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Lenard, Teri, Bolboacă, Roland, Genge, Bela.  2020.  LOKI: A Lightweight Cryptographic Key Distribution Protocol for Controller Area Networks. 2020 IEEE 16th International Conference on Intelligent Computer Communication and Processing (ICCP). :513–519.
The recent advancement in the automotive sector has led to a technological explosion. As a result, the modern car provides a wide range of features supported by state of the art hardware and software. Unfortunately, while this is the case of most major components, in the same vehicle we find dozens of sensors and sub-systems built over legacy hardware and software with limited computational capabilities. This paper presents LOKI, a lightweight cryptographic key distribution scheme applicable in the case of the classical invehicle communication systems. The LOKI protocol stands out compared to already proposed protocols in the literature due to its ability to use only a single broadcast message to initiate the generation of a new cryptographic key across a group of nodes. It's lightweight key derivation algorithm takes advantage of a reverse hash chain traversal algorithm to generate fresh session keys. Experimental results consisting of a laboratory-scale system based on Vector Informatik's CANoe simulation environment demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed methodology and its seamless impact manifested on the network.
Focardi, R., Luccio, F. L..  2020.  Automated Analysis of PUF-based Protocols. 2020 IEEE 33rd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :304—317.

Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are a promising technology to secure low-cost devices. A PUF is a function whose values depend on the physical characteristics of the underlying hardware: the same PUF implemented on two identical integrated circuits will return different values. Thus, a PUF can be used as a unique fingerprint identifying one specific physical device among (apparently) identical copies that run the same firmware on the same hardware. PUFs, however, are tricky to implement, and a number of attacks have been reported in the literature, often due to wrong assumptions about the provided security guarantees and/or the attacker model. In this paper, we present the first mechanized symbolic model for PUFs that allows for precisely reasoning about their security with respect to a variegate set of attackers. We consider mutual authentication protocols based on different kinds of PUFs and model attackers that are able to access PUF values stored on servers, abuse the PUF APIs, model the PUF behavior and exploit error correction data to reproduce the PUF values. We prove security properties and we formally specify the capabilities required by the attacker to break them. Our analysis points out various subtleties, and allows for a systematic comparison between different PUF-based protocols. The mechanized models are easily extensible and can be automatically checked with the Tamarin prover.

Davydov, Vadim, Bezzateev, Sergey.  2018.  Secure Information Exchange in Defining the Location of the Vehicle. 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :1—5.

With the advent of the electric vehicle market, the problem of locating a vehicle is becoming more and more important. Smart roads are creating, where the car control system can work without a person - communicating with the elements on the road. The standard technologies, such as GPS, can't always accurately determine the location, and not all vehicles have a GPS-module. It is very important to build an effective secure communication protocol between the vehicle and the base stations on the road. In this paper we consider different methods of location determination, propose the improved communicating protocol between the vehicle and the base station.

Zhang, Jiliang, Qu, Gang.  2020.  Physical Unclonable Function-Based Key Sharing via Machine Learning for IoT Security. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. 67:7025—7033.

In many industry Internet of Things applications, resources like CPU, memory, and battery power are limited and cannot afford the classic cryptographic security solutions. Silicon physical unclonable function (PUF) is a lightweight security primitive that exploits manufacturing variations during the chip fabrication process for key generation and/or device authentication. However, traditional weak PUFs such as ring oscillator (RO) PUF generate chip-unique key for each device, which restricts their application in security protocols where the same key is required to be shared in resource-constrained devices. In this article, in order to address this issue, we propose a PUF-based key sharing method for the first time. The basic idea is to implement one-to-one input-output mapping with lookup table (LUT)-based interstage crossing structures in each level of inverters of RO PUF. Individual customization on configuration bits of interstage crossing structure and different RO selections with challenges bring high flexibility. Therefore, with the flexible configuration of interstage crossing structures and challenges, crossover RO PUF can generate the same shared key for resource-constrained devices, which enables a new application for lightweight key sharing protocols.

