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Sultana, Habiba, Kamal, A H M.  2022.  An Edge Detection Based Reversible Data Hiding Scheme. 2022 IEEE Delhi Section Conference (DELCON). :1–6.
Edge detection based embedding techniques are famous for data security and image quality preservation. These techniques use diverse edge detectors to classify edge and non-edge pixels in an image and then implant secrets in one or both of these classes. Image with conceived data is called stego image. It is noticeable that none of such researches tries to reform the original image from the stego one. Rather, they devote their concentration to extract the hidden message only. This research presents a solution to the raised reversibility problem. Like the others, our research, first, applies an edge detector e.g., canny, in a cover image. The scheme next collects \$n\$-LSBs of each of edge pixels and finally, concatenates them with encrypted message stream. This method applies a lossless compression algorithm to that processed stream. Compression factor is taken such a way that the length of compressed stream does not exceed the length of collected LSBs. The compressed message stream is then implanted only in the edge pixels by \$n\$-LSB substitution method. As the scheme does not destroy the originality of non-edge pixels, it presents better stego quality. By incorporation the mechanisms of encryption, concatenation, compression and \$n\$-LSB, the method has enriched the security of implanted data. The research shows its effectiveness while implanting a small sized message.
Yahia, Fatima F. M., Abushaala, Ahmed M..  2022.  Cryptography using Affine Hill Cipher Combining with Hybrid Edge Detection (Canny-LoG) and LSB for Data Hiding. 2022 IEEE 2nd International Maghreb Meeting of the Conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic Control and Computer Engineering (MI-STA). :379–384.
In our time the rapid growth of internet and digital communications has been required to be protected from illegal users. It is important to secure the information transmitted between the sender and receiver over the communication channels such as the internet, since it is a public environment. Cryptography and Steganography are the most popular techniques used for sending data in secrete way. In this paper, we are proposing a new algorithm that combines both cryptography and steganography in order to increase the level of data security against attackers. In cryptography, we are using affine hill cipher method; while in steganography we are using Hybrid edge detection with LSB to hide the message. Our paper shows how we can use image edges to hide text message. Grayscale images are used for our experiments and a comparison is developed based on using different edge detection operators such as (canny-LoG ) and (Canny-Sobel). Their performance is measured using PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise ratio), MSE (Mean Squared Error) and EC (Embedding Capacity). The results indicate that, using hybrid edge detection (canny- LoG) with LSB for hiding data could provide high embedding capacity than using hybrid edge detection (canny- Sobel) with LSB. We could prove that hiding in the image edge area could preserve the imperceptibility of the Stego-image. This paper has also proved that the secrete message was extracted successfully without any distortion.
Sarrafpour, Bahman A. Sassani, Alomirah, Reem A., Sarrafpour, Soshian, Sharifzadeh, Hamid.  2021.  An Adaptive Edge-Based Steganography Algorithm for Hiding Text into Images. 2021 IEEE 19th International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :109—116.
Steganography is one of the techniques for secure transformation of data which aims at hiding information inside other media in such a way that no one will notice. The cover media that can accommodate secret information include text, audio, image, and video. Images are the most popular covering media in steganography, due to the fact that, they are heavily used in daily applications and have high redundancy in representation. In this paper, we propose an adaptive steganography algorithm for hiding information in RGB images. To minimize visual perceptible distortion, the proposed algorithm uses edge pixels for embedding data. It detects the edge pixels in the image using the Sobel filter. Then, the message is embedded into the LSBs of the blue channel of the edge pixels. To resist statistical attacks, the distribution of the blue channel of the edge pixels is used when embedding data in the cover image. The experimental results showed that the algorithm offers high capacity for hiding data in cover images; it does not distort the quality of the stego image; it is robust enough against statistical attacks; and its execution time is short enough for online data transfer. Also, the results showed that the proposed algorithm outperforms similar approaches in all evaluation metrics.
Singh, Praneet, P, Jishnu Jaykumar, Pankaj, Akhil, Mitra, Reshmi.  2021.  Edge-Detect: Edge-Centric Network Intrusion Detection using Deep Neural Network. 2021 IEEE 18th Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1—6.
Edge nodes are crucial for detection against multitudes of cyber attacks on Internet-of-Things endpoints and is set to become part of a multi-billion industry. The resource constraints in this novel network infrastructure tier constricts the deployment of existing Network Intrusion Detection System with Deep Learning models (DLM). We address this issue by developing a novel light, fast and accurate `Edge-Detect' model, which detects Distributed Denial of Service attack on edge nodes using DLM techniques. Our model can work within resource restrictions i.e. low power, memory and processing capabilities, to produce accurate results at a meaningful pace. It is built by creating layers of Long Short-Term Memory or Gated Recurrent Unit based cells, which are known for their excellent representation of sequential data. We designed a practical data science pipeline with Recurring Neural Network to learn from the network packet behavior in order to identify whether it is normal or attack-oriented. The model evaluation is from deployment on actual edge node represented by Raspberry Pi using current cybersecurity dataset (UNSW2015). Our results demonstrate that in comparison to conventional DLM techniques, our model maintains a high testing accuracy of 99% even with lower resource utilization in terms of cpu and memory. In addition, it is nearly 3 times smaller in size than the state-of-art model and yet requires a much lower testing time.
Raikar, Meenaxi M, Meena, S M.  2021.  SSH brute force attack mitigation in Internet of Things (IoT) network : An edge device security measure. 2021 2nd International Conference on Secure Cyber Computing and Communications (ICSCCC). :72—77.
