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Kessel, Ronald.  2010.  The positive force of deterrence: Estimating the quantitative effects of target shifting. 2010 International WaterSide Security Conference. :1–5.
The installation of a protection system can provide protection by either deterring or stopping an attacker. Both modes of effectiveness-deterring and stopping-are uncertain. Some have guessed that deterrence plays a much bigger role than stopping force. The force of deterrence should therefore be of considerable interest, especially if its effect could be estimated and incorporated into a larger risk analysis and business case for developing and buying new systems, but nowhere has it been estimated quantitatively. The effect of one type of deterrence, namely, influencing an attacker's choice of targets-or target shifting, biasing an attacker away from some targets toward others-is assessed quantitatively here using a game-theoretic approach. It is shown that its positive effects are significant. It features as a force multiplier on the order of magnitude or more, even for low-performance security countermeasures whose effectiveness may be compromised somewhat, of necessity, in order to keep the number of false alarms serviceably low. The analysis furthermore implies that there are certain minimum levels of stopping performance that a protection should provide in order to avoid attracting the choice of attackers (under deterrence). Nothing in the analysis argues for complacency in security. Developers must still design the best affordable systems. The analysis enters into the middle ground of security, between no protection and impossibly perfect protection. It counters the criticisms that some raise about lower-level, affordable, sustainable measures that security providers naturally gravitate toward. Although these measures might in some places be defeated in ways that a non-expert can imagine, the measures are not for that reason irresponsible or to be dismissed. Their effectiveness can be much greater than they first appear.
Özer, E., İskefiyeli, M..  2017.  Detection of DDoS attack via deep packet analysis in real time systems. 2017 International Conference on Computer Science and Engineering (UBMK). :1137–1140.

One of the biggest problems of today's internet technologies is cyber attacks. In this paper whether DDoS attacks will be determined by deep packet inspection. Initially packets are captured by listening of network traffic. Packet filtering was achieved at desired number and type. These packets are recorded to database to be analyzed, daily values and average values are compared by known attack patterns and will be determined whether a DDoS attack attempts in real time systems.

Madhusudhanan, S., Mallissery, S..  2017.  Provable security analysis of complex or smart computer systems in the smart grid. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid and Smart Cities (ICSGSC). :210–214.

Security is an important requirement of every reactive system of the smart gird. The devices connected to the smart system in smart grid are exhaustively used to provide digital information to outside world. The security of such a system is an essential requirement. The most important component of such smart systems is Operating System (OS). This paper mainly focuses on the security of OS by incorporating Access Control Mechanism (ACM) which will improve the efficiency of the smart system. The formal methods use applied mathematics for modelling and analysing of smart systems. In the proposed work Formal Security Analysis (FSA) is used with model checking and hence it helped to prove the security of smart systems. When an Operating System (OS) takes into consideration, it never comes to a halt state. In the proposed work a Transition System (TS) is designed and the desired rules of security are provided by using Linear Temporal Logics (LTL). Unlike other propositional and predicate logic, LTL can model reactive systems with a prediction for the future state of the systems. In the proposed work, Simple Promela Interpreter (SPIN) is used as a model checker that takes LTL and TS of the system as input. Hence it is possible to derive the Büchi automaton from LTL logics and that provides traces of both successful and erroneous computations. Comparison of Büchi automaton with the transition behaviour of the OS will provide the details of security violation in the system. Validation of automaton operations on infinite computational sequences verify that whether systems are provably secure or not. Hence the proposed formal security analysis will provably ensures the security of smart systems in the area of smart grid applications.

Moukarzel, M., Eisenbarth, T., Sunar, B..  2017.  \#x03BC;Leech: A Side-Channel Evaluation Platform for IoT. 2017 IEEE 60th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS). :25–28.

We propose $μ$Leech, a new embedded trusted platform module for next generation power scavenging devices. Such power scavenging devices are already widely deployed. For instance, the Square point-of-sale reader uses the microphone/speaker interface of a smartphone for communications and as power supply. While such devices are used as trusted devices in security critical applications in the wild, they have not been properly evaluated yet. $μ$Leech can securely store keys and provide cryptographic services to any connected smart phone. Our design also facilitates physical security analysis by providing interfaces to facilitate acquisition of power traces and clock manipulation attacks. Thus $μ$Leech empowers security researchers to analyze leakage in next generation embedded and IoT devices and to evaluate countermeasures before deployment.

Viet, H. N., Kwon, K. R., Kwon, S. K., Lee, E. J., Lee, S. H., Kim, C. Y..  2017.  Implementation of GPS signal simulation for drone security using Matlab/Simulink. 2017 IEEE XXIV International Conference on Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computing (INTERCON). :1–4.
In this paper, a simulation model of digital intermediate frequency (IF) GPS signal is presented. This design is developed based on mathematical model representing the digitized IF GPS signal. In details, C/A code, navigation data and P code, and the noise models are configured some initial settings simultaneously. Simulation results show that the simulated signals share the same properties with real signals (e.g. C/A code correlation properties, and the spread spectrum). The simulated GPS IF signal data can work as input for various signal processing algorithm of GPS receivers, such as acquisition, tracking, carrier-to-noise ratio (C/No) estimation, and GPS spoofing signal generation. Particularly, the simulated GPS signal can conduct scenarios by adjust SNR values of the noise generator during simulation (e.g. signal outages, sudden changes of GPS signal power), which can be used as setup experiments of spoofing/jamming interference to UAVs for drone security applications.
Hongyo, K., Kimura, T., Kudo, T., Inoue, Y., Hirata, K..  2017.  Modeling of countermeasure against self-evolving botnets. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan (ICCE-TW). :227–228.

