryptanalysis due to the separation of the challenge response pair and a series of hash functions. PUDID is also unique in that by combining the PUF device identity with a dynamic human identity, we can create true two-factor authentication. We also propose an alternative solution that eliminates the need for a PUF mechanism altogether by combining tamper resistant capabilities with a series of hash functions. This tamper resistant device, referred to as a Quasi-PUDID (Q-PUDID), modifies input data, using a black-box mechanism, in an unpredictable way. By mimicking PUF attributes, Q-PUDID is able to avoid traditional PUF challenges thereby providing high-performing physical identity assurance with or without a low performing PUF mechanism. Three different application scenarios with mobile devices for PUDID and Q-PUDI- have been analyzed to show their unique advantages over traditional PUFs and outline the potential for placement in a host of applications.

Markman, A., Javidi, B., Tehranipoor, M..  2014.  Photon-Counting Security Tagging and Verification Using Optically Encoded QR Codes. Photonics Journal, IEEE. 6:1-9.

We propose an optical security method for object authentication using photon-counting encryption implemented with phase encoded QR codes. By combining the full phase double-random-phase encryption with photon-counting imaging method and applying an iterative Huffman coding technique, we are able to encrypt and compress an image containing primary information about the object. This data can then be stored inside of an optically phase encoded QR code for robust read out, decryption, and authentication. The optically encoded QR code is verified by examining the speckle signature of the optical masks using statistical analysis. Optical experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system. In addition, experiments with a commercial Smartphone to read the optically encoded QR code are presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating photon-counting security with optically phase encoded QR codes.

Voigt, S., Schoepfer, E., Fourie, C., Mager, A..  2014.  Towards semi-automated satellite mapping for humanitarian situational awareness. Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2014 IEEE. :412-416.

Very high resolution satellite imagery used to be a rare commodity, with infrequent satellite pass-over times over a specific area-of-interest obviating many useful applications. Today, more and more such satellite systems are available, with visual analysis and interpretation of imagery still important to derive relevant features and changes from satellite data. In order to allow efficient, robust and routine image analysis for humanitarian purposes, semi-automated feature extraction is of increasing importance for operational emergency mapping tasks. In the frame of the European Earth Observation program COPERNICUS and related research activities under the European Union's Seventh Framework Program, substantial scientific developments and mapping services are dedicated to satellite based humanitarian mapping and monitoring. In this paper, recent results in methodological research and development of routine services in satellite mapping for humanitarian situational awareness are reviewed and discussed. Ethical aspects of sensitivity and security of humanitarian mapping are deliberated. Furthermore methods for monitoring and analysis of refugee/internally displaced persons camps in humanitarian settings are assessed. Advantages and limitations of object-based image analysis, sample supervised segmentation and feature extraction are presented and discussed.

Rasheed, N., Khan, S.A., Khalid, A..  2014.  Tracking and Abnormal Behavior Detection in Video Surveillance Using Optical Flow and Neural Networks. Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2014 28th International Conference on. :61-66.

An abnormal behavior detection algorithm for surveillance is required to correctly identify the targets as being in a normal or chaotic movement. A model is developed here for this purpose. The uniqueness of this algorithm is the use of foreground detection with Gaussian mixture (FGMM) model before passing the video frames to optical flow model using Lucas-Kanade approach. Information of horizontal and vertical displacements and directions associated with each pixel for object of interest is extracted. These features are then fed to feed forward neural network for classification and simulation. The study is being conducted on the real time videos and some synthesized videos. Accuracy of method has been calculated by using the performance parameters for Neural Networks. In comparison of plain optical flow with this model, improved results have been obtained without noise. Classes are correctly identified with an overall performance equal to 3.4e-02 with & error percentage of 2.5.