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Filters: Keyword is compressive sampling  [Clear All Filters]
2022-08-12
On, Mehmet Berkay, Chen, Humphry, Proietti, Roberto, Yoo, S.J. Ben.  2021.  Sparse Optical Arbitrary Waveform Measurement by Compressive Sensing. 2021 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC). :1—2.
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a compressive sensing scheme based on optical coherent receiver that recovers sparse optical arbitrary signals with an analog bandwidth up to 25GHz. The proposed scheme uses 16x lower sampling rate than the Nyquist theorem and spectral resolution of 24.4MHz.
Kafedziski, Venceslav.  2021.  Compressive Sampling Stepped Frequency GPR Using Probabilistic Structured Sparsity Models. 2021 15th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (℡SIKS). :139—144.
We investigate a compressive sampling (CS) stepped frequency ground penetrating radar for detection of underground objects, which uses Bayesian estimation and a probabilistic model for the target support. Due to the underground targets being sparse, the B-scan is a sparse image. Using the CS principle, the stepped frequency radar is implemented using a subset of random frequencies at each antenna position. For image reconstruction we use Markov Chain and Markov Random Field models for the target support in the B-scan, where we also estimate the model parameters using the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The approach is tested using Web radar data obtained by measuring the signal responses scattered off land mine targets in a laboratory experimental setup. Our approach results in improved performance compared to the standard denoising algorithm for image reconstruction.
Prasad Reddy, V H, Kishore Kumar, Puli.  2021.  Performance Comparison of Orthogonal Matching Pursuit and Novel Incremental Gaussian Elimination OMP Reconstruction Algorithms for Compressive Sensing. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Antennas, Communications and Electronic Systems (COMCAS). :367—372.
Compressive Sensing (CS) is a promising investigation field in the communication signal processing domain. It offers an advantage of compression while sampling; hence, data redundancy is reduced and improves sampled data transmission. Due to the acquisition of compressed samples, Analog to Digital Conversions (ADCs) performance also improved at ultra-high frequency communication applications. Several reconstruction algorithms existed to reconstruct the original signal with these sub-Nyquist samples. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) falls under the category of greedy algorithms considered in this work. We implemented a compressively sensed sampling procedure using a Random Demodulator Analog-to-Information Converter (RD-AIC). And for CS reconstruction, we have considered OMP and novel Incremental Gaussian Elimination (IGE) OMP algorithms to reconstruct the original signal. Performance comparison between OMP and IGE OMP presented.
Blanco, Geison, Perez, Juan, Monsalve, Jonathan, Marquez, Miguel, Esnaola, Iñaki, Arguello, Henry.  2021.  Single Snapshot System for Compressive Covariance Matrix Estimation for Hyperspectral Imaging via Lenslet Array. 2021 XXIII Symposium on Image, Signal Processing and Artificial Vision (STSIVA). :1—5.
Compressive Covariance Sampling (CCS) is a strategy used to recover the covariance matrix (CM) directly from compressive measurements. Several works have proven the advantages of CSS in Compressive Spectral Imaging (CSI) but most of these algorithms require multiple random projections of the scene to obtain good reconstructions. However, several low-resolution copies of the scene can be captured in a single snapshot through a lenslet array. For this reason, this paper proposes a sensing protocol and a single snapshot CCS optical architecture using a lenslet array based on the Dual Dispersive Aperture Spectral Imager(DD-CASSI) that allows the recovery of the covariance matrix with a single snapshot. In this architecture uses the lenslet array allows to obtain different projections of the image in a shot due to the special coded aperture. In order to validate the proposed approach, simulations evaluated the quality of the recovered CM and the performance recovering the spectral signatures against traditional methods. Results show that the image reconstructions using CM have PSNR values about 30 dB, and reconstructed spectrum has a spectral angle mapper (SAM) error less than 15° compared to the original spectral signatures.