Urien, Pascal.  2019.  Designing Attacks Against Automotive Control Area Network Bus and Electronic Control Units. 2019 16th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications Networking Conference (CCNC). :1–4.
Security is a critical issue for new car generation targeting intelligent transportation systems (ITS), involving autonomous and connected vehicles. In this work we designed a low cost CAN probe and defined analysis tools in order to build attack scenarios. We reuse some threats identified by a previous work. Future researches will address new security protocols.
Salman, Ahmad, El-Tawab, Samy.  2019.  Efficient Hardware/Software Co-Design of Elliptic-Curve Cryptography for the Internet of Things. 2019 International Conference on Smart Applications, Communications and Networking (SmartNets). :1—6.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is connecting the world in a way humanity has never seen before. With applications in healthcare, agricultural, transportation, and more, IoT devices help in bridging the gap between the physical and the virtual worlds. These devices usually carry sensitive data which requires security and protection in transit and rest. However, the limited power and energy consumption make it harder and more challenging to implementing security protocols, especially Public-Key Cryptosystems (PKC). In this paper, we present a hardware/software co-design for Elliptic-Curve Cryptography (ECC) PKC suitable for lightweight devices. We present the implementation results for our design on an edge node to be used for indoor localization in a healthcare facilities.

Vazquez Sandoval, Itzel, Lenzini, Gabriele.  2018.  Experience Report: How to Extract Security Protocols' Specifications from C Libraries. 2018 IEEE 42nd Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 02:719—724.

Often, analysts have to face a challenging situation when formally verifying the implementation of a security protocol: they need to build a model of the protocol from only poorly or not documented code, and with little or no help from the developers to better understand it. Security protocols implementations frequently use services provided by libraries coded in the C programming language; automatic tools for codelevel reverse engineering offer good support to comprehend the behavior of code in object-oriented languages but are ineffective to deal with libraries in C. Here we propose a systematic, yet human-dependent approach, which combines the capabilities of state-of-the-art tools in order to help the analyst to retrieve, step by step, the security protocol specifications from a library in C. Those specifications can then be used to create the formal model needed to carry out the analysis.

Lipp, Benjamin, Blanchet, Bruno, Bhargavan, Karthikeyan.  2019.  A Mechanised Cryptographic Proof of the WireGuard Virtual Private Network Protocol. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :231—246.

WireGuard is a free and open source Virtual Private Network (VPN) that aims to replace IPsec and OpenVPN. It is based on a new cryptographic protocol derived from the Noise Protocol Framework. This paper presents the first mechanised cryptographic proof of the protocol underlying WireGuard, using the CryptoVerif proof assistant. We analyse the entire WireGuard protocol as it is, including transport data messages, in an ACCE-style model. We contribute proofs for correctness, message secrecy, forward secrecy, mutual authentication, session uniqueness, and resistance against key compromise impersonation, identity mis-binding, and replay attacks. We also discuss the strength of the identity hiding provided by WireGuard. Our work also provides novel theoretical contributions that are reusable beyond WireGuard. First, we extend CryptoVerif to account for the absence of public key validation in popular Diffie-Hellman groups like Curve25519, which is used in many modern protocols including WireGuard. To our knowledge, this is the first mechanised cryptographic proof for any protocol employing such a precise model. Second, we prove several indifferentiability lemmas that are useful to simplify the proofs for sequences of key derivations.

Künnemann, Robert, Esiyok, Ilkan, Backes, Michael.  2019.  Automated Verification of Accountability in Security Protocols. 2019 IEEE 32nd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :397—39716.

Accountability is a recent paradigm in security protocol design which aims to eliminate traditional trust assumptions on parties and hold them accountable for their misbehavior. It is meant to establish trust in the first place and to recognize and react if this trust is violated. In this work, we discuss a protocol-agnostic definition of accountability: a protocol provides accountability (w.r.t. some security property) if it can identify all misbehaving parties, where misbehavior is defined as a deviation from the protocol that causes a security violation. We provide a mechanized method for the verification of accountability and demonstrate its use for verification and attack finding on various examples from the accountability and causality literature, including Certificate Transparency and Krollˆ\textbackslashtextbackslashprimes Accountable Algorithms protocol. We reach a high degree of automation by expressing accountability in terms of a set of trace properties and show their soundness and completeness.

