Visible to the public Biblio

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2021-08-17
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Shin, Seokjoo.  2020.  Improving the Packet Delivery Reliability and Privacy Protection in Monitoring Wireless Networks. 2020 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1083—1088.
Source location privacy (SLP) protection ensures security of assets in monitoring wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Also, low end-to-end delay (EED) and high packet delivery ratio (PDR) guarantee high packet delivery reliability. Therefore, it is important to ensure high levels of SLP protection, low EED, and high PDR in mission-critical monitoring applications. Thus, this study proposes a new angle-based agent node routing protocol (APr) which is capable of achieving high levels of SLP protection, low EED, and high PDR. The proposed APr protocol employs multiple routing strategies to enable a dynamic agent node selection process and creation of obfuscating routing paths. Analysis results reveal that the APr protocol achieves high packet delivery reliability to outperform existing intermediate node-based protocols such as the AdrR and tree-based protocols such as the TbR. Furthermore, the APr protocol achieves significantly high levels of SLP protection to outperform the AdrR protocol.
2021-06-30
Mershad, Khaleel, Said, Bilal.  2020.  A Blockchain Model for Secure Communications in Internet of Vehicles. 2020 IEEE/ACS 17th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1—6.
The wide expansion of the Internet of Things is pushing the growth of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Secure data communication is vital to the success and stability of the IoV and should be integrated into its various operations and aspects. In this paper, we present a framework for secure IoV communications by utilizing the High Performance Blockchain Consensus (HPBC) algorithm. Based on a previously published communication model for VANETs that uses an efficient routing protocol for transmitting packets between vehicles, we describe in this paper how to integrate a blockchain model on top of the IoV communications system. We illustrate the method that we used to implement HPBC within the IoV nodes. In order to prove the efficiency of the proposed model, we carry out extensive simulations that test the proposed model and study its overhead on the IoV network. The simulation results demonstrated the good performance of the HPBC algorithm when implemented within the IoV environment.
2021-04-09
Soni, G., Sudhakar, R..  2020.  A L-IDS against Dropping Attack to Secure and Improve RPL Performance in WSN Aided IoT. 2020 7th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN). :377—383.

In the Internet of Things (IoT), it is feasible to interconnect networks of different devices and all these different devices, such as smartphones, sensor devices, and vehicles, are controlled according to a particular user. These different devices are delivered and accept the information on the network. This thing is to motivate us to do work on IoT and the devices used are sensor nodes. The validation of data delivery completely depends on the checks of count data forwarding in each node. In this research, we propose the Link Hop Value-based Intrusion Detection System (L-IDS) against the blackhole attack in the IoT with the assist of WSN. The sensor nodes are connected to other nodes through the wireless link and exchange data routing, as well as data packets. The LHV value is identified as the attacker's presence by integrating the data delivery in each hop. The LHV is always equivalent to the Actual Value (AV). The RPL routing protocol is used IPv6 to address the concept of routing. The Routing procedure is interrupted by an attacker by creating routing loops. The performance of the proposed L-IDS is compared to the RPL routing security scheme based on existing trust. The proposed L-IDS procedure is validating the presence of the attacker at every source to destination data delivery. and also disables the presence of the attacker in the network. Network performance provides better results in the existence of a security scheme and also fully represents the inoperative presence of black hole attackers in the network. Performance metrics show better results in the presence of expected IDS and improve network reliability.