Kozhemyak, Olesya A., Stukach, Oleg V..  2021.  Reducing the Root-Mean-Square Error at Signal Restoration using Discrete and Random Changes in the Sampling Rate for the Compressed Sensing Problem. 2021 International Siberian Conference on Control and Communications (SIBCON). :1—3.
The data revolution will continue in the near future and move from centralized big data to "small" datasets. This trend stimulates the emergence not only new machine learning methods but algorithms for processing data at the point of their origin. So the Compressed Sensing Problem must be investigated in some technology fields that produce the data flow for decision making in real time. In the paper, we compare the random and constant frequency deviation and highlight some circumstances where advantages of the random deviation become more obvious. Also, we propose to use the differential transformations aimed to restore a signal form by discrets of the differential spectrum of the received signal. In some cases for the investigated model, this approach has an advantage in the compress of information.
Zhu, Zhen, Chi, Cheng, Zhang, Chunhua.  2021.  Spatial-Resampling Wideband Compressive Beamforming. OCEANS 2021: San Diego – Porto. :1—4.
Compressive beamforming has been successfully applied to the estimation of the direction of arrival (DOA) of array signals, and has higher angular resolution than traditional high-resolution beamforming methods. However, most of the existing compressive beamforming methods are based on narrow signal models. Wideband signal processing using these existing compressive beamforming methods is to divide the frequency band into several narrow-bands and add up the beamforming results of each narrow-band. However, for sonar application, signals usually consist of continuous spectrum and line spectrum, and the line spectrum is usually more than 10dB higher than the continuous spectrum. Due to the large difference of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each narrow-band, different regularization parameters should be used, otherwise it is difficult to get an ideal result, which makes compressive beamforming highly complicated. In this paper, a compressive beamforming method based on spatial resampling for uniform linear arrays is proposed. The signals are converted into narrow-band signals by spatial resampling technique, and compressive beamforming is then performed to estimate the DOA of the sound source. Experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method, which avoids the problem of using different parameters in the existing compressive beamforming methods, and the resolution is comparable to the existing methods using different parameters for wideband models. The spatial-resampling compressive beamforming has a better robustness when the regularization parameter is fixed, and exhibits lower levels of background interference than the existing methods.
Liu, Cong, Liu, Yunqing, Li, Qi, Wei, Zikang.  2021.  Radar Target MTD 2D-CFAR Algorithm Based on Compressive Detection. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA). :83—88.
In order to solve the problem of large data volume brought by the traditional Nyquist sampling theorem in radar signal detection, a compressive detection (CD) model based on compressed sensing (CS) theory is proposed by analyzing the sparsity of the radar target in the range domain. The lower sampling rate completes the compressive sampling of the radar signal on the range field. On this basis, the two-dimensional distribution of the Doppler unit is established by moving target detention moving target detention (MTD), and the detection of the target is achieved with the two-dimensional constant false alarm rate (2D-CFAR) detection algorithm. The simulation experiment results prove that the algorithm can effectively detect the target without the need for reconstruction signals, and has good detection performance.
de Vito, Luca, Picariello, Francesco, Rapuano, Sergio, Tudosa, Ioan.  2021.  Compressive Sampling on RFSoC for Distributed Wideband RF Spectrum Measurements. 2021 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC). :1—6.
This paper presents the application of Compressive Sampling (CS) to the realization of a wideband receiver for distributed spectrum monitoring. The proposed prototype performs the non-uniform sampling CS-based technique, while the signal reconstruction is realized by the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) algorithm on a personal computer. A first experimental analysis has been conducted on the prototype by assessing several figures of merit, thus characterizing its performance in the time, frequency and modulation domains. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed prototype can achieve good performance in all specified domains with Compression Ratios (CRs) up to 10 for a 4-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) signal having carrier frequency of 350 MHz and working at a symbol rate of 46 MSym/s.
Ooi, Boon-Yaik, Liew, Soung-Yue, Beh, Woan-Lin, Shirmohammadi, Shervin.  2021.  Inter-Batch Gap Filling Using Compressive Sampling for Low-Cost IoT Vibration Sensors. 2021 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC). :1—6.