With the explosive growth of IoT applications, billions of things are now connected via edge devices and a colossal volume of data is sent over the internet. Providing security to the user data becomes crucial. The rise in zero-day attacks are a challenge in IoT scenarios. With the large scale of IoT application detection and mitigation of such attacks by the network administrators is cumbersome. The edge device Raspberry pi is remotely logged using Secure Shell (SSH) protocol in 90% of the IoT applications. The case study of SSH brute force attack on the edge device Raspberry pi is demonstrated with experimentation in the IoT networking scenario using Intrusion Detection System (IDS). The IP crawlers available on the internet are used by the attacker to obtain the IP address of the edge device. The proposed system continuously monitors traffic, analysis the log of attack patterns, detects and mitigates SSH brute attack. An attack hijacks and wastes the system resources depriving the authorized users of the resources. With the proposed IDS, we observe 25% CPU conservation, 40% power conservation and 10% memory conservation in resource utilization, as the IDS, mitigates the attack and releases the resources blocked by the attacker.
Liang, Haolan, Ye, Chunxiao, Zhou, Yuangao, Yang, Hongzhao.  2021.  Anomaly Detection Based on Edge Computing Framework for AMI. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Mechatronics Technology (ICEEMT). :385—390.
Aiming at the cyber security problem of the advanced metering infrastructure(AMI), an anomaly detection method based on edge computing framework for the AMI is proposed. Due to the characteristics of the edge node of data concentrator, the data concentrator has the capability of computing a large amount of data. In this paper, distributing the intrusion detection model on the edge node data concentrator of the AMI instead of the metering center, meanwhile, two-way communication of distributed local model parameters replaces a large amount of data transmission. The proposed method avoids the risk of privacy leakage during the communication of data in AMI, and it greatly reduces communication delay and computational time. In this paper, KDDCUP99 datasets is used to verify the effectiveness of the method. The results show that compared with Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN), the detection accuracy of the proposed method reach 99.05%, and false detection rate only gets 0.74%, and the results indicts the proposed method ensures a high detection performance with less communication rounds, it also reduces computational consumption.
Ahmed, Homam, Jie, Zhu, Usman, Muhammad.  2021.  Lightweight Fire Detection System Using Hybrid Edge-Cloud Computing. 2021 IEEE 4th International Conference on Computer and Communication Engineering Technology (CCET). :153—157.
The emergence of the 5G network has boosted the advancements in the field of the internet of things (IoT) and edge/cloud computing. We present a novel architecture to detect fire in indoor and outdoor environments, dubbed as EAC-FD, an abbreviation of edge and cloud-based fire detection. Compared with existing frameworks, ours is lightweight, secure, cost-effective, and reliable. It utilizes a hybrid edge and cloud computing framework with Intel neural compute stick 2 (NCS2) accelerator is for inference in real-time with Raspberry Pi 3B as an edge device. Our fire detection model runs on the edge device while also capable of cloud computing for more robust analysis making it a secure system. We compare different versions of SSD-MobileNet architectures with ours suitable for low-end devices. The fire detection model shows a good balance between computational cost frames per second (FPS) and accuracy.
Gaikwad, Bipin, Prakash, PVBSS, Karmakar, Abhijit.  2021.  Edge-based real-time face logging system for security applications. 2021 12th International Conference on Computing Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—6.
In this work, we have proposed a state-of-the-art face logging system that detects and logs high quality cropped face images of the people in real-time for security applications. Multiple strategies based on resolution, velocity and symmetry of faces have been applied to obtain best quality face images. The proposed system handles the issue of motion blur in the face images by determining the velocities of the detections. The output of the system is the face database, where four faces for each detected person are stored along with the time stamp and ID number tagged to it. The facial features are extracted by our system, which are used to search the person-of-interest instantly. The proposed system has been implemented in a docker container environment on two edge devices: the powerful NVIDIA Jetson TX2 and the cheaper NVIDIA Jetson N ano. The light and fast face detector (LFFD) used for detection, and ResN et50 used for facial feature extraction are optimized using TensorRT over these edge devices. In our experiments, the proposed system achieves the True Acceptance Rate (TAR) of 0.94 at False Acceptance Rate (FAR) of 0.01 while detecting the faces at 20–30 FPS on NVIDIA Jetson TX2 and about 8–10 FPS on NVIDIA Jetson N ano device. The advantage of our system is that it is easily deployable at multiple locations and also scalable based on application requirement. Thus it provides a realistic solution to face logging application as the query or suspect can be searched instantly, which may not only help in investigation of incidents but also in prevention of untoward incidents.
Nazir, Sajid, Poorun, Yovin, Kaleem, Mohammad.  2021.  Person Detection with Deep Learning and IoT for Smart Home Security on Amazon Cloud. 2021 International Conference on Electrical, Computer, Communications and Mechatronics Engineering (ICECCME). :1—6.
A smart home provides better living environment by allowing remote Internet access for controlling the home appliances and devices. Security of smart homes is an important application area commonly using Passive Infrared Sensors (PIRs), image capture and analysis but such solutions sometimes fail to detect an event. An unambiguous person detection is important for security applications so that no event is missed and also that there are no false alarms which result in waste of resources. Cloud platforms provide deep learning and IoT services which can be used to implement an automated and failsafe security application. In this paper, we demonstrate reliable person detection for indoor and outdoor scenarios by integrating an application running on an edge device with AWS cloud services. We provide results for identifying a person before authorizing entry, detecting any trespassing within the boundaries, and monitoring movements within the home.
Sultana, Habiba, Kamal, A H M.  2021.  Image Steganography System based on Hybrid Edge Detector. 2021 24th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (ICCIT). :1—6.

