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2021-11-29
Ching, Tan Woei, Aman, Azana Hafizah Mohd, Azamuddin, Wan Muhd Hazwan, Sallehuddin, Hasimi, Attarbashi, Zainab Senan.  2021.  Performance Analysis of Internet of Things Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL): Energy, Overhead and Packet Delivery. 2021 3rd International Cyber Resilience Conference (CRC). :1–6.
In line with the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoT) network, the challenges faced are ensuring the network performance is capable to support the communication of these IoT devices. As a result, the routing protocols can provide fast route discovery and network maintenance by considering the IoT network's resource constraints. This paper's main contributions are to identify compatible IoT routing protocol using qualitative method and factor that affect network performance. Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is a proactive distance- vector routing protocol designed as a proposed standard to meet the requirements of the Low Power and Lossy Networks (LLN). In this project, four influential factors on the performance of RPL in Contiki OS are examined using the Cooja simulator and then RPL performance is assessed in terms of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Energy consumption and Overhead control message for the network. The project provides an insight into the implications of traffic patterns, transmission ranges, network size and node mobility for different scenarios. The results of the simulation show that the PDR and overhead ratio increases proportional to transmission distances increases but decreases while radio interference is increased. From the mobility aspect, PDR decreases by an average of 19.5% when the mobility nodes expand. On the other hand, energy consumption increases by an average of 63.7% and control message size increased up to 213% when the network consists of 40 percent of mobility nodes.
2021-08-17
Mutalemwa, Lilian C., Shin, Seokjoo.  2020.  Improving the Packet Delivery Reliability and Privacy Protection in Monitoring Wireless Networks. 2020 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :1083—1088.
Source location privacy (SLP) protection ensures security of assets in monitoring wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Also, low end-to-end delay (EED) and high packet delivery ratio (PDR) guarantee high packet delivery reliability. Therefore, it is important to ensure high levels of SLP protection, low EED, and high PDR in mission-critical monitoring applications. Thus, this study proposes a new angle-based agent node routing protocol (APr) which is capable of achieving high levels of SLP protection, low EED, and high PDR. The proposed APr protocol employs multiple routing strategies to enable a dynamic agent node selection process and creation of obfuscating routing paths. Analysis results reveal that the APr protocol achieves high packet delivery reliability to outperform existing intermediate node-based protocols such as the AdrR and tree-based protocols such as the TbR. Furthermore, the APr protocol achieves significantly high levels of SLP protection to outperform the AdrR protocol.
2021-03-09
Venkataramana, B., Jadhav, A..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols under Black Hole Attack in Cognitive Radio Mesh Network. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Smart Computing and Informatics (ESCI). :98–102.
Wireless technology is rapidly proliferating. Devices such as Laptops, PDAs and cell-phones gained a lot of importance due to the use of wireless technology. Nowadays there is also a huge demand for spectrum allocation and there is a need to utilize the maximum available spectrum in efficient manner. Cognitive Radio (CR) Network is one such intelligent radio network, designed to utilize the maximum licensed bandwidth to un-licensed users. Cognitive Radio has the capability to understand unused spectrum at a given time at a specific location. This capability helps to minimize the interference to the licensed users and improves the performance of the network. Routing protocol selection is one of the main strategies to design any wireless or wired networks. In Cognitive radio networks the selected routing protocol should be best in terms of establishing an efficient route, addressing challenges in network topology and should be able to reduce bandwidth consumption. Performance analysis of the protocols helps to select the best protocol in the network. Objective of this study is to evaluate performance of various cognitive radio network routing protocols like Spectrum Aware On Demand Routing Protocol (SORP), Spectrum Aware Mesh Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks (SAMER) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) with and without black hole attack using various performance parameters like Throughput, E2E delay and Packet delivery ratio with the help of NS2 simulator.
Naveena, S., Senthilkumar, C., Manikandan, T..  2020.  Analysis and Countermeasures of Black-Hole Attack in MANET by Employing Trust-Based Routing. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1222–1227.
A self-governing system consisting of mobile nodes that exchange information within a cellular area and is known as a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Due to its dynamic nature, it is vulnerable to attacks and there is no fixed infrastructure. To transfer a data packet Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is used and it's another form of a reactive protocol. The black-hole attack is a major attack that drastically decreases the packet delivery ratio during a data transaction in a routing environment. In this attack, the attacker's node acts as the shortest path to the target node itself. If the attacker node receives the data packet from the source node, all obtained data packets are excluded from a routing network. A trust-based routing scheme is suggested to ensure secure routing. This routing scheme is divided into two stages, i.e., the Data retrieval (DR), to identify and preserve each node data transfer mechanism in a routing environment and route development stage, to predict a safe path to transmit a data packet to the target node.
2020-12-07
More, P. H., Dongre, M. M..  2019.  Partially Predictable Vehicular Ad-hoc Network: Trustworthiness and Security. 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–5.
VANET is an emerging technology incorporating ad hoc network to accomplish intelligent communications between vehicles, improvement in road traffic efficiency and safety. In some situations movement of vehicles is in a certain range, over particular distance or just in a specific tendency. Such a network can be called as incompletely or partially predictable network. An efficient use of such network, position and motion of nodes as well as relative history in big data is an open issue in vehicular ad hoc network. A hybrid protocol which provides secure and trustworthiness evaluation based routing can be used in VANET. Here Secure Trustworthiness Evaluation Based Routing Protocol is implemented using NS2 software. Its performance is very good in terms of the Average End to End Delay, Packet Delivery Ratio and Normalized Routing Overhead.
2020-10-29
Kumar, Sushil, Mann, Kulwinder Singh.  2019.  Prevention of DoS Attacks by Detection of Multiple Malicious Nodes in VANETs. 2019 International Conference on Automation, Computational and Technology Management (ICACTM). :89—94.

Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET), a specialized form of MANET in which safety is the major concern as critical information related to driver's safety and assistance need to be disseminated between the vehicle nodes. The security of the nodes can be increased, if the network availability is increased. The availability of the network is decreased, if there is Denial of Service Attacks (DoS) in the network. In this paper, a packet detection algorithm for the prevention of DoS attacks is proposed. This algorithm will be able to detect the multiple malicious nodes in the network which are sending irrelevant packets to jam the network and that will eventually stop the network to send the safety messages. The proposed algorithm was simulated in NS-2 and the quantitative values of packet delivery ratio, packet loss ratio, network throughput proves that the proposed algorithm enhance the security of the network by detecting the DoS attack well in time.

2020-06-01
Patel, Himanshu B., Jinwala, Devesh C..  2019.  Blackhole Detection in 6LoWPAN Based Internet of Things: An Anomaly Based Approach. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :947—954.

The Internet of things networks is vulnerable to many DOS attacks. Among them, Blackhole attack is one of the severe attacks as it hampers communication among network devices. In general, the solutions presented in the literature for Blackhole detection are not efficient. In addition, the existing approaches do not factor-in, the consumption in resources viz. energy, bandwidth and network lifetime. Further, these approaches are also insensitive to the mechanism used for selecting a parent in on Blackhole formation. Needless to say, a blackhole node if selected as parent would lead to orchestration of this attack trivially and hence it is an important factor in selection of a parent. In this paper, we propose SIEWE (Strainer based Intrusion Detection of Blackhole in 6LoWPAN for the Internet of Things) - an Intrusion detection mechanism to identify Blackhole attack on Routing protocol RPL in IoT. In contrast to the Watchdog based approaches where every node in network runs in promiscuous mode, SIEWE filters out suspicious nodes first and then verifies the behavior of those nodes only. The results that we obtain, show that SIEWE improves the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) of the system by blacklisting malicious Blackhole nodes.

Sivanesh, S., Sarma Dhulipala, V.R..  2019.  Comparitive Analysis of Blackhole and Rushing Attack in MANET. 2019 TEQIP III Sponsored International Conference on Microwave Integrated Circuits, Photonics and Wireless Networks (IMICPW). :495—499.