To measure machinery vibration, a sensor system consisting of a 3-axis accelerometer, ADXL345, attached to a self-contained system-on-a-chip with integrated Wi-Fi capabilities, ESP8266, is a low-cost solution. In this work, we first show that in such a system, the widely used direct-read-and-send method which samples and sends individually acquired vibration data points to the server is not effective, especially using Wi-Fi connection. We show that the micro delays in each individual data transmission will limit the sensor sampling rate and will also affect the time of the acquired data points not evenly spaced. Then, we propose that vibration should be sampled in batches before sending the acquired data out from the sensor node. The vibration for each batch should be acquired continuously without any form of interruption in between the sampling process to ensure the data points are evenly spaced. To fill the data gaps between the batches, we propose the use of compressive sampling technique. Our experimental results show that the maximum sampling rate of the direct-read-and-send method is 350Hz with a standard uncertainty of 12.4, and the method loses more information compared to our proposed solution that can measure the vibration wirelessly and continuously up to 633Hz. The gaps filled using compressive sampling can achieve an accuracy in terms of mean absolute error (MAE) of up to 0.06 with a standard uncertainty of 0.002, making the low-cost vibration sensor node a cost-effective solution.
Killedar, Vinayak, Pokala, Praveen Kumar, Sekhar Seelamantula, Chandra.  2021.  Sparsity Driven Latent Space Sampling for Generative Prior Based Compressive Sensing. ICASSP 2021 - 2021 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2895—2899.
We address the problem of recovering signals from compressed measurements based on generative priors. Recently, generative-model based compressive sensing (GMCS) methods have shown superior performance over traditional compressive sensing (CS) techniques in recovering signals from fewer measurements. However, it is possible to further improve the performance of GMCS by introducing controlled sparsity in the latent-space. We propose a proximal meta-learning (PML) algorithm to enforce sparsity in the latent-space while training the generator. Enforcing sparsity naturally leads to a union-of-submanifolds model in the solution space. The overall framework is named as sparsity driven latent space sampling (SDLSS). In addition, we derive the sample complexity bounds for the proposed model. Furthermore, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed framework over the state-of-the-art techniques with application to CS on standard datasets such as MNIST and CIFAR-10. In particular, we evaluate the performance of the proposed method as a function of the number of measurements and sparsity factor in the latent space using standard objective measures. Our findings show that the sparsity driven latent space sampling approach improves the accuracy and aids in faster recovery of the signal in GMCS.
2021-04-27
Chen, Q., Chen, D., Gong, J..  2020.  Weighted Predictive Coding Methods for Block-Based Compressive Sensing of Images. 2020 3rd International Conference on Unmanned Systems (ICUS). :587–591.
Compressive sensing (CS) is beneficial for unmanned reconnaissance systems to obtain high-quality images with limited resources. The existing prediction methods for block-based compressive sensing of images can be regarded as the particular coefficients of weighted predictive coding. To find better prediction coefficients for BCS, this paper proposes two weighted prediction methods. The first method converts the prediction model of measurements into a prediction model of image blocks. The prediction weights are obtained by training the prediction model of image blocks offline, which avoiding the influence of the sampling rates on the prediction model of measurements. Another method is to calculate the prediction coefficients adaptively based on the average energy of measurements, which can adjust the weights based on the measurements. Compared with existing methods, the proposed prediction methods for BCS of images can further improve the reconstruction image quality.
Stanković, I., Brajović, M., Daković, M., Stanković, L., Ioana, C..  2020.  Quantization Effect in Nonuniform Nonsparse Signal Reconstruction. 2020 9th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO). :1–4.
This paper examines the influence of quantization on the compressive sensing theory applied to the nonuniformly sampled nonsparse signals with reduced set of randomly positioned measurements. The error of the reconstruction will be generalized to exact expected squared error expression. The aim is to connect the generalized random sampling strategy with the quantization effect, finding the resulting error of the reconstruction. Small sampling deviations correspond to the imprecisions of the sampling strategy, while completely random sampling schemes causes large sampling deviations. Numerical examples provide an agreement between the statistical results and theoretical values.