2021-03-15
Akter, S., Rahman, M. S., Mansoor, N..  2020.  An Efficient Routing Protocol for Secured Communication in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :1713–1716.
This paper introduces an efficient reactive routing protocol considering the mobility and the reliability of a node in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs). The proposed protocol accommodates the dynamic behavior of the spectrum availability and selects a stable transmission path from a source node to the destination. Outlined as a weighted graph problem, the proposed protocol measures the weight for an edge the measuring the mobility patterns of the nodes and channel availability. Furthermore, the mobility pattern of a node is defined in the proposed routing protocol from the viewpoint of distance, speed, direction, and node's reliability. Besides, the spectrum awareness in the proposed protocol is measured over the number of shared common channels and the channel quality. It is anticipated that the proposed protocol shows efficient routing performance by selecting stable and secured paths from source to destination. Simulation is carried out to assess the performance of the protocol where it is witnessed that the proposed routing protocol outperforms existing ones.
2021-03-09
Naveena, S., Senthilkumar, C., Manikandan, T..  2020.  Analysis and Countermeasures of Black-Hole Attack in MANET by Employing Trust-Based Routing. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1222–1227.
A self-governing system consisting of mobile nodes that exchange information within a cellular area and is known as a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Due to its dynamic nature, it is vulnerable to attacks and there is no fixed infrastructure. To transfer a data packet Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is used and it's another form of a reactive protocol. The black-hole attack is a major attack that drastically decreases the packet delivery ratio during a data transaction in a routing environment. In this attack, the attacker's node acts as the shortest path to the target node itself. If the attacker node receives the data packet from the source node, all obtained data packets are excluded from a routing network. A trust-based routing scheme is suggested to ensure secure routing. This routing scheme is divided into two stages, i.e., the Data retrieval (DR), to identify and preserve each node data transfer mechanism in a routing environment and route development stage, to predict a safe path to transmit a data packet to the target node.
2020-12-21
Sanila, A., Mahapatra, B., Turuk, A. K..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of RPL protocol in a 6LoWPAN based Smart Home Environment. 2020 International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering and Applications (ICCSEA). :1–6.
The advancement in technologies like IoT, device-to-device communication lead to concepts like smart home and smart cities, etc. In smart home architecture, different devices such as home appliances, personal computers, surveillance cameras, etc. are connected to the Internet and enable the user to monitor and control irrespective of time and location. IPv6-enabled 6LoWPAN is a low-power, low-range communication protocol designed and developed for the short-range IoT applications. 6LoWPAN is based on IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and IPv6 network protocol for low range wireless applications. Although 6LoWPAN supports different routing protocols, RPL is the widely used routing protocol for low power and lossy networks. In this work, we have taken an IoT enabled smart home environment, in which 6LoWPAN is used as a communication and RPL as a routing protocol. The performance of this proposed network model is analyzed based on the different performance metrics such as latency, PDR, and throughput. The proposed model is simulated using Cooja simulator running over the Contiki OS. Along with the Cooja simulator, the network analyzer tool Wireshark is used to analyze the network behaviors.
2020-12-02
Kaur, M., Malik, A..  2018.  An Efficient and Reliable Routing Protocol Using Bio-Inspired Techniques for Congestion Control in WSN. 2018 4th International Conference on Computing Sciences (ICCS). :15—22.

In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), congestion control is a very essential region of concern. When the packets that are coming get increased than the actual capacity of network or nodes results into congestion in the network. Congestion in network can cause reduction in throughput, increase in network delay, and increase in packet loss and sensor energy waste. For that reason, new complex methods are mandatory to tackle with congestion. So it is necessary to become aware of congestion and manage the congested resources in wireless sensor networks for enhancing the network performance. Diverse methodologies for congestion recognition and prevention have been presented in the previous couple of years. To handle some of the problems, this paper exhibits a new technique for controlling the congestion. An efficient and reliable routing protocol (ERRP) based on bio inspired algorithms is introduced in this paper for solving congestion problem. In the proposed work, a way is calculated to send the packets on the new pathway. The proposed work has used three approaches for finding the path which results into a congestion free path. Our analysis and simulation results shows that our approach provides better performance as compared to previous approaches in terms of throughput, packet loss, delay etc.

