Visible to the public Biblio

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Nikouei, S. Y., Chen, Y., Faughnan, T. R..  2018.  Smart Surveillance as an Edge Service for Real-Time Human Detection and Tracking. 2018 IEEE/ACM Symposium on Edge Computing (SEC). :336—337.

Monitoring for security and well-being in highly populated areas is a critical issue for city administrators, policy makers and urban planners. As an essential part of many dynamic and critical data-driven tasks, situational awareness (SAW) provides decision-makers a deeper insight of the meaning of urban surveillance. Thus, surveillance measures are increasingly needed. However, traditional surveillance platforms are not scalable when more cameras are added to the network. In this work, a smart surveillance as an edge service has been proposed. To accomplish the object detection, identification, and tracking tasks at the edge-fog layers, two novel lightweight algorithms are proposed for detection and tracking respectively. A prototype has been built to validate the feasibility of the idea, and the test results are very encouraging.

Chiang, M., Lau, S..  2011.  Automatic multiple faces tracking and detection using improved edge detector algorithm. 2011 7th International Conference on Information Technology in Asia. :1—5.

The automatic face tracking and detection has been one of the fastest developing areas due to its wide range of application, security and surveillance application in particular. It has been one of the most interest subjects, which suppose but yet to be wholly explored in various research areas due to various distinctive factors: varying ethnic groups, sizes, orientations, poses, occlusions and lighting conditions. The focus of this paper is to propose an improve algorithm to speed up the face tracking and detection process with the simple and efficient proposed novel edge detector to reject the non-face-likes regions, hence reduce the false detection rate in an automatic face tracking and detection in still images with multiple faces for facial expression system. The correct rates of 95.9% on the Haar face detection and proposed novel edge detector, which is higher 6.1% than the primitive integration of Haar and canny edge detector.

Li, W., Li, L..  2009.  A Novel Approach for Vehicle-logo Location Based on Edge Detection and Morphological Filter. 2009 Second International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security. 1:343—345.

Vehicle-logo location is a crucial step in vehicle-logo recognition system. In this paper, a novel approach of the vehicle-logo location based on edge detection and morphological filter is proposed. Firstly, the approximate location of the vehicle-logo region is determined by the prior knowledge about the position of the vehicle-logo; Secondly, the texture measure is defined to recognize the texture of the vehicle-logo background; Then, vertical edge detection is executed for the vehicle-logo background with the horizontal texture and horizontal edge detection is implemented for the vehicle-logo background with the vertical texture; Finally, position of the vehicle-logo is located accurately by mathematical morphology filter. Experimental results show the proposed method is effective.

Wang Xiao, Mi Hong, Wang Wei.  2010.  Inner edge detection of PET bottle opening based on the Balloon Snake. 2010 2nd International Conference on Advanced Computer Control. 4:56—59.

Edge detection of bottle opening is a primary section to the machine vision based bottle opening detection system. This paper, taking advantage of the Balloon Snake, on the PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) images sampled at rotating bottle-blowing machine producing pipelines, extracts the opening. It first uses the grayscale weighting average method to calculate the centroid as the initial position of Snake and then based on the energy minimal theory, it extracts the opening. Experiments show that compared with the conventional edge detection and center location methods, Balloon Snake is robust and can easily step over the weak noise points. Edge extracted thorough Balloon Snake is more integral and continuous which provides a guarantee to correctly judge the opening.

Qiao, B., Jin, L., Yang, Y..  2016.  An Adaptive Algorithm for Grey Image Edge Detection Based on Grey Correlation Analysis. 2016 12th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :470—474.