For the past few decades, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have been a global trend in wireless networking technology. These kind of ad-hoc networks are infrastructure less, dynamic in topology and further doesn't have a centralized network administration which makes it easier for the intruders to launch several attacks on MANETs. In this paper, we have made a comparative analysis of the network layer attack by simulating rushing and black hole attack using NS-2 network simulator. For determining the most vulnerable attack we have considered packet delivery ratio, end to end delay and throughput as a evaluation metrices. Here, AODV routing protocol has been configured for data forwarding operations. From our Simulation result, it is evident that the black hole attack is more vulnerable when compared to the rushing attack.

2020-05-26
Hamamreh, Rushdi A., Ayyad, Mohammad, Jamoos, Mohammad.  2019.  RAD: Reinforcement Authentication DYMO Protocol for MANET. 2019 International Conference on Promising Electronic Technologies (ICPET). :136–141.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) does not have fixed infrastructure centralized server which manage the connections between the nodes. Rather, the nodes in MANET move randomly. Thus, it is risky to exchange data between nodes because there is a high possibility of having malicious node in the path. In this paper, we will describe a new authentication technique using message digest 5 (MD5), hashing for dynamic MANET on demand protocol (DYMO) based on reinforcement learning. In addition, we will describe an encryption technique that can be used without the need for a third party to distribute a secret key. After implementing the suggested model, results showed a remarkable enhancement in securing the path by increasing the packet delivery ratio and average throughput. On the other hand, there was an increase in end to end delay due to time spent in cryptographic operations.
2019-06-10
Umar, M., Sabo, A., Tata, A. A..  2018.  Modified Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme for Detecting and Preventing Cooperative Blackhole and Eavesdropping Attacks in MANET. 2018 International Conference on Networking and Network Applications (NaNA). :121–126.

Mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a system of wireless mobile nodes that are dynamically self-organized in arbitrary and temporary topologies, that have received increasing interest due to their potential applicability to numerous applications. The deployment of such networks however poses several security challenging issues, due to their lack of fixed communication infrastructure, centralized administration, nodes mobility and dynamic topological changes, which make it susceptible to passive and active attacks such as single and cooperative black hole, sinkhole and eavesdropping attacks. The mentioned attacks mainly disrupt data routing processes by giving false routing information or stealing secrete information by malicious nodes in MANET. Thus, finding safe routing path by avoiding malicious nodes is a genuine challenge. This paper aims at combining the existing cooperative bait detection scheme which uses the baiting procedure to bait malicious nodes into sending fake route reply and then using a reverse tracing operation to detect the malicious nodes, with an RSA encryption technique to encode data packet before transmitting it to the destination to prevent eavesdropper and other malicious nodes from unauthorized read and write on the data packet. The proposed work out performs the existing Cooperative Bait Detection Scheme (CBDS) in terms of packet delivery ratio, network throughput, end to end delay, and the routing overhead.

Zalte, S. S., Ghorpade, V. R..  2018.  Intrusion Detection System for MANET. 2018 3rd International Conference for Convergence in Technology (I2CT). :1–4.

In Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET), we cannot predict the clear picture of the topology of a node because of its varying nature. Without notice participation and departure of nodes results in lack of trust relationship between nodes. In such circumstances, there is no guarantee that path between two nodes would be secure or free of malicious nodes. The presence of single malicious node could lead repeatedly compromised node. After providing security to route and data packets still, there is a need for the implementation of defense mechanism that is intrusion detection system(IDS) against compromised nodes. In this paper, we have implemented IDS, which defend against some routing attacks like the black hole and gray hole successfully. After measuring performance we get marginally increased Packet delivery ratio and Throughput.

