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Lee, Y., Woo, S., Song, Y., Lee, J., Lee, D. H..  2020.  Practical Vulnerability-Information-Sharing Architecture for Automotive Security-Risk Analysis. IEEE Access. 8:120009—120018.
Emerging trends that are shaping the future of the automotive industry include electrification, autonomous driving, sharing, and connectivity, and these trends keep changing annually. Thus, the automotive industry is shifting from mechanical devices to electronic control devices, and is not moving to Internet of Things devices connected to 5G networks. Owing to the convergence of automobile-information and communication technology (ICT), the safety and convenience features of automobiles have improved significantly. However, cyberattacks that occur in the existing ICT environment and can occur in the upcoming 5G network are being replicated in the automobile environment. In a hyper-connected society where 5G networks are commercially available, automotive security is extremely important, as vehicles become the center of vehicle to everything (V2X) communication connected to everything around them. Designing, developing, and deploying information security techniques for vehicles require a systematic security-risk-assessment and management process throughout the vehicle's lifecycle. To do this, a security risk analysis (SRA) must be performed, which requires an analysis of cyber threats on automotive vehicles. In this study, we introduce a cyber kill chain-based cyberattack analysis method to create a formal vulnerability-analysis system. We can also analyze car-hacking studies that were conducted on real cars to identify the characteristics of the attack stages of existing car-hacking techniques and propose the minimum but essential measures for defense. Finally, we propose an automotive common-vulnerabilities-and-exposure system to manage and share evolving vehicle-related cyberattacks, threats, and vulnerabilities.
Olowononi, F. O., Rawat, D. B., Liu, C..  2020.  Dependable Adaptive Mobility in Vehicular Networks for Resilient Mobile Cyber Physical Systems. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops). :1—6.

Improved safety, high mobility and environmental concerns in transportation systems across the world and the corresponding developments in information and communication technologies continue to drive attention towards Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). This is evident in advanced driver-assistance systems such as lane departure warning, adaptive cruise control and collision avoidance. However, in connected and autonomous vehicles, the efficient functionality of these applications depends largely on the ability of a vehicle to accurately predict it operating parameters such as location and speed. The ability to predict the immediate future/next location (or speed) of a vehicle or its ability to predict neighbors help in guaranteeing integrity, availability and accountability, thus boosting safety and resiliency of the Vehicular Network for Mobile Cyber Physical Systems (VCPS). In this paper, we proposed a secure movement-prediction for connected vehicles by using Kalman filter. Specifically, Kalman filter predicts the locations and speeds of individual vehicles with reference to already observed and known information such posted legal speed limit, geographic/road location, direction etc. The aim is to achieve resilience through the predicted and exchanged information between connected moving vehicles in an adaptive manner. By being able to predict their future locations, the following vehicle is able to adjust its position more accurately to avoid collision and to ensure optimal information exchange among vehicles.

Liu, X., Gao, W., Feng, D., Gao, X..  2020.  Abnormal Traffic Congestion Recognition Based on Video Analysis. 2020 IEEE Conference on Multimedia Information Processing and Retrieval (MIPR). :39—42.

The incidence of abnormal road traffic events, especially abnormal traffic congestion, is becoming more and more prominent in daily traffic management in China. It has become the main research work of urban traffic management to detect and identify traffic congestion incidents in time. Efficient and accurate detection of traffic congestion incidents can provide a good strategy for traffic management. At present, the detection and recognition of traffic congestion events mainly rely on the integration of road traffic flow data and the passing data collected by electronic police or devices of checkpoint, and then estimating and forecasting road conditions through the method of big data analysis; Such methods often have some disadvantages such as low time-effect, low precision and small prediction range. Therefore, with the help of the current large and medium cities in the public security, traffic police have built video surveillance equipment, through computer vision technology to analyze the traffic flow from video monitoring, in this paper, the motion state and the changing trend of vehicle flow are obtained by using the technology of vehicle detection from video and multi-target tracking based on deep learning, so as to realize the perception and recognition of traffic congestion. The method achieves the recognition accuracy of less than 60 seconds in real-time, more than 80% in detection rate of congestion event and more than 82.5% in accuracy of detection. At the same time, it breaks through the restriction of traditional big data prediction, such as traffic flow data, truck pass data and GPS floating car data, and enlarges the scene and scope of detection.