Balestrieri, E., Vito, L. D., Picariello, F., Rapuano, S., Tudosa, I..  2020.  A TDoA-based Measurement Method for RF Emitters Localization by Exploiting Wideband Compressive Sampling. 2020 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC). :1–6.
This paper proposes a Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) based method for the localization of Radio Frequency (RF) emitters working at different carriers, by using wideband spectrum sensors exploiting compressive sampling. The proposed measurement method is based on four or more RF receivers, with known Cartesian positions, performing non uniform sampling on the received signal. By means of simulations, the method has been compared against a localization method adopting RF receivers performing uniform sampling at Nyquist rate. The obtained preliminary results demonstrate that the method is capable of localizing two RF emitters achieving the same results obtained with uniform sampling, with a compression ratio up to CR = 20.
Manchanda, R., Sharma, K..  2020.  A Review of Reconstruction Algorithms in Compressive Sensing. 2020 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication Materials (ICACCM). :322–325.
Compressive Sensing (CS) is a promising technology for the acquisition of signals. The number of measurements is reduced by using CS which is needed to obtain the signals in some basis that are compressible or sparse. The compressible or sparse nature of the signals can be obtained by transforming the signals in some domain. Depending on the signals sparsity signals are sampled below the Nyquist sampling criteria by using CS. An optimization problem needs to be solved for the recovery of the original signal. Very few studies have been reported about the reconstruction of the signals. Therefore, in this paper, the reconstruction algorithms are elaborated systematically for sparse signal recovery in CS. The discussion of various reconstruction algorithms in made in this paper will help the readers in order to understand these algorithms efficiently.
Ding, K., Meng, Z., Yu, Z., Ju, Z., Zhao, Z., Xu, K..  2020.  Photonic Compressive Sampling of Sparse Broadband RF Signals using a Multimode Fiber. 2020 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP) and International Conference on Information Photonics and Optical Communications (IPOC). :1–3.
We propose a photonic compressive sampling scheme based on multimode fiber for radio spectrum sensing, which shows high accuracy and stability, and low complexity and cost. Pulse overlapping is utilized for a fast detection. © 2020 The Author(s).
Sekar, K., Devi, K. Suganya, Srinivasan, P., SenthilKumar, V. M..  2020.  Deep Wavelet Architecture for Compressive sensing Recovery. 2020 Seventh International Conference on Information Technology Trends (ITT). :185–189.
The deep learning-based compressive Sensing (CS) has shown substantial improved performance and in run-time reduction with signal sampling and reconstruction. In most cases, moreover, these techniques suffer from disrupting artefacts or high-frequency contents at low sampling ratios. Similarly, this occurs in the multi-resolution sampling method, which further collects more components with lower frequencies. A promising innovation combining CS with convolutionary neural network has eliminated the sparsity constraint yet recovery persists slow. We propose a Deep wavelet based compressive sensing with multi-resolution framework provides better improvement in reconstruction as well as run time. The proposed model demonstrates outstanding quality on test functions over previous approaches.
K, S., Devi, K. Suganya, Srinivasan, P., Dheepa, T., Arpita, B., singh, L. Dolendro.  2020.  Joint Correlated Compressive Sensing based on Predictive Data Recovery in WSNs. 2020 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Engineering (ic-ETITE). :1–5.
Data sampling is critical process for energy constrained Wireless Sensor Networks. In this article, we proposed a Predictive Data Recovery Compressive Sensing (PDR-CS) procedure for data sampling. PDR-CS samples data measurements from the monitoring field on the basis of spatial and temporal correlation and sparse measurements recovered at the Sink. Our proposed algorithm, PDR-CS extends the iterative re-weighted -ℓ1(IRW - ℓ1) minimization and regularization on the top of Spatio-temporal compressibility for enhancing accuracy of signal recovery and reducing the energy consumption. The simulation study shows that from the less number of samples are enough to recover the signal. And also compared with the other compressive sensing procedures, PDR-CS works with less time.