In the field of image steganography, edge detection based implantation methods play vital rules in providing stronger security of hided data. In this arena, researcher applies a suitable edge detection method to detect edge pixels in an image. Those detected pixels then conceive secret message bits. A very recent trend is to employ multiple edge detection methods to increase edge pixels in an image and thus to enhance the embedding capacity. The uses of multiple edge detectors additionally boost up the data security. Like as the demand for embedding capacity, many applications need to have the modified image, i.e., stego image, with good quality. Indeed, when the message payload is low, it will not be a better idea to finds more local pixels for embedding that small payload. Rather, the image quality will look better, visually and statistically, if we could choose a part but sufficient pixels to implant bits. In this article, we propose an algorithm that uses multiple edge detection algorithms to find edge pixels separately and then selects pixels which are common to all edges. This way, the proposed method decreases the number of embeddable pixels and thus, increases the image quality. The experimental results provide promising output.

Wei, Xiangxiang, Du, Gao-Ming, Wang, Xiaolei, Cao, Hongfang, Hu, Shijie, Zhang, Duoli, Li, Zhenmin.  2021.  FPGA Implementation of Hardware Accelerator for Real-time Video Image Edge Detection. 2021 IEEE 15th International Conference on Anti-counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :16—20.
Image edge is considered to be the most important attribute to provide valuable image perception information. At present, video image data is developing towards high resolution and high frame number. The image data processing capacity is huge, so the processing speed is very strict to meet the real-time performance of image data transmission. In this context, we present a method to accelerate the real-time video image edge detection. FPGA is used as the development platform. The real-time edge detection algorithm of image data with 1280x720 resolution and 30 frame/s, combined with median filter, Sobel edge detection algorithm and corrosion expansion algorithm, makes the running time of image processing module shorter. The color image of the video image collected by camera is processed. The HDMI interface shows that the scheme has achieved ideal results in the FPGA hardware platform simulation model, greatly improves the efficiency of the algorithm, and provides a guarantee for the speed and stability of the real-time image processing system.
Huong, Truong Thu, Bac, Ta Phuong, Long, Dao Minh, Thang, Bui Doan, Luong, Tran Duc, Binh, Nguyen Thanh.  2021.  An Efficient Low Complexity Edge-Cloud Framework for Security in IoT Networks. 2020 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Communications and Electronics (ICCE). :533—539.