Raju, R. S., Lipasti, M..  2020.  BlurNet: Defense by Filtering the Feature Maps. 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :38—46.

Recently, the field of adversarial machine learning has been garnering attention by showing that state-of-the-art deep neural networks are vulnerable to adversarial examples, stemming from small perturbations being added to the input image. Adversarial examples are generated by a malicious adversary by obtaining access to the model parameters, such as gradient information, to alter the input or by attacking a substitute model and transferring those malicious examples over to attack the victim model. Specifically, one of these attack algorithms, Robust Physical Perturbations (RP2), generates adversarial images of stop signs with black and white stickers to achieve high targeted misclassification rates against standard-architecture traffic sign classifiers. In this paper, we propose BlurNet, a defense against the RP2 attack. First, we motivate the defense with a frequency analysis of the first layer feature maps of the network on the LISA dataset, which shows that high frequency noise is introduced into the input image by the RP2 algorithm. To remove the high frequency noise, we introduce a depthwise convolution layer of standard blur kernels after the first layer. We perform a blackbox transfer attack to show that low-pass filtering the feature maps is more beneficial than filtering the input. We then present various regularization schemes to incorporate this lowpass filtering behavior into the training regime of the network and perform white-box attacks. We conclude with an adaptive attack evaluation to show that the success rate of the attack drops from 90% to 20% with total variation regularization, one of the proposed defenses.

Promyslov, V., Semenkov, K..  2020.  Security Threats for Autonomous and Remotely Controlled Vehicles in Smart City. 2020 International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Applications and Manufacturing (ICIEAM). :1—5.

The paper presents a comprehensive model of cybersecurity threats for a system of autonomous and remotely controlled vehicles (AV) in the environment of a smart city. The main focus in the security context is given to the “integrity” property. That property is of higher importance for industrial control systems in comparison with other security properties (availability and confidentiality). The security graph, which is part of the model, is dynamic, and, in real cases, its analysis may require significant computing resources for AV systems with a large number of assets and connections. The simplified example of the security graph for the AV system is presented.

Sun, Z., Du, P., Nakao, A., Zhong, L., Onishi, R..  2019.  Building Dynamic Mapping with CUPS for Next Generation Automotive Edge Computing. 2019 IEEE 8th International Conference on Cloud Networking (CloudNet). :1—6.

With the development of IoT and 5G networks, the demand for the next-generation intelligent transportation system has been growing at a rapid pace. Dynamic mapping has been considered one of the key technologies to reduce traffic accidents and congestion in the intelligent transportation system. However, as the number of vehicles keeps growing, a huge volume of mapping traffic may overload the central cloud, leading to serious performance degradation. In this paper, we propose and prototype a CUPS (control and user plane separation)-based edge computing architecture for the dynamic mapping and quantify its benefits by prototyping. There are a couple of merits of our proposal: (i) we can mitigate the overhead of the networks and central cloud because we only need to abstract and send global dynamic mapping information from the edge servers to the central cloud; (ii) we can reduce the response latency since the dynamic mapping traffic can be isolated from other data traffic by being generated and distributed from a local edge server that is deployed closer to the vehicles than the central server in cloud. The capabilities of our system have been quantified. The experimental results have shown our system achieves throughput improvement by more than four times, and response latency reduction by 67.8% compared to the conventional central cloud-based approach. Although these results are still obtained from the preliminary evaluations using our prototype system, we believe that our proposed architecture gives insight into how we utilize CUPS and edge computing to enable efficient dynamic mapping applications.