Mahamat, A. D., Ali, A., Tanguier, J. L., Donnot, A., Benelmir, R..  2020.  Mechanical and thermophysical characterization of local clay-based building materials. 2020 5th International Conference on Renewable Energies for Developing Countries (REDEC). :1–6.
The work we present is a comparative study based on an experimental approach to the mechanical and thermal properties of different local clay-based building materials with the incorporation of agricultural waste in Chad. These local building materials have been used since ancient times by the low-income population. They were the subject of a detailed characterization of their mechanical and thermal parameters. The objective is to obtain lightweight materials with good thermomechanical performance and which can contribute to improving thermal comfort, energy-saving, and security in social housing in Chad while reducing the cost of investment. Several clay-based samples with increasing incorporation of 0 to 8% of agricultural waste (cow dung or millet pod) were made. We used appropriate experimental methods for porous materials (the hydraulic press for mechanical tests and the box method for thermal tests). In this article, we have highlighted the values and variations of the mechanical compressive resistances, thermal conductivities, and thermal resistances of test pieces made with these materials. Knowing the mechanical and thermal characteristics, we also carried out a thermomechanical study. The thermal data made it possible to make Dynamic Thermal Simulations (STD) of the buildings thanks to the Pléiades + COMFIE software. The results obtained show that the use of these materials in a building presents good mechanical and thermal performance with low consumption of electrical energy for better thermal comfort of the occupants. Thus agricultural waste can be recovered thanks to its integration into building materials based on clay.
Kuldeep, G., Zhang, Q..  2020.  Revisiting Compressive Sensing based Encryption Schemes for IoT. 2020 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). :1–6.
Compressive sensing (CS) is regarded as one of the promising solutions for IoT data encryption as it achieves simultaneous sampling, compression, and encryption. Theoretical work in the literature has proved that CS provides computational secrecy. It also provides asymptotic perfect secrecy for Gaussian sensing matrix with constraints on input signal. In this paper, we design an attack decoding algorithm based on block compressed sensing decoding algorithm to perform ciphertext-only attack on real-life time series IoT data. It shows that it is possible to retrieve vital information in the plaintext under some conditions. Furthermore, it is also applied to a State-of-the Art CS-based encryption scheme for smart grid, and the power profile is reconstructed using ciphertext-only attack. Additionally, the statistical analysis of Gaussian and Binomial measurements is conducted to investigate the randomness provided by them.
Balestrieri, E., Vito, L. De, Picariello, F., Rapuano, S., Tudosa, I..  2020.  A Novel CS-based Measurement Method for Impairments Identification in Wireline Channels. 2020 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC). :1–6.
The paper proposes a new measurement method for impairments identification in wireline channels (i.e. wire cables) by exploiting a Compressive Sampling (CS)-based technique. The method consists of two-phases: (i) acquisition and reconstruction of the channel impulse response in the nominal working condition and (ii) analysis of the channel state to detect any physical anomaly/discontinuity like deterioration (e.g. aging due to harsh environment) or unauthorized side channel attacks (e.g. taps). The first results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of estimating the channel impairments with an accuracy that could allow the classification of the main channel impairments. The proposed method could be used to develop low-cost instrumentation for continuous monitoring of the physical layer of data networks and to improve their hardware security.
2020-09-14
Chandrala, M S, Hadli, Pooja, Aishwarya, R, Jejo, Kevin C, Sunil, Y, Sure, Pallaviram.  2019.  A GUI for Wideband Spectrum Sensing using Compressive Sampling Approaches. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–6.