In the original algorithm for grey correlation analysis, the detected edge is comparatively rough and the thresholds need determining in advance. Thus, an adaptive edge detection method based on grey correlation analysis is proposed, in which the basic principle of the original algorithm for grey correlation analysis is used to get adaptively automatic threshold according to the mean value of the 3×3 area pixels around the detecting pixel and the property of people's vision. Because the false edge that the proposed algorithm detected is relatively large, the proposed algorithm is enhanced by dealing with the eight neighboring pixels around the edge pixel, which is merged to get the final edge map. The experimental results show that the algorithm can get more complete edge map with better continuity by comparing with the traditional edge detection algorithms.

Geetha, C. R., Basavaraju, S., Puttamadappa, C..  2013.  Variable load image steganography using multiple edge detection and minimum error replacement method. 2013 IEEE Conference on Information Communication Technologies. :53—58.

This paper proposes a steganography method using the digital images. Here, we are embedding the data which is to be secured into the digital image. Human Visual System proved that the changes in the image edges are insensitive to human eyes. Therefore we are using edge detection method in steganography to increase data hiding capacity by embedding more data in these edge pixels. So, if we can increase number of edge pixels, we can increase the amount of data that can be hidden in the image. To increase the number of edge pixels, multiple edge detection is employed. Edge detection is carried out using more sophisticated operator like canny operator. To compensate for the resulting decrease in the PSNR because of increase in the amount of data hidden, Minimum Error Replacement [MER] method is used. Therefore, the main goal of image steganography i.e. security with highest embedding capacity and good visual qualities are achieved. To extract the data we need the original image and the embedding ratio. Extraction is done by taking multiple edges detecting the original image and the data is extracted corresponding to the embedding ratio.

Xu, P., Miao, Q., Liu, T., Chen, X..  2015.  Multi-direction Edge Detection Operator. 2015 11th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security (CIS). :187—190.

Due to the noise in the images, the edges extracted from these noisy images are always discontinuous and inaccurate by traditional operators. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes multi-direction edge detection operator to detect edges from noisy images. The new operator is designed by introducing the shear transformation into the traditional operator. On the one hand, the shear transformation can provide a more favorable treatment for directions, which can make the new operator detect edges in different directions and overcome the directional limitation in the traditional operator. On the other hand, all the single pixel edge images in different directions can be fused. In this case, the edge information can complement each other. The experimental results indicate that the new operator is superior to the traditional ones in terms of the effectiveness of edge detection and the ability of noise rejection.

Moussa, Y., Alexan, W..  2020.  Message Security Through AES and LSB Embedding in Edge Detected Pixels of 3D Images. 2020 2nd Novel Intelligent and Leading Emerging Sciences Conference (NILES). :224—229.

This paper proposes an advanced scheme of message security in 3D cover images using multiple layers of security. Cryptography using AES-256 is implemented in the first layer. In the second layer, edge detection is applied. Finally, LSB steganography is executed in the third layer. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is measured using a number of performance metrics. For instance, mean square error (MSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity index measure (SSIM), mean absolute error (MAE) and entropy.

Prathusha, P., Jyothi, S., Mamatha, D. M..  2018.  Enhanced Image Edge Detection Methods for Crab Species Identification. 2018 International Conference on Soft-computing and Network Security (ICSNS). :1—7.

Automatic Image Analysis, Image Classification, Automatic Object Recognition are some of the aspiring research areas in various fields of Engineering. Many Industrial and biological applications demand Image Analysis and Image Classification. Sample images available for classification may be complex, image data may be inadequate or component regions in the image may have poor visibility. With the available information each Digital Image Processing application has to analyze, classify and recognize the objects appropriately. Pre-processing, Image segmentation, feature extraction and classification are the most common steps to follow for Classification of Images. In this study we applied various existing edge detection methods like Robert, Sobel, Prewitt, Canny, Otsu and Laplacian of Guassian to crab images. From the conducted analysis of all edge detection operators, it is observed that Sobel, Prewitt, Robert operators are ideal for enhancement. The paper proposes Enhanced Sobel operator, Enhanced Prewitt operator and Enhanced Robert operator using morphological operations and masking. The novelty of the proposed approach is that it gives thick edges to the crab images and removes spurious edges with help of m-connectivity. Parameters which measure the accuracy of the results are employed to compare the existing edge detection operators with proposed edge detection operators. This approach shows better results than existing edge detection operators.