Singh, M., Kim, S..  2018.  Crypto trust point (cTp) for secure data sharing among intelligent vehicles. 2018 International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communication (ICEIC). :1–4.
Tremendous amount of research is going on in the field of Intelligent vehicles (IVs)in industries and academics. Although, IV supports a better convenience for the society, but it also suffers from some concerns. Security is the major concern in Intelligent vehicle technology, due to its high exposure to data and information communication. The environment of the IV communication has many security vulnerabilities, which cannot be solved by Traditional Security approaches due to their fixed capabilities. Among security, trust, data accuracy and reliability of communication data in the communication channel are the other issues in IV communication. Blockchain is a peer-to-peer, distributed and decentralized technology which is used by the digital currency Bit-coin, to build trust and reliability and it has capability and is feasible to use Blockchain in IV Communication. In this paper, we propose, Blockchain based crypto Trust point (cTp) mechanism for IV communication. Using cTp in the IVs communication environment can provide IV data security and reliability. cTp mechanism accounts for the legitimate and illegitimate vehicles behavior, and rewarding thereby building trust among the vehicles. We also propose a reward based system using cTp (exchange of some cTp among IVs, during successful communication). We use blockchain technology in the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) for the data management of the cTp. Using ITS, cTp details of every vehicle can be accessed ubiquitously by IVs. We evaluation, our proposal using the intersection use case scenario for intelligent vehicles communication.
Evans, David, Calvo, Daniel, Arroyo, Adrian, Manilla, Alejandro, Gómez, David.  2019.  End-to-end security assessment framework for connected vehicles. 2019 22nd International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC). :1–6.
To increase security and to offer user experiences according to the requirements of a hyper-connected world, modern vehicles are integrating complex electronic systems, being transformed into systems of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). While a great diversity of heterogeneous hardware and software components must work together and control in real-time crucial functionalities, cybersecurity for the automotive sector is still in its infancy. This paper provides an analysis of the most common vulnerabilities and risks of connected vehicles, using a real example based on industrial and market-ready technologies. Several components have been implemented to inject and simulate multiple attacks, which enable security services and mitigation actions to be developed and validated.
Sliwa, Benjamin, Haferkamp, Marcus, Al-Askary, Manar, Dorn, Dennis, Wietfeld, Christian.  2018.  A radio-fingerprinting-based vehicle classification system for intelligent traffic control in smart cities. 2018 Annual IEEE International Systems Conference (SysCon). :1–5.
The measurement and provision of precise and up-to-date traffic-related key performance indicators is a key element and crucial factor for intelligent traffic control systems in upcoming smart cities. The street network is considered as a highly-dynamic Cyber Physical System (CPS) where measured information forms the foundation for dynamic control methods aiming to optimize the overall system state. Apart from global system parameters like traffic flow and density, specific data, such as velocity of individual vehicles as well as vehicle type information, can be leveraged for highly sophisticated traffic control methods like dynamic type-specific lane assignments. Consequently, solutions for acquiring these kinds of information are required and have to comply with strict requirements ranging from accuracy over cost-efficiency to privacy preservation. In this paper, we present a system for classifying vehicles based on their radio-fingerprint. In contrast to other approaches, the proposed system is able to provide real-time capable and precise vehicle classification as well as cost-efficient installation and maintenance, privacy preservation and weather independence. The system performance in terms of accuracy and resource-efficiency is evaluated in the field using comprehensive measurements. Using a machine learning based approach, the resulting success ratio for classifying cars and trucks is above 99%.
Xiong, Chen, Chen, Hua, Cai, Ming, Gao, Jing.  2019.  A Vehicle Trajectory Adversary Model Based on VLPR Data. 2019 5th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety (ICTIS). :903–912.
Although transport agency has employed desensitization techniques to deal with the privacy information when publicizing vehicle license plate recognition (VLPR) data, the adversaries can still eavesdrop on vehicle trajectories by certain means and further acquire the associated person and vehicle information through background knowledge. In this work, a privacy attacking method by using the desensitized VLPR data is proposed to link the vehicle trajectory. First the road average speed is evaluated by analyzing the changes of traffic flow, which is used to estimate the vehicle's travel time to the next VLPR system. Then the vehicle suspicion list is constructed through the time relevance of neighboring VLPR systems. Finally, since vehicles may have the same features like color, type, etc, the target trajectory will be located by filtering the suspected list by the rule of qualified identifier (QI) attributes and closest time method. Based on the Foshan City's VLPR data, the method is tested and results show that correct vehicle trajectory can be linked, which proves that the current VLPR data publication way has the risk of privacy disclosure. At last, the effects of related parameters on the proposed method are discussed and effective suggestions are made for publicizing VLPR date in the future.