Internet of Things (IoT) and its applications are becoming commonplace with more devices, but always at risk of network security. It is therefore crucial for an IoT network design to identify attackers accurately, quickly and promptly. Many solutions have been proposed, mainly concerning secure IoT architectures and classification algorithms, but none of them have paid enough attention to reducing the complexity. Our proposal in this paper is an edge-cloud architecture that fulfills the detection task right at the edge layer, near the source of the attacks for quick response, versatility, as well as reducing the cloud's workload. We also propose a multi-attack detection mechanism called LCHA (Low-Complexity detection solution with High Accuracy) , which has low complexity for deployment at the edge zone while still maintaining high accuracy. The performance of our proposed mechanism is compared with that of other machine learning and deep learning methods using the most updated BoT-IoT data set. The results show that LCHA outperforms other algorithms such as NN, CNN, RNN, KNN, SVM, KNN, RF and Decision Tree in terms of accuracy and NN in terms of complexity.

Xu, Aidong, Wu, Tao, Zhang, Yunan, Hu, Zhiwei, Jiang, Yixin.  2021.  Graph-Based Time Series Edge Anomaly Detection in Smart Grid. 2021 7th IEEE Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :1—6.
With the popularity of smart devices in the power grid and the advancement of data collection technology, the amount of electricity usage data has exploded in recent years, which is beneficial for optimizing service quality and grid operation. However, current data analysis is mainly based on cloud platforms, which poses challenges to transmission bandwidth, computing resources, and transmission delays. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a graph convolution neural networks (GCNs) based edge-cloud collaborative anomaly detection model. Specifically, the time series is converted into graph data based on visibility graph model, and graph convolutional network model is adopted to classify the labeled graph data for anomaly detection. Then a model segmentation method is proposed to adaptively divide the anomaly detection model between the edge equipment and the back-end server. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme provides an effective solution to edge anomaly detection and can make full use of the computing resources of terminal equipment.
Mohammmed, Ahmed A, Elbasi, Ersin, Alsaydia, Omar Mowaffak.  2021.  An Adaptive Robust Semi-blind Watermarking in Transform Domain Using Canny Edge Detection Technique. 2021 44th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :10—14.
Digital watermarking is the multimedia leading security protection as it permanently escorts the digital content. Image copyright protection is becoming more anxious as the new 5G technology emerged. Protecting images with a robust scheme without distorting them is the main trade-off in digital watermarking. In this paper, a watermarking scheme based on discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) using canny edge detector technique is proposed. A binary encrypted watermark is reshaped into a vector and inserted into the edge detected vector from the diagonal matrix of the SVD of DCT DC and low-frequency coefficients. Watermark insertion is performed by using an edge-tracing mechanism. The scheme is evaluated using the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Normalized Correlation (NC). Attained results are competitive when compared to present works in the field. Results show that the PSNR values vary from 51 dB to 55 dB.
Nguyen, Huy Hoang, Ta, Thi Nhung, Nguyen, Ngoc Cuong, Bui, Van Truong, Pham, Hung Manh, Nguyen, Duc Minh.  2021.  YOLO Based Real-Time Human Detection for Smart Video Surveillance at the Edge. 2020 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Communications and Electronics (ICCE). :439–444.
Recently, smart video surveillance at the edge has become a trend in developing security applications since edge computing enables more image processing tasks to be implemented on the decentralised network note of the surveillance system. As a result, many security applications such as behaviour recognition and prediction, employee safety, perimeter intrusion detection and vandalism deterrence can minimise their latency or even process in real-time when the camera network system is extended to a larger degree. Technically, human detection is a key step in the implementation of these applications. With the advantage of high detection rates, deep learning methods have been widely employed on edge devices in order to detect human objects. However, due to their high computation costs, it is challenging to apply these methods on resource limited edge devices for real-time applications. Inspired by the You Only Look Once (YOLO), residual learning and Spatial Pyramid Pooling (SPP), a novel form of real-time human detection is presented in this paper. Our approach focuses on designing a network structure so that the developed model can achieve a good trade-off between accuracy and processing time. Experimental results show that our trained model can process 2 FPS on Raspberry PI 3B and detect humans with accuracies of 95.05 % and 96.81 % when tested respectively on INRIA and PENN FUDAN datasets. On the human COCO test dataset, our trained model outperforms the performance of the Tiny-YOLO versions. Additionally, compare to the SSD based L-CNN method, our algorithm achieves better accuracy than the other method.
Nikouei, S. Y., Chen, Y., Faughnan, T. R..  2018.  Smart Surveillance as an Edge Service for Real-Time Human Detection and Tracking. 2018 IEEE/ACM Symposium on Edge Computing (SEC). :336—337.