Wang, R., Li, L., Hong, W., Yang, N..  2009.  A THz Image Edge Detection Method Based on Wavelet and Neural Network. 2009 Ninth International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems. 3:420—424.

A THz image edge detection approach based on wavelet and neural network is proposed in this paper. First, the source image is decomposed by wavelet, the edges in the low-frequency sub-image are detected using neural network method and the edges in the high-frequency sub-images are detected using wavelet transform method on the coarsest level of the wavelet decomposition, the two edge images are fused according to some fusion rules to obtain the edge image of this level, it then is projected to the next level. Afterwards the final edge image of L-1 level is got according to some fusion rule. This process is repeated until reaching the 0 level thus to get the final integrated and clear edge image. The experimental results show that our approach based on fusion technique is superior to Canny operator method and wavelet transform method alone.

Ye, H., Liu, W., Huang, S..  2020.  Method of Image Style Transfer Based on Edge Detection. 2020 IEEE 4th Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). 1:1635–1639.
In order to overcome the problem of edge information loss in the process of neural network processing, a method of neural network style transfer based on edge detection is presented. The edge information of the content image is extracted, and the edge information image is processed in the neural network together with the content image and the style image to constrain the edge information of the content image. Compared with Gatys algorithm and markov random field neural network algorithm, the content image edge structure after image style transfer is successfully retained.
Zhou, Z., Yang, Y., Cai, Z., Yang, Y., Lin, L..  2019.  Combined Layer GAN for Image Style Transfer*. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics (ICCEM). :1—3.

Image style transfer is an increasingly interesting topic in computer vision where the goal is to map images from one style to another. In this paper, we propose a new framework called Combined Layer GAN as a solution of dealing with image style transfer problem. Specifically, the edge-constraint and color-constraint are proposed and explored in the GAN based image translation method to improve the performance. The motivation of the work is that color and edge are fundamental vision factors for an image, while in the traditional deep network based approach, there is a lack of fine control of these factors in the process of translation and the performance is degraded consequently. Our experiments and evaluations show that our novel method with the edge and color constrains is more stable, and significantly improves the performance compared with the traditional methods.

Lee, P., Tseng, C..  2019.  On the Layer Choice of the Image Style Transfer Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan (ICCE-TW). :1—2.

In this paper, the layer choices of the image style transfer method using the VGG-19 neural network are studied. The VGG-19 network is used to extract the feature maps which have their implicit meaning as a learning basis. If the layers for stylistic learning are not suitably chosen, the quality of style transferred image may not look good. After making experiments, it can be observed that the color information is concentrated on lower layers from conv1-1 to conv2-2, and texture information is concentrated on the middle layers from conv3-1 to conv4-4. As to the higher layers from conv5-1 to conv5-4, they seem to be able to depict image content well. Based on these observations, the methods of color transfer, texture transfer and style transfer are presented and make comparisons with conventional methods.

Huang, Bai-Ruei, Lin, Chang Hong, Lee, Chia-Han.  2012.  Mobile augmented reality based on cloud computing. and Identification Anti-counterfeiting, Security. :1—5.
In this paper, we implemented a mobile augmented reality system based on cloud computing. This system uses a mobile device with a camera to capture images of book spines and sends processed features to the cloud. In the cloud, the features are compared with the database and the information of the best matched book would be sent back to the mobile device. The information will then be rendered on the display via augmented reality. In order to reduce the transmission cost, the mobile device is used to perform most of the image processing tasks, such as the preprocessing, resizing, corner detection, and augmented reality rendering. On the other hand, the cloud is used to realize routine but large quantity feature comparisons. Using the cloud as the database also makes the future extension much more easily. For our prototype system, we use an Android smart phone as our mobile device, and Chunghwa Telecoms hicloud as the cloud.
Fitwi, Alem, Chen, Yu, Zhu, Sencun.  2019.  A Lightweight Blockchain-Based Privacy Protection for Smart Surveillance at the Edge. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Blockchain (Blockchain). :552—555.