Liu, Junqiu, Wang, Fei, Zhao, Shuang, Wang, Xin, Chen, Shuhui.  2019.  iMonitor, An APP-Level Traffic Monitoring and Labeling System for iOS Devices. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) and IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :211—218.
In this paper, we propose the first traffic monitoring and labeling system for iOS devices, named iMonitor, which not just captures mobile network traffic in .pcap files, but also provides comprehensive APP-related and user-related information of captured packets. Through further analysis, one can obtain the exact APP or device where each packet comes from. The labeled traffic can be used in many research areas for mobile security, such as privacy leakage detection and user profiling. Given the implementation methodology of NetworkExtension framework of iOS 9+, APP labels of iMonitor are reliable enough so that labeled traffic can be regarded as training data for any traffic classification methods. Evaluations on real iPhones demonstrate that iMonitor has no notable impact upon user experience even with slight packet latency. Also, the experiment result supports our motivation that mobile traffic monitoring for iOS is absolutely necessary, as traffic generated by different OSes like Android and iOS are different and unreplaceable in researches.
Liem, Clifford, Murdock, Dan, Williams, Andrew, Soukup, Martin.  2019.  Highly Available, Self-Defending, and Malicious Fault-Tolerant Systems for Automotive Cybersecurity. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :24–27.
With the growing number of electronic features in cars and their connections to the cloud, smartphones, road-side equipment, and neighboring cars the need for effective cybersecurity is paramount. Beyond the concern of brand degradation, warranty fraud, and recalls, what keeps manufacturers up at night is the threat of malicious attacks which can affect the safety of vehicles on the road. Would any single protection technique provide the security needed over the long lifetime of a vehicle? We present a new methodology for automotive cybersecurity where the designs are made to withstand attacks in the future based on the concepts of high availability and malicious fault-tolerance through self-defending techniques. When a system has an intrusion, self-defending technologies work to contain the breach using integrity verification, self-healing, and fail-over techniques to keep the system running.
Vöelp, Marcus, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2018.  Intrusion-Tolerant Autonomous Driving. 2018 IEEE 21st International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC). :130–133.
Fully autonomous driving is one if not the killer application for the upcoming decade of real-time systems. However, in the presence of increasingly sophisticated attacks by highly skilled and well equipped adversarial teams, autonomous driving must not only guarantee timeliness and hence safety. It must also consider the dependability of the software concerning these properties while the system is facing attacks. For distributed systems, fault-and-intrusion tolerance toolboxes already offer a few solutions to tolerate partial compromise of the system behind a majority of healthy components operating in consensus. In this paper, we present a concept of an intrusion-tolerant architecture for autonomous driving. In such a scenario, predictability and recovery challenges arise from the inclusion of increasingly more complex software on increasingly less predictable hardware. We highlight how an intrusion tolerant design can help solve these issues by allowing timeliness to emerge from a majority of complex components being fast enough, often enough while preserving safety under attack through pre-computed fail safes.
Lambert, Christoph, Völp, Marcus, Decouchant, Jérémie, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2018.  Towards Real-Time-Aware Intrusion Tolerance. 2018 IEEE 37th Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS). :269–270.
Technologies such as Industry 4.0 or assisted/autonomous driving are relying on highly customized cyber-physical realtime systems. Those systems are designed to match functional safety regulations and requirements such as EN ISO 13849, EN IEC 62061 or ISO 26262. However, as systems - especially vehicles - are becoming more connected and autonomous, they become more likely to suffer from new attack vectors. New features may meet the corresponding safety requirements but they do not consider adversaries intruding through security holes with the purpose of bringing vehicles into unsafe states. As research goal, we want to bridge the gap between security and safety in cyber-physical real-time systems by investigating real-time-aware intrusion-tolerant architectures for automotive use-cases.
Jiang, Feng, Qi, Buren, Wu, Tianhao, Zhu, Konglin, Zhang, Lin.  2019.  CPSS: CP-ABE based Platoon Secure Sensing Scheme against Cyber-Attacks. 2019 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC). :3218—3223.