2020-10-19
Indira, K, Ajitha, P, Reshma, V, Tamizhselvi, A.  2019.  An Efficient Secured Routing Protocol for Software Defined Internet of Vehicles. 2019 International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Data Science (ICCIDS). :1–4.
Vehicular ad hoc network is one of most recent research areas to deploy intelligent Transport System. Due to their highly dynamic topology, energy constrained and no central point coordination, routing with minimal delay, minimal energy and maximize throughput is a big challenge. Software Defined Networking (SDN) is new paradigm to improve overall network lifetime. It incorporates dynamic changes with minimal end-end delay, and enhances network intelligence. Along with this, intelligence secure routing is also a major constraint. This paper proposes a novel approach to Energy efficient secured routing protocol for Software Defined Internet of vehicles using Restricted Boltzmann Algorithm. This algorithm is to detect hostile routes with minimum delay, minimum energy and maximum throughput compared with traditional routing protocols.
2020-08-03
Gopalakrishnan, S., Rajesh, A..  2019.  Cluster based Intrusion Detection System for Mobile Ad-hoc Network. 2019 Fifth International Conference on Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (ICONSTEM). 1:11–15.

Mobile Ad-hoc network is decentralized and composed of various individual devices for communicating with each other. Its distributed nature and infrastructure deficiency are the way for various attacks in the network. On implementing Intrusion detection systems (IDS) in ad-hoc node securities were enhanced by means of auditing and monitoring process. This system is composed with clustering protocols which are highly effective in finding the intrusions with minimal computation cost on power and overhead. The existing protocols were linked with the routes, which are not prominent in detecting intrusions. The poor route structure and route renewal affect the cluster hardly. By which the cluster are unstable and results in maximization processing along with network traffics. Generally, the ad hoc networks are structured with battery and rely on power limitation. It needs an active monitoring node for detecting and responding quickly against the intrusions. It can be attained only if the clusters are strong with extensive sustaining capability. Whenever the cluster changes the routes also change and the prominent processing of achieving intrusion detection will not be possible. This raises the need of enhanced clustering algorithm which solved these drawbacks and ensures the network securities in all manner. We proposed CBIDP (cluster based Intrusion detection planning) an effective clustering algorithm which is ahead of the existing routing protocol. It is persistently irrespective of routes which monitor the intrusion perfectly. This simplified clustering methodology achieves high detecting rates on intrusion with low processing as well as memory overhead. As it is irrespective of the routes, it also overcomes the other drawbacks like traffics, connections and node mobility on the network. The individual nodes in the network are not operative on finding the intrusion or malicious node, it can be achieved by collaborating the clustering with the system.

Maxa, Jean-Aimé, Ben Mahmoud, Mohamed Slim, Larrieu, Nicolas.  2019.  Performance evaluation of a new secure routing protocol for UAV Ad hoc Network. 2019 IEEE/AIAA 38th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). :1–10.

UAANET (UAV Ad hoc Network) is defined as an autonomous system made of swarm of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and GCS (Ground Control Station). Compared to other types of MANET (Mobile Ad hoc network), UAANET have some unique features and bring several challenges. One of them is the design of routing protocol. It must be efficient for creating routes between nodes and dynamically adjusting to the rapidly changing topology. It must also be secure to protect the integrity of the network against malicious attackers. In this paper, we will present the architecture and the performance evaluation (based on both real-life experimental and emulation studies) of a secure routing protocol called SUAP (Secure UAV Ad hoc routing Protocol). SUAP ensures routing services between nodes to exchange real-time traffic and also guarantees message authentication and integrity to protect the network integrity. Additional security mechanisms were added to detect Wormhole attacks. Wormhole attacks represent a high level of risk for UAV ad hoc network and this is the reason why we choose to focus on this specific multi node attack. Through performance evaluation campaign, our results show that SUAP ensures the expected security services against different types of attacks while providing an acceptable quality of service for real-time data exchanges.

2020-06-01
Patel, Himanshu B., Jinwala, Devesh C..  2019.  Blackhole Detection in 6LoWPAN Based Internet of Things: An Anomaly Based Approach. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :947—954.