Witnessing the increasingly pervasive deployment of security video surveillance systems(VSS), more and more individuals have become concerned with the issues of privacy violations. While the majority of the public have a favorable view of surveillance in terms of crime deterrence, individuals do not accept the invasive monitoring of their private life. To date, however, there is not a lightweight and secure privacy-preserving solution for video surveillance systems. The recent success of blockchain (BC) technologies and their applications in the Internet of Things (IoT) shed a light on this challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a Lightweight, Blockchain-based Privacy protection (Lib-Pri) scheme for surveillance cameras at the edge. It enables the VSS to perform surveillance without compromising the privacy of people captured in the videos. The Lib-Pri system transforms the deployed VSS into a system that functions as a federated blockchain network capable of carrying out integrity checking, blurring keys management, feature sharing, and video access sanctioning. The policy-based enforcement of privacy measures is carried out at the edge devices for real-time video analytics without cluttering the network.

Putro, Singgih Nugroho, Moses Setiadi, De Rosal Ignatius, Aini, Devita Nurul, Rachmawanto, Eko Hari, Sari, Christy Atika.  2019.  Improved CRT Image Steganography based on Edge Areas and Spread Embedding. 2019 Fourth International Conference on Informatics and Computing (ICIC). :1—6.

Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) is one of the spatial domain methods that is more implemented in the data hiding method watermarking. CRT is used to improve security and imperceptibility in the watermarking method. CRT is rarely studied in studies that discuss steganographic images. Steganography research focuses more on increasing imperceptibility, embedded payload, and message security, so methods like LSB are still popular to be developed to date. CRT and LSB have some similarities such as default payload capacity and both are methods in the spatial domain which can produce good imperceptibility quality of stego image. But CRT is very superior in terms of security, so CRT is also widely used in cryptographic algorithms. Some ways to increase imperceptibility in image steganography are edge detection and spread spectrum embedding. This research proposes a combination of edge detection techniques and spread-spectrum embedding based on the CRT method to produce imperceptibility and safe image steganography method. Based on the test results it is proven that the combination of the proposed methods can increase imperceptibility of CRT-based steganography based on SSIM metric.

Karthika, P., Babu, R. Ganesh, Nedumaran, A..  2019.  Machine Learning Security Allocation in IoT. 2019 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICCS). :474—478.

The progressed computational abilities of numerous asset compelled gadgets mobile phones have empowered different research zones including picture recovery from enormous information stores for various IoT applications. The real difficulties for picture recovery utilizing cell phones in an IoT situation are the computational intricacy and capacity. To manage enormous information in IoT condition for picture recovery a light-weighted profound learning base framework for vitality obliged gadgets. The framework initially recognizes and crop face areas from a picture utilizing Viola-Jones calculation with extra face classifier to take out the identification issue. Besides, the utilizes convolutional framework layers of a financially savvy pre-prepared CNN demonstrate with characterized highlights to speak to faces. Next, highlights of the huge information vault are listed to accomplish a quicker coordinating procedure for constant recovery. At long last, Euclidean separation is utilized to discover comparability among question and archive pictures. For exploratory assessment, we made a nearby facial pictures dataset it including equally single and gathering face pictures. In the dataset can be utilized by different specialists as a scale for examination with other ongoing facial picture recovery frameworks. The trial results demonstrate that our planned framework beats other cutting edge highlight extraction strategies as far as proficiency and recovery for IoT-helped vitality obliged stages.