Sutradhar, M. R., Sultana, N., Dey, H., Arif, H..  2018.  A New Version of Kerberos Authentication Protocol Using ECC and Threshold Cryptography for Cloud Security. 2018 Joint 7th International Conference on Informatics, Electronics Vision (ICIEV) and 2018 2nd International Conference on Imaging, Vision Pattern Recognition (icIVPR). :239–244.

Dependency on cloud computing are increasing day by day due to its beneficial aspects. As day by day we are relying on cloud computing, the securities issues are coming up. There are lots of security protocols but now-a-days those protocol are not secured enough to provide a high security. One of those protocols which were once highly secured, is Kerberos authentication protocol. With the advancement of technology, Kerberos authentication protocol is no longer as secured as it was before. Many authors have thought about the improvement of Kerberos authentication protocol and consequently they have proposed different types of protocol models by using a renowned public key cryptography named RSA cryptography. Though RSA cryptography is good to some extent but this cryptography has some flaws that make this cryptography less secured as well as less efficient. In this paper, we are combining Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) as well as Threshold Cryptography to create a new version of Kerberos authentication protocol. Our proposed model will provide secure transaction of data which will not only be hard to break but also increase memory efficiency, cost efficiency, and reduce the burden of computation.

Dey, H., Islam, R., Arif, H..  2019.  An Integrated Model To Make Cloud Authentication And Multi-Tenancy More Secure. 2019 International Conference on Robotics,Electrical and Signal Processing Techniques (ICREST). :502–506.

Cloud Computing is an important term of modern technology. The usefulness of Cloud is increasing day by day and simultaneously more and more security problems are arising as well. Two of the major threats of Cloud are improper authentication and multi-tenancy. According to the specialists both pros and cons belong to multi-tenancy. There are security protocols available but it is difficult to claim these protocols are perfect and ensure complete protection. The purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated model to ensure better Cloud security for Authentication and multi-tenancy. Multi-tenancy means sharing of resources and virtualization among clients. Since multi-tenancy allows multiple users to access same resources simultaneously, there is high probability of accessing confidential data without proper privileges. Our model includes Kerberos authentication protocol to enhance authentication security. During our research on Kerberos we have found some flaws in terms of encryption method which have been mentioned in couple of IEEE conference papers. Pondering about this complication we have elected Elliptic Curve Cryptography. On the other hand, to attenuate arose risks due to multi-tenancy we are proposing a Resource Allocation Manager Unit, a Control Database and Resource Allocation Map. This part of the model will perpetuate resource allocation for the users.

Razaghpanah, Abbas, Niaki, Arian Akhavan, Vallina-Rodriguez, Narseo, Sundaresan, Srikanth, Amann, Johanna, Gill, Philippa.  2018.  Studying TLS Usage in Android Apps. Proceedings of the Applied Networking Research Workshop. :5–5.

First standardized by the IETF in the 1990's, SSL/TLS is the most widely-used encryption protocol on the Internet. This makes it imperative to study its usage across different platforms and applications to ensure proper usage and robustness against attacks and vulnerabilities. While previous efforts have focused on the usage of TLS in the desktop ecosystem, there have been no studies of TLS usage by mobile apps at scale. In our study, we use anonymized data collected by the Lumen mobile measurement app to analyze TLS usage by Android apps in the wild. We analyze and fingerprint handshake messages to characterize the TLS APIs and libraries that apps use, and evaluate their weaknesses. We find that 84% of apps use the default TLS libraries provided by the operating system, and the remaining apps use other TLS libraries for various reasons such as using TLS extensions and features that are not supported by the Android TLS libraries, some of which are also not standardized by the IETF. Our analysis reveals the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, demonstrating that the path to improving TLS security in the mobile platform is not straightforward. Based on work published at: Abbas Razaghpanah, Arian Akhavan Niaki, Narseo Vallina-Rodriguez, Srikanth Sundaresan, Johanna Amann, and Phillipa Gill. 2017. Studying TLS Usage in Android Apps. In Proceedings of CoNEXT '17. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 13 pages.