Platoon is one of cooperative driving applications where a set of vehicles can collaboratively sense each other for driving safety and traffic efficiency. However, platoon without security insurance makes the cooperative vehicles vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which may cause life-threatening accidents. In this paper, we introduce malicious attacks in platoon maneuvers. To defend against these attacks, we propose a Cyphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE) based Platoon Secure Sensing scheme, named CPSS. In the CPSS, platoon key is encapsulated in the access control structure in the key distribution process, so that interference messages sending by attackers without the platoon key could be ignored. Therefore, the sensing data which contains speed and position information can be protected. In this way, speed and distance fluctuations caused by attacks can be mitigated even eliminated thereby avoiding the collisions and ensuring the overall platoon stability. Time complexity analysis shows that the CPSS is more efficient than that of the polynomial time solutions. Finally, to evaluate capabilities of the CPSS, we integrate a LTE-V2X with platoon maneuvers based on Veins platform. The evaluation results show that the CPSS outperforms the baseline algorithm by 25% in terms of distance variations.

Hayward, Jake, Tomlinson, Andrew, Bryans, Jeremy.  2019.  Adding Cyberattacks To An Industry-Leading CAN Simulator. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :9–16.
Recent years have seen an increase in the data usage in cars, particularly as they become more autonomous and connected. With the rise in data use have come concerns about automotive cyber-security. An in-vehicle network shown to be particularly vulnerable is the Controller Area Network (CAN), which is the communication bus used by the car's safety critical and performance critical components. Cyber attacks on the CAN have been demonstrated, leading to research to develop attack detection and attack prevention systems. Such research requires representative attack demonstrations and data for testing. Obtaining this data is problematical due to the expense, danger and impracticality of using real cars on roads or tracks for example attacks. Whilst CAN simulators are available, these tend to be configured for testing conformance and functionality, rather than analysing security and cyber vulnerability. We therefore adapt a leading, industry-standard, CAN simulator to incorporate a core set of cyber attacks that are representative of those proposed by other researchers. Our adaptation allows the user to configure the attacks, and can be added easily to the free version of the simulator. Here we describe the simulator and, after reviewing the attacks that have been demonstrated and discussing their commonalities, we outline the attacks that we have incorporated into the simulator.
Feng, Ri-Chen, Lin, Daw-Tung, Chen, Ken-Min, Lin, Yi-Yao, Liu, Chin-De.  2019.  Improving Deep Learning by Incorporating Semi-automatic Moving Object Annotation and Filtering for Vision-based Vehicle Detection*. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). :2484—2489.

Deep learning has undergone tremendous advancements in computer vision studies. The training of deep learning neural networks depends on a considerable amount of ground truth datasets. However, labeling ground truth data is a labor-intensive task, particularly for large-volume video analytics applications such as video surveillance and vehicles detection for autonomous driving. This paper presents a rapid and accurate method for associative searching in big image data obtained from security monitoring systems. We developed a semi-automatic moving object annotation method for improving deep learning models. The proposed method comprises three stages, namely automatic foreground object extraction, object annotation in subsequent video frames, and dataset construction using human-in-the-loop quick selection. Furthermore, the proposed method expedites dataset collection and ground truth annotation processes. In contrast to data augmentation and data generative models, the proposed method produces a large amount of real data, which may facilitate training results and avoid adverse effects engendered by artifactual data. We applied the constructed annotation dataset to train a deep learning you-only-look-once (YOLO) model to perform vehicle detection on street intersection surveillance videos. Experimental results demonstrated that the accurate detection performance was improved from a mean average precision (mAP) of 83.99 to 88.03.

Chowdhury, Abdullahi, Karmakar, Gour, Kamruzzaman, Joarder.  2019.  Trusted Autonomous Vehicle: Measuring Trust using On-Board Unit Data. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :787—792.

Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) play an essential role in ensuring safe, reliable and faster transportation with the help of an Intelligent Transportation system. The trustworthiness of vehicles in VANETs is extremely important to ensure the authenticity of messages and traffic information transmitted in extremely dynamic topographical conditions where vehicles move at high speed. False or misleading information may cause substantial traffic congestions, road accidents and may even cost lives. Many approaches exist in literature to measure the trustworthiness of GPS data and messages of an Autonomous Vehicle (AV). To the best of our knowledge, they have not considered the trustworthiness of other On-Board Unit (OBU) components of an AV, along with GPS data and transmitted messages, though they have a substantial relevance in overall vehicle trust measurement. In this paper, we introduce a novel model to measure the overall trustworthiness of an AV considering four different OBU components additionally. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with a traffic simulation model developed by Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) using realistic traffic data and considering different levels of uncertainty.