Monitoring for security and well-being in highly populated areas is a critical issue for city administrators, policy makers and urban planners. As an essential part of many dynamic and critical data-driven tasks, situational awareness (SAW) provides decision-makers a deeper insight of the meaning of urban surveillance. Thus, surveillance measures are increasingly needed. However, traditional surveillance platforms are not scalable when more cameras are added to the network. In this work, a smart surveillance as an edge service has been proposed. To accomplish the object detection, identification, and tracking tasks at the edge-fog layers, two novel lightweight algorithms are proposed for detection and tracking respectively. A prototype has been built to validate the feasibility of the idea, and the test results are very encouraging.

Chiang, M., Lau, S..  2011.  Automatic multiple faces tracking and detection using improved edge detector algorithm. 2011 7th International Conference on Information Technology in Asia. :1—5.

The automatic face tracking and detection has been one of the fastest developing areas due to its wide range of application, security and surveillance application in particular. It has been one of the most interest subjects, which suppose but yet to be wholly explored in various research areas due to various distinctive factors: varying ethnic groups, sizes, orientations, poses, occlusions and lighting conditions. The focus of this paper is to propose an improve algorithm to speed up the face tracking and detection process with the simple and efficient proposed novel edge detector to reject the non-face-likes regions, hence reduce the false detection rate in an automatic face tracking and detection in still images with multiple faces for facial expression system. The correct rates of 95.9% on the Haar face detection and proposed novel edge detector, which is higher 6.1% than the primitive integration of Haar and canny edge detector.

Li, W., Li, L..  2009.  A Novel Approach for Vehicle-logo Location Based on Edge Detection and Morphological Filter. 2009 Second International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security. 1:343—345.

Vehicle-logo location is a crucial step in vehicle-logo recognition system. In this paper, a novel approach of the vehicle-logo location based on edge detection and morphological filter is proposed. Firstly, the approximate location of the vehicle-logo region is determined by the prior knowledge about the position of the vehicle-logo; Secondly, the texture measure is defined to recognize the texture of the vehicle-logo background; Then, vertical edge detection is executed for the vehicle-logo background with the horizontal texture and horizontal edge detection is implemented for the vehicle-logo background with the vertical texture; Finally, position of the vehicle-logo is located accurately by mathematical morphology filter. Experimental results show the proposed method is effective.

Wang Xiao, Mi Hong, Wang Wei.  2010.  Inner edge detection of PET bottle opening based on the Balloon Snake. 2010 2nd International Conference on Advanced Computer Control. 4:56—59.

Edge detection of bottle opening is a primary section to the machine vision based bottle opening detection system. This paper, taking advantage of the Balloon Snake, on the PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) images sampled at rotating bottle-blowing machine producing pipelines, extracts the opening. It first uses the grayscale weighting average method to calculate the centroid as the initial position of Snake and then based on the energy minimal theory, it extracts the opening. Experiments show that compared with the conventional edge detection and center location methods, Balloon Snake is robust and can easily step over the weak noise points. Edge extracted thorough Balloon Snake is more integral and continuous which provides a guarantee to correctly judge the opening.

Qiao, B., Jin, L., Yang, Y..  2016.  An Adaptive Algorithm for Grey Image Edge Detection Based on Grey Correlation Analysis. 2016 12th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :470—474.

In the original algorithm for grey correlation analysis, the detected edge is comparatively rough and the thresholds need determining in advance. Thus, an adaptive edge detection method based on grey correlation analysis is proposed, in which the basic principle of the original algorithm for grey correlation analysis is used to get adaptively automatic threshold according to the mean value of the 3×3 area pixels around the detecting pixel and the property of people's vision. Because the false edge that the proposed algorithm detected is relatively large, the proposed algorithm is enhanced by dealing with the eight neighboring pixels around the edge pixel, which is merged to get the final edge map. The experimental results show that the algorithm can get more complete edge map with better continuity by comparing with the traditional edge detection algorithms.