Razaghpanah, Abbas, Niaki, Arian Akhavan, Vallina-Rodriguez, Narseo, Sundaresan, Srikanth, Amann, Johanna, Gill, Phillipa.  2017.  Studying TLS Usage in Android Apps. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies. :350–362.

Transport Layer Security (TLS), has become the de-facto standard for secure Internet communication. When used correctly, it provides secure data transfer, but used incorrectly, it can leave users vulnerable to attacks while giving them a false sense of security. Numerous efforts have studied the adoption of TLS (and its predecessor, SSL) and its use in the desktop ecosystem, attacks, and vulnerabilities in both desktop clients and servers. However, there is a dearth of knowledge of how TLS is used in mobile platforms. In this paper we use data collected by Lumen, a mobile measurement platform, to analyze how 7,258 Android apps use TLS in the wild. We analyze and fingerprint handshake messages to characterize the TLS APIs and libraries that apps use, and also evaluate weaknesses. We see that about 84% of apps use default OS APIs for TLS. Many apps use third-party TLS libraries; in some cases they are forced to do so because of restricted Android capabilities. Our analysis shows that both approaches have limitations, and that improving TLS security in mobile is not straightforward. Apps that use their own TLS configurations may have vulnerabilities due to developer inexperience, but apps that use OS defaults are vulnerable to certain attacks if the OS is out of date, even if the apps themselves are up to date. We also study certificate verification, and see low prevalence of security measures such as certificate pinning, even among high-risk apps such as those providing financial services, though we did observe major third-party tracking and advertisement services deploying certificate pinning.

Hess, A. V., Mödersheim, S..  2017.  Formalizing and Proving a Typing Result for Security Protocols in Isabelle/HOL. 2017 IEEE 30th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :451–463.

There are several works on the formalization of security protocols and proofs of their security in Isabelle/HOL; there have also been tools for automatically generating such proofs. This is attractive since a proof in Isabelle gives a higher assurance of the correctness than a pen-and-paper proof or the positive output of a verification tool. However several of these works have used a typed model, where the intruder is restricted to "well-typed" attacks. There also have been several works that show that this is actually not a restriction for a large class of protocols, but all these results so far are again pen-and-paper proofs. In this work we present a formalization of such a typing result in Isabelle/HOL. We formalize a constraint-based approach that is used in the proof argument of such typing results, and prove its soundness, completeness and termination. We then formalize and prove the typing result itself in Isabelle. Finally, to illustrate the real-world feasibility, we prove that the standard Transport Layer Security (TLS) handshake satisfies the main condition of the typing result.

Delaune, S., Kremer, S., Robin, L..  2017.  Formal Verification of Protocols Based on Short Authenticated Strings. 2017 IEEE 30th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :130–143.

Modern security protocols may involve humans in order to compare or copy short strings between different devices. Multi-factor authentication protocols, such as Google 2-factor or 3D-secure are typical examples of such protocols. However, such short strings may be subject to brute force attacks. In this paper we propose a symbolic model which includes attacker capabilities for both guessing short strings, and producing collisions when short strings result from an application of weak hash functions. We propose a new decision procedure for analysing (a bounded number of sessions of) protocols that rely on short strings. The procedure has been integrated in the AKISS tool and tested on protocols from the ISO/IEC 9798-6:2010 standard.

Garcia, R., Modesti, P..  2017.  An IDE for the Design, Verification and Implementation of Security Protocols. 2017 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW). :157–163.