Ming, Liang, Zhao, Gang, Huang, Minhuan, Kuang, Xiaohui, Li, Hu, Zhang, Ming.  2018.  Security Analysis of Intelligent Transportation Systems Based on Simulation Data. 2018 1st International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :184—187.

Modern vehicles in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) can communicate with each other as well as roadside infrastructure units (RSUs) in order to increase transportation efficiency and road safety. For example, there are techniques to alert drivers in advance about traffic incidents and to help them avoid congestion. Threats to these systems, on the other hand, can limit the benefits of these technologies. Securing ITS itself is an important concern in ITS design and implementation. In this paper, we provide a security model of ITS which extends the classic layered network security model with transportation security and information security, and gives a reference for designing ITS architectures. Based on this security model, we also present a classification of ITS threats for defense. Finally a proof-of-concept example with malicious nodes in an ITS system is also given to demonstrate the impact of attacks. We analyzed the threat of malicious nodes and their effects to commuters, like increasing toll fees, travel distances, and travel times etc. Experimental results from simulations based on Veins shows the threats will bring about 43.40% more total toll fees, 39.45% longer travel distances, and 63.10% more travel times.

Malik, Nisha, Nanda, Priyadarsi, He, Xiangjian, Liu, RenPing.  2019.  Trust and Reputation in Vehicular Networks: A Smart Contract-Based Approach. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :34–41.
Appending digital signatures and certificates to messages guarantee data integrity and ensure non-repudiation, but do not identify greedy authenticated nodes. Trust evolves if some reputable and trusted node verifies the node, data and evaluates the trustworthiness of the node using an accurate metric. But, even if the verifying party is a trusted centralized party, there is opacity and obscurity in computed reputation rating. The trusted party maps it with the node's identity, but how is it evaluated and what inputs derive the reputation rating remains hidden, thus concealment of transparency leads to privacy. Besides, the malevolent nodes might collude together for defamatory actions against reliable nodes, and eventually bad mouth these nodes or praise malicious nodes collaboratively. Thus, we cannot always assume the fairness of the nodes as the rating they give to any node might not be a fair one. In this paper, we propose a smart contract-based approach to update and query the reputation of nodes, stored and maintained by IPFS distributed storage. The use case particularly deals with an emergency scenario, dealing against colluding attacks. Our scheme is implemented using MATLAB simulation. The results show how smart contracts are capable of accurately identifying trustworthy nodes and record the reputation of a node transparently and immutably.
Bousselham, Mhidi, Benamar, Nabil, Addaim, Adnane.  2019.  A new Security Mechanism for Vehicular Cloud Computing Using Fog Computing System. 2019 International Conference on Wireless Technologies, Embedded and Intelligent Systems (WITS). :1–4.

Recently Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) has become an attractive solution that support vehicle's computing and storing service requests. This computing paradigm insures a reduced energy consumption and low traffic congestion. Additionally, VCC has emerged as a promising technology that provides a virtual platform for processing data using vehicles as infrastructures or centralized data servers. However, vehicles are deployed in open environments where they are vulnerable to various types of attacks. Furthermore, traditional cryptographic algorithms failed in insuring security once their keys compromised. In order to insure a secure vehicular platform, we introduce in this paper a new decoy technology DT and user behavior profiling (UBP) as an alternative solution to overcome data security, privacy and trust in vehicular cloud servers using a fog computing architecture. In the case of a malicious behavior, our mechanism shows a high efficiency by delivering decoy files in such a way making the intruder unable to differentiate between the original and decoy file.

Rayavel, P., Rathnavel, P., Bharathi, M., Kumar, T. Siva.  2018.  Dynamic Traffic Control System Using Edge Detection Algorithm. 2018 International Conference on Soft-Computing and Network Security (ICSNS). :1-5.

As the traffic congestion increases on the transport network, Payable on the road to slower speeds, longer falter times, as a consequence bigger vehicular queuing, it's necessary to introduce smart way to reduce traffic. We are already edging closer to ``smart city-smart travel''. Today, a large number of smart phone applications and connected sat-naves will help get you to your destination in the quickest and easiest manner possible due to real-time data and communication from a host of sources. In present situation, traffic lights are used in each phase. The other way is to use electronic sensors and magnetic coils that detect the congestion frequency and monitor traffic, but found to be more expensive. Hence we propose a traffic control system using image processing techniques like edge detection. The vehicles will be detected using images instead of sensors. The cameras are installed alongside of the road and it will capture image sequence for every 40 seconds. The digital image processing techniques will be applied to analyse and process the image and according to that the traffic signal lights will be controlled.