Geetha, C. R., Basavaraju, S., Puttamadappa, C..  2013.  Variable load image steganography using multiple edge detection and minimum error replacement method. 2013 IEEE Conference on Information Communication Technologies. :53—58.

This paper proposes a steganography method using the digital images. Here, we are embedding the data which is to be secured into the digital image. Human Visual System proved that the changes in the image edges are insensitive to human eyes. Therefore we are using edge detection method in steganography to increase data hiding capacity by embedding more data in these edge pixels. So, if we can increase number of edge pixels, we can increase the amount of data that can be hidden in the image. To increase the number of edge pixels, multiple edge detection is employed. Edge detection is carried out using more sophisticated operator like canny operator. To compensate for the resulting decrease in the PSNR because of increase in the amount of data hidden, Minimum Error Replacement [MER] method is used. Therefore, the main goal of image steganography i.e. security with highest embedding capacity and good visual qualities are achieved. To extract the data we need the original image and the embedding ratio. Extraction is done by taking multiple edges detecting the original image and the data is extracted corresponding to the embedding ratio.

Xu, P., Miao, Q., Liu, T., Chen, X..  2015.  Multi-direction Edge Detection Operator. 2015 11th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :187—190.

Due to the noise in the images, the edges extracted from these noisy images are always discontinuous and inaccurate by traditional operators. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes multi-direction edge detection operator to detect edges from noisy images. The new operator is designed by introducing the shear transformation into the traditional operator. On the one hand, the shear transformation can provide a more favorable treatment for directions, which can make the new operator detect edges in different directions and overcome the directional limitation in the traditional operator. On the other hand, all the single pixel edge images in different directions can be fused. In this case, the edge information can complement each other. The experimental results indicate that the new operator is superior to the traditional ones in terms of the effectiveness of edge detection and the ability of noise rejection.

Moussa, Y., Alexan, W..  2020.  Message Security Through AES and LSB Embedding in Edge Detected Pixels of 3D Images. 2020 2nd Novel Intelligent and Leading Emerging Sciences Conference (NILES). :224—229.

This paper proposes an advanced scheme of message security in 3D cover images using multiple layers of security. Cryptography using AES-256 is implemented in the first layer. In the second layer, edge detection is applied. Finally, LSB steganography is executed in the third layer. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is measured using a number of performance metrics. For instance, mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity index measure (SSIM), mean absolute error (MAE) and entropy.

Prathusha, P., Jyothi, S., Mamatha, D. M..  2018.  Enhanced Image Edge Detection Methods for Crab Species Identification. 2018 International Conference on Soft-computing and Network Security (ICSNS). :1—7.

Automatic Image Analysis, Image Classification, Automatic Object Recognition are some of the aspiring research areas in various fields of Engineering. Many Industrial and biological applications demand Image Analysis and Image Classification. Sample images available for classification may be complex, image data may be inadequate or component regions in the image may have poor visibility. With the available information each Digital Image Processing application has to analyze, classify and recognize the objects appropriately. Pre-processing, Image segmentation, feature extraction and classification are the most common steps to follow for Classification of Images. In this study we applied various existing edge detection methods like Robert, Sobel, Prewitt, Canny, Otsu and Laplacian of Guassian to crab images. From the conducted analysis of all edge detection operators, it is observed that Sobel, Prewitt, Robert operators are ideal for enhancement. The paper proposes Enhanced Sobel operator, Enhanced Prewitt operator and Enhanced Robert operator using morphological operations and masking. The novelty of the proposed approach is that it gives thick edges to the crab images and removes spurious edges with help of m-connectivity. Parameters which measure the accuracy of the results are employed to compare the existing edge detection operators with proposed edge detection operators. This approach shows better results than existing edge detection operators.

Wang, R., Li, L., Hong, W., Yang, N..  2009.  A THz Image Edge Detection Method Based on Wavelet and Neural Network. 2009 Ninth International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems. 3:420—424.

A THz image edge detection approach based on wavelet and neural network is proposed in this paper. First, the source image is decomposed by wavelet, the edges in the low-frequency sub-image are detected using neural network method and the edges in the high-frequency sub-images are detected using wavelet transform method on the coarsest level of the wavelet decomposition, the two edge images are fused according to some fusion rules to obtain the edge image of this level, it then is projected to the next level. Afterwards the final edge image of L-1 level is got according to some fusion rule. This process is repeated until reaching the 0 level thus to get the final integrated and clear edge image. The experimental results show that our approach based on fusion technique is superior to Canny operator method and wavelet transform method alone.