The Internet of things networks is vulnerable to many DOS attacks. Among them, Blackhole attack is one of the severe attacks as it hampers communication among network devices. In general, the solutions presented in the literature for Blackhole detection are not efficient. In addition, the existing approaches do not factor-in, the consumption in resources viz. energy, bandwidth and network lifetime. Further, these approaches are also insensitive to the mechanism used for selecting a parent in on Blackhole formation. Needless to say, a blackhole node if selected as parent would lead to orchestration of this attack trivially and hence it is an important factor in selection of a parent. In this paper, we propose SIEWE (Strainer based Intrusion Detection of Blackhole in 6LoWPAN for the Internet of Things) - an Intrusion detection mechanism to identify Blackhole attack on Routing protocol RPL in IoT. In contrast to the Watchdog based approaches where every node in network runs in promiscuous mode, SIEWE filters out suspicious nodes first and then verifies the behavior of those nodes only. The results that we obtain, show that SIEWE improves the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) of the system by blacklisting malicious Blackhole nodes.

2020-05-26
Fu, Yulong, Li, Guoquan, Mohammed, Atiquzzaman, Yan, Zheng, Cao, Jin, Li, Hui.  2019.  A Study and Enhancement to the Security of MANET AODV Protocol Against Black Hole Attacks. 2019 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence Computing, Advanced Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing Communications, Cloud Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI). :1431–1436.
Mobile AdHoc Networks (MANET) can be fast implemented, and it is very popular in many specific network requirements, such as UAV (Unmanned Aerial Unit), Disaster Recovery and IoT (Internet of Things) etc. However, MANET is also vulnerable. AODV (Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing) protocol is one type of MANET routing protocol and many attacks can be implemented to break the connections on AODV based AdHoc networks. In this article, aim of protecting the MANET security, we modeled the AODV protocol with one type of Automata and analyzed the security vulnerabilities of it; then based on the analyzing results, we proposed an enhancement to AODV protocol to against the Black Hole Attacks. We also implemented the proposed enhancement in NS3 simulator and verified the correctness, usability and efficiency.
V S, Deepthi, S, Vagdevi.  2018.  Behaviour Analysis and Detection of Blackhole Attacker Node under Reactive Routing Protocol in MANETs. 2018 International Conference on Networking, Embedded and Wireless Systems (ICNEWS). :1–5.
Mobile Adhoc networks are wireless adhoc networks that have property of self organizing, less infrastructure, multi hoping, which are designed to work under low power vulnerable environment. Due to its very unique characteristics, there is much chances of threat of malicious nodes within the network. Blackhole attack is a menace in MANETs which redirects all traffic to itself and drops it. This paper’s objective is to analyze the effects of blackhole attack under reactive routing protocol such as Adhoc on Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV). The performance of this protocol is assessed to find the vulnerability of attack and also compared the impact of attack on both AODV, AODV with blackhole and proposed AODV protocols. The analysis is done by simulated using NS- 2.35 and QoS parameters such as Throughput, PDR, and Average Energy Consumed are measured further.
2020-02-26
Wang, Jun-Wei, Jiang, Yu-Ting, Liu, Zhe.  2019.  A Trusted Routing Mechanism for Mobile Social Networks. 2019 IEEE 7th International Conference on Computer Science and Network Technology (ICCSNT). :365–369.

In recent years, mobile social networks (MSNs) have developed rapidly and their application fields are becoming more and more widespread. Due to the continuous movement of nodes in mobile social networks, the network topology is very unstable. How to ensure the credibility of network communication is a subject worth studying. In this paper, based on the characteristics of mobile social networks, the definition of trust level is introduced into the DSR routing protocol, and a trusted DSR routing mechanism (TDR) is proposed. The scheme combines the sliding window model to design the calculation method of trust level between nodes and path trust level. The nodes in the network participate in the routing process according to their trust level. When the source node receives multiple routes carried by the response, the appropriate trusted path is selected according to the path trust level. Through simulation analysis, compared with the original DSR protocol, the TDR protocol improves the performance of average delay, route cost and packet delivery fraction, and verifies the reliability and credibility of the TDR protocol.