2019-03-11
Ghafoor, K. Z., Kong, L., Sadiq, A. S., Doukha, Z., Shareef, F. M..  2018.  Trust-aware routing protocol for mobile crowdsensing environments. IEEE INFOCOM 2018 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :82–87.
Link quality, trust management and energy efficiency are considered as main factors that affect the performance and lifetime of Mobile CrowdSensing (MCS). Routing packets toward the sink node can be a daunting task if aforementioned factors are considered. Correspondingly, routing packets by considering only shortest path or residual energy lead to suboptimal data forwarding. To this end, we propose a Fuzzy logic based Routing (FR) solution that incorporates social behaviour of human beings, link quality, and node quality to make the optimal routing decision. FR leverages friendship mechanism for trust management, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) to assure good link quality node selection, and residual energy for long lasting sensor lifetime. Extensive simulations show that the FR solution outperforms the existing approaches in terms of network lifetime and packet delivery ratio.
2019-01-21
Elmahdi, E., Yoo, S., Sharshembiev, K..  2018.  Securing data forwarding against blackhole attacks in mobile ad hoc networks. 2018 IEEE 8th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :463–467.

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is vulnerable to many types of attacks. Thus, security has turned out to be an important factor to facilitate secured communication between mobile nodes in a wireless environment. In this paper we propose a new approach to provide reliable and secure data transmission in MANETs under possible blackhole attacks based on ad hoc on-demand multipath distance vector (AOMDV) protocol and homomorphic encryption scheme for security. The performance of the proposed scheme is stable but that of AOMDV is found to be degrading with the intrusion of malicious nodes in the network. Simulation results show the improvement of packet delivery ratio and network throughput in the presence of blackhole nodes in our proposed scheme.

2019-01-16
Shirbhate, M. D., Solapure, S. S..  2018.  Improving existing 6LoWPAN RPL for content based routing. 2018 Second International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :632–635.

Internet of things has become a subject of interest across a different industry domain. It includes 6LoWPAN (Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network) which is used for a variety of application including home automation, sensor networks, manufacturing and industry application etc. However, gathering such a huge amount of data from such a different domain causes a problem of traffic congestion, high reliability, high energy efficiency etc. In order to address such problems, content based routing (CBR) technique is proposed, where routing paths are decided according to the type of content. By routing the correlated data to hop nodes for processing, a higher data aggregation ratio can be obtained, which in turns reducing the traffic congestion and minimizes the energy consumption. CBR is implemented on top of existing RPL (Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy network) and implemented in contiki operating system using cooja simulator. The analysis are carried out on the basis average power consumption, packet delivery ratio etc.

Adeniji, V. O., Sibanda, K..  2018.  Analysis of the effect of malicious packet drop attack on packet transmission in wireless mesh networks. 2018 Conference on Information Communications Technology and Society (ICTAS). :1–6.
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are known for possessing good attributes such as low up-front cost, easy network maintenance, and reliable service coverage. This has largely made them to be adopted in various environments such as; school campus networks, community networking, pervasive healthcare, office and home automation, emergency rescue operations and ubiquitous wireless networks. The routing nodes are equipped with self-organized and self-configuring capabilities. However, the routing mechanisms of WMNs depend on the collaboration of all participating nodes for reliable network performance. The authors of this paper have noted that most routing algorithms proposed for WMNs in the last few years are designed with the assumption that all the participating nodes will collaboratively be involved in relaying the data packets originated from a source to a multi-hop destination. Such design approach however exposes WMNs to vulnerability such as malicious packet drop attack. This paper presents an evaluation of the effect of the black hole attack with other influential factors in WMNs. In this study, NS-3 simulator was used with AODV as the routing protocol. The results show that the packet delivery ratio and throughput of WMN under attack decreases sharply as compared to WMN free from attack. On an average, 47.41% of the transmitted data packets were dropped in presence of black hole attack.
2018-06-20
Saurabh, V. K., Sharma, R., Itare, R., Singh, U..  2017.  Cluster-based technique for detection and prevention of black-hole attack in MANETs. 2017 International conference of Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). 2:489–494.