Sowah, R., Ofoli, A., Koumadi, K., Osae, G., Nortey, G., Bempong, A. M., Agyarkwa, B., Apeadu, K. O..  2018.  Design and Implementation of a Fire Detection andControl System with Enhanced Security and Safety for Automobiles Using Neuro-Fuzzy Logic. 2018 IEEE 7th International Conference on Adaptive Science Technology (ICAST). :1-8.

Automobiles provide comfort and mobility to owners. While they make life more meaningful they also pose challenges and risks in their safety and security mechanisms. Some modern automobiles are equipped with anti-theft systems and enhanced safety measures to safeguard its drivers. But at times, these mechanisms for safety and secured operation of automobiles are insufficient due to various mechanisms used by intruders and car thieves to defeat them. Drunk drivers cause accidents on our roads and thus the need to safeguard the driver when he is intoxicated and render the car to be incapable of being driven. These issues merit an integrated approach to safety and security of automobiles. In the light of these challenges, an integrated microcontroller-based hardware and software system for safety and security of automobiles to be fixed into existing vehicle architecture, was designed, developed and deployed. The system submodules are: (1) Two-step ignition for automobiles, namely: (a) biometric ignition and (b) alcohol detection with engine control, (2) Global Positioning System (GPS) based vehicle tracking and (3) Multisensor-based fire detection using neuro-fuzzy logic. All submodules of the system were implemented using one microcontroller, the Arduino Mega 2560, as the central control unit. The microcontroller was programmed using C++11. The developed system performed quite well with the tests performed on it. Given the right conditions, the alcohol detection subsystem operated with a 92% efficiency. The biometric ignition subsystem operated with about 80% efficiency. The fire detection subsystem operated with a 95% efficiency in locations registered with the neuro-fuzzy system. The vehicle tracking subsystem operated with an efficiency of 90%.

Wang, G., Wang, B., Wang, T., Nika, A., Zheng, H., Zhao, B. Y..  2018.  Ghost Riders: Sybil Attacks on Crowdsourced Mobile Mapping Services. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 26:1123–1136.
Real-time crowdsourced maps, such as Waze provide timely updates on traffic, congestion, accidents, and points of interest. In this paper, we demonstrate how lack of strong location authentication allows creation of software-based Sybil devices that expose crowdsourced map systems to a variety of security and privacy attacks. Our experiments show that a single Sybil device with limited resources can cause havoc on Waze, reporting false congestion and accidents and automatically rerouting user traffic. More importantly, we describe techniques to generate Sybil devices at scale, creating armies of virtual vehicles capable of remotely tracking precise movements for large user populations while avoiding detection. To defend against Sybil devices, we propose a new approach based on co-location edges, authenticated records that attest to the one-time physical co-location of a pair of devices. Over time, co-location edges combine to form large proximity graphs that attest to physical interactions between devices, allowing scalable detection of virtual vehicles. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach using large-scale simulations, and how they can be used to dramatically reduce the impact of the attacks. We have informed Waze/Google team of our research findings. Currently, we are in active collaboration with Waze team to improve the security and privacy of their system.
Mamun, A. Al, Mamun, M. Abdullah Al, Shikfa, A..  2018.  Challenges and Mitigation of Cyber Threat in Automated Vehicle: An Integrated Approach. 2018 International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive. :1–6.
The technological development of automated vehicles opens novel cybersecurity threats and risks for road safety. Increased connectivity often results in increased risks of a cyber-security attacks, which is one of the biggest challenges for the automotive industry that undergoes a profound transformation. State of the art studies evaluated potential attacks and recommended possible measures, from technical and organizational perspective to face these challenges. In this position paper, we review these techniques and methods and show that some of the different solutions complement each other while others overlap or are even incompatible or contradictory. Based on this gap analysis, we advocate for the need of a comprehensive framework that integrates technical and organizational mitigation measures to enhance the cybersecurity of automotive vehicles.