Machine learning has been widely used and achieved considerable results in various research areas. On the other hand, machine learning becomes a big threat when malicious attackers make use it for the wrong purpose. As such a threat, self-evolving botnets have been considered in the past. The self-evolving botnets autonomously predict vulnerabilities by implementing machine learning with computing resources of zombie computers. Furthermore, they evolve based on the vulnerability, and thus have high infectivity. In this paper, we consider several models of Markov chains to counter the spreading of the self-evolving botnets. Through simulation experiments, this paper shows the behaviors of these models.

Shwartz, O., Birk, Y..  2016.  SDSM: Fast and scalable security support for directory-based distributed shared memory. 2016 IEEE International Conference on the Science of Electrical Engineering (ICSEE). :1–5.

Secure computation is increasingly required, most notably when using public clouds. Many secure CPU architectures have been proposed, mostly focusing on single-threaded applications running on a single node. However, security for parallel and distributed computation is also needed, requiring the sharing of secret data among mutually trusting threads running in different compute nodes in an untrusted environment. We propose SDSM, a novel hardware approach for providing a security layer for directory-based distributed shared memory systems. Unlike previously proposed schemes that cannot maintain reasonable performance beyond 32 cores, our approach allows secure parallel applications to scale efficiently to thousands of cores.

Dofe, J., Frey, J., Yu, Q..  2016.  Hardware security assurance in emerging IoT applications. 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS). :2050–2053.
The Internet of Things (IoT) offers a more advanced service than a single device or an isolated system, as IoT connects diverse components, such as sensors, actuators, and embedded devices through the internet. As predicted by Cisco, there will be 50 billion IoT connected devices by 2020. Integration of such a tremendous number of devices into IoT potentially brings in a new concern, system security. In this work, we review two typical hardware attacks that can harm the emerging IoT applications. As IoT devices typically have limited computation power and need to be energy efficient, sophisticated cryptographic algorithms and authentication protocols are not suitable for every IoT device. To simultaneously thwart hardware Trojan and side-channel analysis attacks, we propose a low-cost dynamic permutation method for IoT devices. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves 5.8X higher accumulated partial guessing entropy than the baseline, thus strengthening the IoT processing unit against hardware attacks.
Yang, K., Forte, D., Tehranipoor, M..  2015.  An RFID-based technology for electronic component and system Counterfeit detection and Traceability. 2015 IEEE International Symposium on Technologies for Homeland Security (HST). :1–6.

The vulnerabilities in today's supply chain have raised serious concerns about the security and trustworthiness of electronic components and systems. Testing for device provenance, detection of counterfeit integrated circuits/systems, and traceability are challenging issues to address. In this paper, we develop a novel RFID-based system suitable for electronic component and system Counterfeit detection and System Traceability called CST. CST is composed of different types of on-chip sensors and in-system structures that provide the information needed to detect multiple counterfeit IC types (recycled, cloned, etc.), verify the authenticity of the system with some degree of confidence, and track/identify boards. Central to CST is an RFID tag employed as storage and a channel to read the information from different types of chips on the printed circuit board (PCB) in both power-off and power-on scenarios. Simulations and experimental results using Spartan 3E FPGAs demonstrate the effectiveness of this system. The efficiency of the radio frequency (RF) communication has also been verified via a PCB prototype with a printed slot antenna.

Voyiatzis, I., Sgouropoulou, C., Estathiou, C..  2015.  Detecting untestable hardware Trojan with non-intrusive concurrent on line testing. 2015 10th International Conference on Design Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS). :1–2.

Hardware Trojans are an emerging threat that intrudes in the design and manufacturing cycle of the chips and has gained much attention lately due to the severity of the problems it draws to the chip supply chain. Hardware Typically, hardware Trojans are not detected during the usual manufacturing testing due to the fact that they are activated as an effect of a rare event. A class of published HTs are based on the geometrical characteristics of the circuit and claim to be undetectable, in the sense that their activation cannot be detected. In this work we study the effect of continuously monitoring the inputs of the module under test with respect to the detection of HTs possibly inserted in the module, either in the design or the manufacturing stage.

Ma, T., Zhang, H., Qian, J., Liu, S., Zhang, X., Ma, X..  2015.  The Design of Brand Cosmetics Anti-counterfeiting System Based on RFID Technology. 2015 International Conference on Network and Information Systems for Computers. :184–189.