2020-01-13
van Kerkhoven, Jason, Charlebois, Nathaniel, Robertson, Alex, Gibson, Brydon, Ahmed, Arslan, Bouida, Zied, Ibnkahla, Mohamed.  2019.  IPv6-Based Smart Grid Communication over 6LoWPAN. 2019 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1–6.
Smart Grid is a major element of the Smart City concept that enables two-way communication of energy data between electric utilities and their consumers. These communication technologies are going through sharp modernization to meet future demand growth and to achieve reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric grid. In this paper, we implement an IPv6 based two-way communication system between the transformer agent (TA), installed at local electric transformer and various customer agents (CAs), connected to customer's smart meter. Various homes share their energy usage with the TA which in turn sends the utility's recommendations to the CAs. Raspberry Pi is used as hardware for all the CAs and the TA. We implement a self-healing mesh network between all nodes using OpenLab IEEE 802.15.4 chips and Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL), and the data is secured by RSA/AES keys. Several tests have been conducted in real environments, inside and outside of Carleton University, to test the performance of this communication network in various obstacle settings. In this paper, we highlight the details behind the implementation of this IPv6-based smart grid communication system, the related challenges, and the proposed solutions.
2019-09-09
Dholey, M. K., Saha, M. K..  2018.  A Security Mechanism in DSR Routing for MANET. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :921-925.

Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is an autonomous collection of mobile nodes and communicate among them in their radio range. It is an infrastructure less, bandwidth constraint multi-hop wireless network. A various routing protocol is being evolved for MANET routing and also provide security mechanism to avoid security threads. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), one of the popular reactive routing protocols for MANET, establishes path between source to destination before data communication take place using route request (RREQ) and route reply (RREP) control messages. Although in [1] authors propose to prevent route diversion due to a malicious node in the network using group Diffie-Hellman (GDH) key management applied over source address, but if any intermediate trusted node start to misbehave then there is no prevention mechanism. Here in this paper, we applied Hash function scheme over destination address to identify the misbehaving intermediate node that can provide wrong destination address. The path information towards the destination sent by the intermediate node through RREP is exactly for the intended required destination or not, here we can identified according to our proposed algorithm and pretend for further data transmission. Our proposed algorithm proves the authenticity of the destination and also prevent from misbehaving intermediate nodes.

2019-01-16
Adeniji, V. O., Sibanda, K..  2018.  Analysis of the effect of malicious packet drop attack on packet transmission in wireless mesh networks. 2018 Conference on Information Communications Technology and Society (ICTAS). :1–6.
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are known for possessing good attributes such as low up-front cost, easy network maintenance, and reliable service coverage. This has largely made them to be adopted in various environments such as; school campus networks, community networking, pervasive healthcare, office and home automation, emergency rescue operations and ubiquitous wireless networks. The routing nodes are equipped with self-organized and self-configuring capabilities. However, the routing mechanisms of WMNs depend on the collaboration of all participating nodes for reliable network performance. The authors of this paper have noted that most routing algorithms proposed for WMNs in the last few years are designed with the assumption that all the participating nodes will collaboratively be involved in relaying the data packets originated from a source to a multi-hop destination. Such design approach however exposes WMNs to vulnerability such as malicious packet drop attack. This paper presents an evaluation of the effect of the black hole attack with other influential factors in WMNs. In this study, NS-3 simulator was used with AODV as the routing protocol. The results show that the packet delivery ratio and throughput of WMN under attack decreases sharply as compared to WMN free from attack. On an average, 47.41% of the transmitted data packets were dropped in presence of black hole attack.
2018-06-20
Mistry, M., Tandel, P., Reshamwala, V..  2017.  Mitigating techniques of black hole attack in MANET: A review. 2017 International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICEI). :554–557.

A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is infrastructure-less network where nodes can move arbitrary in any place without the help of any fixed infrastructure. Due to the vague limit, no centralized administrator, dynamic topology and wireless connections it is powerless against various types of assaults. MANET has more threat contrast to any other conventional networks. AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector) is most utilized well-known routing protocol in MANET. AODV protocol is scared by "Black Hole" attack. A black hole attack is a serious assault that can be effortlessly employed towards AODV protocol. A black hole node that incorrectly replies for each path requests while not having active path to targeted destination and drops all the packets that received from other node. If these malicious nodes cooperate with every other as a set then the harm will be very extreme. In this paper, present review on various existing techniques for detection and mitigation of black hole attacks.