Maria Verzegnassi, Enrico Giulio, Tountas, Konstantinos, Pados, Dimitris A., Cuomo, Francesca.  2019.  Data Conformity Evaluation: A Novel Approach for IoT Security. 2019 IEEE 5th World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). :842—846.

We consider the problem of attack detection for IoT networks based only on passively collected network parameters. For the first time in the literature, we develop a blind attack detection method based on data conformity evaluation. Network parameters collected passively, are converted to their conformity values through iterative projections on refined L1-norm tensor subspaces. We demonstrate our algorithmic development in a case study for a simulated star topology network. Type of attack, affected devices, as well as, attack time frame can be easily identified.

Jiang, Jianguo, Chen, Jiuming, Gu, Tianbo, Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond, Liu, Chao, Yu, Min, Huang, Weiqing, Mohapatra, Prasant.  2019.  Anomaly Detection with Graph Convolutional Networks for Insider Threat and Fraud Detection. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :109—114.

Anomaly detection generally involves the extraction of features from entities' or users' properties, and the design of anomaly detection models using machine learning or deep learning algorithms. However, only considering entities' property information could lead to high false positives. We posit the importance of also considering connections or relationships between entities in the detecting of anomalous behaviors and associated threat groups. Therefore, in this paper, we design a GCN (graph convolutional networks) based anomaly detection model to detect anomalous behaviors of users and malicious threat groups. The GCN model could characterize entities' properties and structural information between them into graphs. This allows the GCN based anomaly detection model to detect both anomalous behaviors of individuals and associated anomalous groups. We then evaluate the proposed model using a real-world insider threat data set. The results show that the proposed model outperforms several state-of-art baseline methods (i.e., random forest, logistic regression, SVM, and CNN). Moreover, the proposed model can also be applied to other anomaly detection applications.

Niedermaier, Matthias, Fischer, Florian, Merli, Dominik, Sigl, Georg.  2019.  Network Scanning and Mapping for IIoT Edge Node Device Security. 2019 International Conference on Applied Electronics (AE). :1—6.

The amount of connected devices in the industrial environment is growing continuously, due to the ongoing demands of new features like predictive maintenance. New business models require more data, collected by IIoT edge node sensors based on inexpensive and low performance Microcontroller Units (MCUs). A negative side effect of this rise of interconnections is the increased attack surface, enabled by a larger network with more network services. Attaching badly documented and cheap devices to industrial networks often without permission of the administrator even further increases the security risk. A decent method to monitor the network and detect “unwanted” devices is network scanning. Typically, this scanning procedure is executed by a computer or server in each sub-network. In this paper, we introduce network scanning and mapping as a building block to scan directly from the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) edge node devices. This module scans the network in a pseudo-random periodic manner to discover devices and detect changes in the network structure. Furthermore, we validate our approach in an industrial testbed to show the feasibility of this approach.

Rezaei, Aref, Farzinvash, Leili, Farzamnia, Ali.  2019.  A Novel Steganography Algorithm using Edge Detection and MPC Algorithm. 2019 16th International ISC (Iranian Society of Cryptology) Conference on Information Security and Cryptology (ISCISC). :49—54.

With the rapid development of the Internet, preserving the security of confidential data has become a challenging issue. An effective method to this end is to apply steganography techniques. In this paper, we propose an efficient steganography algorithm which applies edge detection and MPC algorithm for data concealment in digital images. The proposed edge detection scheme partitions the given image, namely cover image, into blocks. Next, it identifies the edge blocks based on the variance of their corner pixels. Embedding the confidential data in sharp edges causes less distortion in comparison to the smooth areas. To diminish the imposed distortion by data embedding in edge blocks, we employ LSB and MPC algorithms. In the proposed scheme, the blocks are split into some groups firstly. Next, a full tree is constructed per group using the LSBs of its pixels. This tree is converted into another full tree in some rounds. The resultant tree is used to modify the considered LSBs. After the accomplishment of the data embedding process, the final image, which is called stego image, is derived. According to the experimental results, the proposed algorithm improves PSNR with at least 5.4 compared to the previous schemes.