The digital authentication security technology is widely used in the current brand cosmetics as key anti-counterfeiting technology, yet this technology is prone to "false security", "hard security" and "non-security" phenomena. This paper researches the current cosmetics brand distribution channels and sales methods also analyses the cosmetics brands' demand for RFID technology anti-counterfeiting security system, then proposes a security system based on RFID technology for brand cosmetics. The system is based on a typical distributed RFID tracking and tracing system which is the most widely used system-EPC system. This security system based on RFID technology for brand cosmetics in the paper is a visual information management system for luxury cosmetics brand. It can determine the source of the product timely and effectively, track and trace products' logistics information and prevent fake goods and gray goods getting into the normal supply chain channels.

Nirmal, K., Janet, B., Kumar, R..  2015.  Phishing - the threat that still exists. 2015 International Conference on Computing and Communications Technologies (ICCCT). :139–143.

Phishing is an online security attack in which the hacker aims in harvesting sensitive information like passwords, credit card information etc. from the users by making them to believe what they see is what it is. This threat has been into existence for a decade and there has been continuous developments in counter attacking this threat. However, statistical study reveals how phishing is still a big threat to today's world as the online era booms. In this paper, we look into the art of phishing and have made a practical analysis on how the state of the art anti-phishing systems fail to prevent Phishing. With the loop-holes identified in the state-of-the-art systems, we move ahead paving the roadmap for the kind of system that will counter attack this online security threat more effectively.

Jia, L., Sen, S., Garg, D., Datta, A..  2015.  "A Logic of Programs with Interface-Confined Code". 2015 IEEE 28th Computer Security Foundations Symposium. :512–525.

Interface-confinement is a common mechanism that secures untrusted code by executing it inside a sandbox. The sandbox limits (confines) the code's interaction with key system resources to a restricted set of interfaces. This practice is seen in web browsers, hypervisors, and other security-critical systems. Motivated by these systems, we present a program logic, called System M, for modeling and proving safety properties of systems that execute adversary-supplied code via interface-confinement. In addition to using computation types to specify effects of computations, System M includes a novel invariant type to specify the properties of interface-confined code. The interpretation of invariant type includes terms whose effects satisfy an invariant. We construct a step-indexed model built over traces and prove the soundness of System M relative to the model. System M is the first program logic that allows proofs of safety for programs that execute adversary-supplied code without forcing the adversarial code to be available for deep static analysis. System M can be used to model and verify protocols as well as system designs. We demonstrate the reasoning principles of System M by verifying the state integrity property of the design of Memoir, a previously proposed trusted computing system.

B. Boyadjis, C. Bergeron, S. Lecomte.  2015.  "Auto-synchronized selective encryption of video contents for an improved transmission robustness over error-prone channels". 2015 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :2969-2973.

Selective encryption designates a technique that aims at scrambling a message content while preserving its syntax. Such an approach allows encryption to be transparent towards middle-box and/or end user devices, and to easily fit within existing pipelines. In this paper, we propose to apply this property to a real-time diffusion scenario - or broadcast - over a RTP session. The main challenge of such problematic is the preservation of the synchronization between encryption and decryption. Our solution is based on the Advanced Encryption Standard in counter mode which has been modified to fit our auto-synchronization requirement. Setting up the proposed synchronization scheme does not induce any latency, and requires no additional bandwidth in the RTP session (no additional information is sent). Moreover, its parallel structure allows to start decryption on any given frame of the video while leaving a lot of room for further optimization purposes.

Uymatiao, M.L.T., Yu, W.E.S..  2014.  Time-based OTP authentication via secure tunnel (TOAST): A mobile TOTP scheme using TLS seed exchange and encrypted offline keystore. Information Science and Technology (ICIST), 2014 4th IEEE International Conference on. :225-229.

The main objective of this research is to build upon existing cryptographic standards and web protocols to design an alternative multi-factor authentication cryptosystem for the web. It involves seed exchange to a software-based token through a login-protected Transport Layer Security (TLS/SSL) tunnel, encrypted local storage through a password-protected keystore (BC UBER) with a strong key derivation function (PBEWithSHAANDTwofish-CBC), and offline generation of one-time passwords through the TOTP algorithm (IETF RFC 6239). Authentication occurs through the use of a shared secret (the seed) to verify the correctness of the one-time password used to authenticate. With the traditional use of username and password no longer wholly adequate for protecting online accounts, and with regulators worldwide toughening up security requirements (i.e. BSP 808, FFIEC), this research hopes to increase research effort on further development of cryptosystems involving multi-factor authentication.

Hui Zeng, Tengfei Qin, Xiangui Kang, Li Liu.  2014.  Countering anti-forensics of median filtering. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :2704-2708.

The statistical fingerprints left by median filtering can be a valuable clue for image forensics. However, these fingerprints may be maliciously erased by a forger. Recently, a tricky anti-forensic method has been proposed to remove median filtering traces by restoring images' pixel difference distribution. In this paper, we analyze the traces of this anti-forensic technique and propose a novel counter method. The experimental results show that our method could reveal this anti-forensics effectively at low computation load. According to our best knowledge, it's the first work on countering anti-forensics of median filtering.