Singh, E. P..  2017.  Re-joining of authorized nodes in MANETs using EGSR scheme and detection of internal attacks using 2ACK scheme. 2017 IEEE 8th Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). :306–311.

One of the specially designated versatile networks, commonly referred to as MANET, performs on the basics that each and every one grouping in nodes totally operate in self-sorting out limits. In any case, performing in a group capacity maximizes quality and different sources. Mobile ad hoc network is a wireless infrastructureless network. Due to its unique features, various challenges are faced under MANET when the role of routing and its security comes into play. The review has demonstrated that the impact of failures during the information transmission has not been considered in the existing research. The majority of strategies for ad hoc networks just determines the path and transmits the data which prompts to packet drop in case of failures, thus resulting in low dependability. The majority of the existing research has neglected the use of the rejoining processing of the root nodes network. Most of the existing techniques are based on detecting the failures but the use of path re-routing has also been neglected in the existing methods. Here, we have proposed a method of path re-routing for managing the authorized nodes and managing the keys for group in ad hoc environment. Securing Schemes, named as 2ACK and the EGSR schemes have been proposed, which may be truly interacted to most of the routing protocol. The path re-routing has the ability to reduce the ratio of dropped packets. The comparative analysis has clearly shown that the proposed technique outperforms the available techniques in terms of various quality metrics.

Martin-Escalona, I., Perrone, F., Zola, E., Barcelo-Arroyo, F..  2017.  Impact of unreliable positioning in location-based routing protocols for MANETs. 2017 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :1534–1539.

MANETs have been focusing the interest of researchers for several years. The new scenarios where MANETs are being deployed make that several challenging issues remain open: node scalability, energy efficiency, network lifetime, Quality of Service (QoS), network overhead, data privacy and security, and effective routing. This latter is often seen as key since it frequently constrains the performance of the overall network. Location-based routing protocols provide a good solution for scalable MANETs. Although several location-based routing protocols have been proposed, most of them rely on error-free positions. Only few studies have focused so far on how positioning error affects the routing performance; also, most of them consider outdated solutions. This paper is aimed at filling this gap, by studying the impact of the error in the position of the nodes of two location-based routing protocols: DYMOselfwd and AODV-Line. These protocols were selected as they both aim at reducing the routing overhead. Simulations considering different mobility patterns in a dense network were conducted, so that the performance of these protocols can be assessed under ideal (i.e. error-less) and realistic (i.e. with error) conditions. The results show that AODV-Line builds less reliable routes than DYMOselfwd in case of error in the position information, thus increasing the routing overhead.

Petersen, E., To, M. A., Maag, S..  2017.  A novel online CEP learning engine for MANET IDS. 2017 IEEE 9th Latin-American Conference on Communications (LATINCOM). :1–6.

In recent years the use of wireless ad hoc networks has seen an increase of applications. A big part of the research has focused on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MAnETs), due to its implementations in vehicular networks, battlefield communications, among others. These peer-to-peer networks usually test novel communications protocols, but leave out the network security part. A wide range of attacks can happen as in wired networks, some of them being more damaging in MANETs. Because of the characteristics of these networks, conventional methods for detection of attack traffic are ineffective. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are constructed on various detection techniques, but one of the most important is anomaly detection. IDSs based only in past attacks signatures are less effective, even more if these IDSs are centralized. Our work focuses on adding a novel Machine Learning technique to the detection engine, which recognizes attack traffic in an online way (not to store and analyze after), re-writing IDS rules on the fly. Experiments were done using the Dockemu emulation tool with Linux Containers, IPv6 and OLSR as routing protocol, leading to promising results.

Lou, L., Fan, J. H..  2017.  A new anti-jamming reliable routing protocol for tactical MANETs. 2017 First International Conference on Electronics Instrumentation Information Systems (EIIS). :1–6.