Secure routing in the field of mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of the most flourishing areas of research. Devising a trustworthy security protocol for ad hoc routing is a challenging task due to the unique network characteristics such as lack of central authority, rapid node mobility, frequent topology changes, insecure operational environment, and confined availability of resources. Due to low configuration and quick deployment, MANETs are well-suited for emergency situations like natural disasters or military applications. Therefore, data transfer between two nodes should necessarily involve security. A black-hole attack in the mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an offense occurring due to malicious nodes, which attract the data packets by incorrectly publicizing a fresh route to the destination. A clustering direction in AODV routing protocol for the detection and prevention of black-hole attack in MANET has been put forward. Every member of the unit will ping once to the cluster head, to detect the exclusive difference between the number of data packets received and forwarded by the particular node. If the fault is perceived, all the nodes will obscure the contagious nodes from the network. The reading of the system performance has been done in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR), end to end delay (ETD) throughput and Energy simulation inferences are recorded using ns2 simulator.

2015-05-06
Lalitha, T., Devi, A.J..  2014.  Security in Wireless Sensor Networks: Key Management Module in EECBKM. Computing and Communication Technologies (WCCCT), 2014 World Congress on. :306-308.

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is vulnerable to node capture attacks in which an attacker can capture one or more sensor nodes and reveal all stored security information which enables him to compromise a part of the WSN communications. Due to large number of sensor nodes and lack of information about deployment and hardware capabilities of sensor node, key management in wireless sensor networks has become a complex task. Limited memory resources and energy constraints are the other issues of key management in WSN. Hence an efficient key management scheme is necessary which reduces the impact of node capture attacks and consume less energy. By simulation results, we show that our proposed technique efficiently increases packet delivery ratio with reduced energy consumption.

Zhexiong Wei, Tang, H., Yu, F.R., Maoyu Wang, Mason, P..  2014.  Security Enhancements for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks With Trust Management Using Uncertain Reasoning. Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on. 63:4647-4658.

The distinctive features of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), including dynamic topology and open wireless medium, may lead to MANETs suffering from many security vulnerabilities. In this paper, using recent advances in uncertain reasoning that originated from the artificial intelligence community, we propose a unified trust management scheme that enhances the security in MANETs. In the proposed trust management scheme, the trust model has two components: trust from direct observation and trust from indirect observation. With direct observation from an observer node, the trust value is derived using Bayesian inference, which is a type of uncertain reasoning when the full probability model can be defined. On the other hand, with indirect observation, which is also called secondhand information that is obtained from neighbor nodes of the observer node, the trust value is derived using the Dempster-Shafer theory (DST), which is another type of uncertain reasoning when the proposition of interest can be derived by an indirect method. By combining these two components in the trust model, we can obtain more accurate trust values of the observed nodes in MANETs. We then evaluate our scheme under the scenario of MANET routing. Extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Specifically, throughput and packet delivery ratio (PDR) can be improved significantly with slightly increased average end-to-end delay and overhead of messages.

2015-05-01
Arieta, F., Barabasz, L.T., Santos, A., Nogueira, M..  2014.  Mitigating Flooding Attacks on Mobility in Infrastructure-Based Vehicular Networks. Latin America Transactions, IEEE (Revista IEEE America Latina). 12:475-483.

Infrastructure-based Vehicular Networks can be applied in different social contexts, such as health care, transportation and entertainment. They can easily take advantage of the benefices provided by wireless mesh networks (WMNs) to mobility, since WMNs essentially support technological convergence and resilience, required for the effective operation of services and applications. However, infrastructure-based vehicular networks are prone to attacks such as ARP packets flooding that compromise mobility management and users' network access. Hence, this work proposes MIRF, a secure mobility scheme based on reputation and filtering to mitigate flooding attacks on mobility management. The efficiency of the MIRF scheme has been evaluated by simulations considering urban scenarios with and without attacks. Analyses show that it significantly improves the packet delivery ratio in scenarios with attacks, mitigating their intentional negative effects, as the reduction of malicious ARP requests. Furthermore, improvements have been observed in the number of handoffs on scenarios under attacks, being faster than scenarios without the scheme.