Security protocols are critical components for the construction of secure and dependable distributed applications, but their implementation is challenging and error prone. Therefore, tools for formal modelling and analysis of security protocols can be potentially very useful to support software engineers. However, despite such tools have been available for a long time, their adoption outside the research community has been very limited. In fact, most practitioners find such applications too complex and hardly usable for their daily work. In this paper, we present an Integrated Development Environment for the design, verification and implementation of security protocols, aimed at lowering the adoption barrier of formal methods tools for security. In the spirit of Model Driven Development, the environment supports the user in the specification of the model using the simple and intuitive language AnB (and its extension AnBx). Moreover, it provides a push-button solution for the formal verification of the abstract and concrete models, and for the automatic generation of Java implementation. This Eclipse-based IDE leverages on existing languages and tools for modelling and verification of security protocols, such as the AnBx Compiler and Code Generator, the model checker OFMC and the protocol verifier ProVerif.

Comon, H., Koutsos, A..  2017.  Formal Computational Unlinkability Proofs of RFID Protocols. 2017 IEEE 30th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :100–114.

We set up a framework for the formal proofs of RFID protocols in the computational model. We rely on the so-called computationally complete symbolic attacker model. Our contributions are: 1) to design (and prove sound) axioms reflecting the properties of hash functions (Collision-Resistance, PRF). 2) to formalize computational unlinkability in the model. 3) to illustrate the method, providing the first formal proofs of unlinkability of RFID protocols, in the omputational model.

Alvarez, E. D., Correa, B. D., Arango, I. F..  2016.  An analysis of XSS, CSRF and SQL injection in colombian software and web site development. 2016 8th Euro American Conference on Telematics and Information Systems (EATIS). :1–5.

Software development and web applications have become fundamental in our lives. Millions of users access these applications to communicate, obtain information and perform transactions. However, these users are exposed to many risks; commonly due to the developer's lack of experience in security protocols. Although there are many researches about web security and hacking protection, there are plenty of vulnerable websites. This article focuses in analyzing 3 main hacking techniques: XSS, CSRF, and SQL Injection over a representative group of Colombian websites. Our goal is to obtain information about how Colombian companies and organizations give (or not) relevance to security; and how the final user could be affected.

Patil, M., Sahu, V., Jain, A..  2014.  SMS text Compression and Encryption on Android O.S. Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI), 2014 International Conference on. :1-6.

Today in the world of globalization mobile communication is one of the fastest growing medium though which one sender can interact with other in short time. During the transmission of data from sender to receiver, size of data is important, since more data takes more time. But one of the limitations of sending data through mobile devices is limited use of bandwidth and number of packets transmitted. Also the security of these data is important. Hence various protocols are implemented which not only provides security to the data but also utilizes bandwidth. Here we proposed an efficient technique of sending SMS text using combination of compression and encryption. The data to be send is first encrypted using Elliptic curve Cryptographic technique, but encryption increases the size of the text data, hence compression is applied to this encrypted data so the data gets compressed and is send in short time. The Compression technique implemented here is an efficient one since it includes an algorithm which compresses the text by 99.9%, hence a great amount of bandwidth gets saved.The hybrid technique of Compression-Encryption of SMS text message is implemented for Android Operating Systems.

Bin Hu, Gharavi, H..  2014.  Smart Grid Mesh Network Security Using Dynamic Key Distribution With Merkle Tree 4-Way Handshaking. Smart Grid, IEEE Transactions on. 5:550-558.

Distributed mesh sensor networks provide cost-effective communications for deployment in various smart grid domains, such as home area networks (HAN), neighborhood area networks (NAN), and substation/plant-generation local area networks. This paper introduces a dynamically updating key distribution strategy to enhance mesh network security against cyber attack. The scheme has been applied to two security protocols known as simultaneous authentication of equals (SAE) and efficient mesh security association (EMSA). Since both protocols utilize 4-way handshaking, we propose a Merkle-tree based handshaking scheme, which is capable of improving the resiliency of the network in a situation where an intruder carries a denial of service attack. Finally, by developing a denial of service attack model, we can then evaluate the security of the proposed schemes against cyber attack, as well as network performance in terms of delay and overhead.