Shengquan, Wang, Xianglong, Li, Ang, Li, Shenlong, Jiang.  2019.  Research on Iris Edge Detection Technology based on Daugman Algorithm. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computer Applications (ICAICA). :308—311.

In the current society, people pay more and more attention to identity security, especially in the case of some highly confidential or personal privacy, one-to-one identification is particularly important. The iris recognition just has the characteristics of high efficiency, not easy to be counterfeited, etc., which has been promoted as an identity technology. This paper has carried out research on daugman algorithm and iris edge detection.

Yaseen, Zainab F., Kareem, Abdulameer A..  2019.  Image Steganography Based on Hybrid Edge Detector to Hide Encrypted Image Using Vernam Algorithm. 2019 2nd Scientific Conference of Computer Sciences (SCCS). :75–80.

There has been a growing expansion in the use of steganography, due to the evolution in using internet technology and multimedia technology. Hence, nowadays, the information is not secured sufficiently while transmitting it over the network. Therefore, information security has taken an important role to provide security against unauthorized individuals. This paper proposes steganography and cryptography technique to secure image based on hybrid edge detector. Cryptography technique is used to encrypt a secret image by using Vernam cipher algorithm. The robust of this algorithm is depending on pseudorandom key. Therefore, pseudo-random key is generated from a nonlinear feedback shift register (Geffe Generator). While in steganography, Hybrid Sobel and Kirch edge detector have been applied on the cover image to locate edge pixels. The least significant bit (LSB) steganography technique is used to embed secret image bits in the cover image in which 3 bits are embedded in edge pixel and 2 bits in smooth pixel. The proposed method can be used in multi field such as military, medical, communication, banking, Electronic governance, and so on. This method gives an average payload ratio of 1.96 with 41.5 PSNR on average. Besides, the maximum size of secret image that can be hidden in the cover image of size 512*512 is 262*261. Also, when hiding 64800 bits in baboon cover image of size 512*512, it gives PSNR of 50.42 and MSE of 0.59.

Korzhik, Valery, Duy Cuong, Nguyen, Morales-Luna, Guillermo.  2019.  Cipher Modification Against Steganalysis Based on NIST Tests. 2019 24th Conference of Open Innovations Association (FRUCT). :179–186.

Part of our team proposed a new steganalytic method based on NIST tests at MMM-ACNS 2017 [1], and it was encouraged to investigate some cipher modifications to prevent such types of steganalysis. In the current paper, we propose one cipher modification based on decompression by arithmetic source compression coding. The experiment shows that the current proposed method allows to protect stegosystems against steganalysis based on NIST tests, while security of the encrypted embedded messages is kept. Protection of contemporary image steganography based on edge detection and modified LSB against NIST tests steganalysis is also presented.

Guang, Xuan, Yeung, Raymond w..  2019.  Local-Encoding-Preserving Secure Network Coding for Fixed Dimension. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT). :201-205.

In the paradigm of network coding, information-theoretic security is considered in the presence of wiretappers, who can access one arbitrary edge subset up to a certain size, referred to as the security level. Secure network coding is applied to prevent the leakage of the source information to the wiretappers. In this paper, we consider the problem of secure network coding for flexible pairs of information rate and security level with any fixed dimension (equal to the sum of rate and security level). We present a novel approach for designing a secure linear network code (SLNC) such that the same SLNC can be applied for all the rate and security-level pairs with the fixed dimension. We further develop a polynomial-time algorithm for efficient implementation and prove that there is no penalty on the required field size for the existence of SLNCs in terms of the best known lower bound by Guang and Yeung. Finally, by applying our approach as a crucial building block, we can construct a family of SLNCs that not only can be applied to all possible pairs of rate and security level but also share a common local encoding kernel at each intermediate node in the network.