Tactical MANETs are deployed in several challenging situations such as node mobility, presence of radio interference together with malicious jamming attacks, and execrable terrain features etc. Jamming attacks are especially harmful to the reliability of wireless communication, as they can effectively disrupt communication between any node pairs. The nature of Tactical MANETs hinders ineffective most of existing reliable routing schemes for ordinary wireless mobile networks. Routing Protocols in Tactical MANET s face serious security and reliability challenges. Selecting a long lasting and steady-going route is a critical task. Due to the lack of accurate acquisition and evaluation of the transmission characteristics, routing algorithms may result in continual reconstruction and high control overhead. This paper studies the impact of jamming and interference on the common protocols of tactical communications and presents a neighbor dependency-based reliable routing algorithm. According to the neighbor dependency based on channel state information evaluated by Exponential Smoothing Method, how to select a neighboring node as the next hop will greatly affect the transmission reliability. Finally, the performance of the reliable routing protocol based on neighbor dependency is tested in OPNET, and compared with the classical AODV algorithm and the improved AODV based on link Cost (CAODV) algorithm. The simulation results show that the protocol presented in this paper has better data transmission reliability.

2018-04-11
Tripathy, B. K., Sudhir, A., Bera, P., Rahman, M. A..  2017.  Formal Modelling and Verification of Requirements of Adaptive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network. 2017 IEEE 41st Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 1:548–556.

A group of mobile nodes with limited capabilities sparsed in different clusters forms the backbone of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET). In such situations, the requirements (mobility, performance, security, trust and timing constraints) vary with change in context, time, and geographic location of deployment. This leads to various performance and security challenges which necessitates a trade-off between them on the application of routing protocols in a specific context. The focus of our research is towards developing an adaptive and secure routing protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, which dynamically configures the routing functions using varying contextual features with secure and real-time processing of traffic. In this paper, we propose a formal framework for modelling and verification of requirement constraints to be used in designing adaptive routing protocols for MANET. We formally represent the network topology, behaviour, and functionalities of the network in SMT-LIB language. In addition, our framework verifies various functional, security, and Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints. The verification engine is built using the Yices SMT Solver. The efficacy of the proposed requirement models is demonstrated with experimental results.

2018-03-19
Medjek, F., Tandjaoui, D., Romdhani, I., Djedjig, N..  2017.  A Trust-Based Intrusion Detection System for Mobile RPL Based Networks. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :735–742.

Successful deployment of Low power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) requires self-organising, self-configuring, security, and mobility support. However, these characteristics can be exploited to perform security attacks against the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL). In this paper, we address the lack of strong identity and security mechanisms in RPL. We first demonstrate by simulation the impact of Sybil-Mobile attack, namely SybM, on RPL with respect to control overhead, packet delivery and energy consumption. Then, we introduce a new Intrusion Detection System (IDS) scheme for RPL, named Trust-based IDS (T-IDS). T-IDS is a distributed, cooperative and hierarchical trust-based IDS, which can detect novel intrusions by comparing network behavior deviations. In T-IDS, each node is considered as monitoring node and collaborates with his peers to detect intrusions and report them to a 6LoWPAN Border Router (6BR). In our solution, we introduced a new timer and minor extensions to RPL messages format to deal with mobility, identity and multicast issues. In addition, each node is equipped with a Trusted Platform Module co-processor to handle identification and off-load security related computation and storage.

Alzubaidi, M., Anbar, M., Al-Saleem, S., Al-Sarawi, S., Alieyan, K..  2017.  Review on Mechanisms for Detecting Sinkhole Attacks on RPLs. 2017 8th International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :369–374.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks (6LoWPAN) is extensively used in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to its ability to transmit IPv6 packet with low bandwidth and limited resources. 6LoWPAN has several operations in each layer. Most existing security challenges are focused on the network layer, which is represented by its routing protocol for low-power and lossy network (RPL). RPL components include WSN nodes that have constrained resources. Therefore, the exposure of RPL to various attacks may lead to network damage. A sinkhole attack is a routing attack that could affect the network topology. This paper aims to investigate the existing detection mechanisms used in detecting sinkhole attack on RPL-based networks. This work categorizes and presents each mechanism according to certain aspects. Then, their advantages and drawbacks with regard to resource consumption and false positive rate are discussed and compared.