Cognitive Radio is a prominent solution for effective spectral resource utilization. The rapidly growing device to device (D2D) communications and the next generation networks urge the cognitive radio networks to facilitate wideband spectrum sensing in order to assure newer spectral opportunities. As Nyquist sampling rates are formidable owing to complexity and cost of the ADCs, compressive sampling approaches are becoming increasingly popular. One such approach exploited in this paper is the Modulated Wideband Converter (MWC) to recover the spectral support. On the multiple measurement vector (MMV) framework provided by the MWC, threshold based Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP) and Sparse Bayesian Learning (SBL) algorithms are employed for support recovery. We develop a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that assists a beginner to simulate the RF front-end of a MWC and thereby enables the user to explore support recovery as a function of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), number of measurement vectors and threshold. The GUI enables the user to explore spectrum sensing in DVB-T, 3G and 4G bands and recovers the support using OMP or SBL approach. The results show that the performance of SBL is better than that of OMP at a lower SNR values.
Zhu, Xiaofeng, Huang, Liang, Wang, Ziqian.  2019.  Dynamic range analysis of one-bit compressive sampling with time-varying thresholds. The Journal of Engineering. 2019:6608–6611.
From the point of view of statistical signal processing, the dynamic range for one-bit quantisers with time-varying thresholds is studied. Maximum tolerable amplitudes, minimum detectable amplitudes and dynamic ranges of this one-bit sampling approach and uniform quantisers, such as N-bits analogue-to-digital converters (ADCs), are derived and simulated. The results reveal that like conventional ADCs, the dynamic ranges of one-bit sampling approach are linearly proportional to the Gaussian noise standard deviations, while one-bit sampling's dynamic ranges are lower than N-bits ADC under the same noise levels.
Anselmi, Nicola, Poli, Lorenzo, Oliveri, Giacomo, Rocca, Paolo, Massa, Andrea.  2019.  Dealing with Correlation and Sparsity for an Effective Exploitation of the Compressive Processing in Electromagnetic Inverse Problems. 2019 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP). :1–4.
In this paper, a novel method for tomographic microwave imaging based on the Compressive Processing (CP) paradigm is proposed. The retrieval of the dielectric profiles of the scatterers is carried out by efficiently solving both the sampling and the sensing problems suitably formulated under the first order Born approximation. Selected numerical results are presented in order to show the improvements provided by the CP with respect to conventional compressive sensing (CSE) approaches.
Wang, Lizhi, Xiong, Zhiwei, Huang, Hua, Shi, Guangming, Wu, Feng, Zeng, Wenjun.  2019.  High-Speed Hyperspectral Video Acquisition By Combining Nyquist and Compressive Sampling. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. 41:857–870.
We propose a novel hybrid imaging system to acquire 4D high-speed hyperspectral (HSHS) videos with high spatial and spectral resolution. The proposed system consists of two branches: one branch performs Nyquist sampling in the temporal dimension while integrating the whole spectrum, resulting in a high-frame-rate panchromatic video; the other branch performs compressive sampling in the spectral dimension with longer exposures, resulting in a low-frame-rate hyperspectral video. Owing to the high light throughput and complementary sampling, these two branches jointly provide reliable measurements for recovering the underlying HSHS video. Moreover, the panchromatic video can be used to learn an over-complete 3D dictionary to represent each band-wise video sparsely, thanks to the inherent structural similarity in the spectral dimension. Based on the joint measurements and the self-adaptive dictionary, we further propose a simultaneous spectral sparse (3S) model to reinforce the structural similarity across different bands and develop an efficient computational reconstruction algorithm to recover the HSHS video. Both simulation and hardware experiments validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that hyperspectral videos can be acquired at a frame rate up to 100fps with commodity optical elements and under ordinary indoor illumination.
Feng, Qi, Huang, Jianjun, Yang, Zhaocheng.  2019.  Jointly Optimized Target Detection and Tracking Using Compressive Samples. IEEE Access. 7:73675–73684.
In this paper, we consider the problem of joint target detection and tracking in compressive sampling and processing (CSP-JDT). CSP can process the compressive samples of sparse signals directly without signal reconstruction, which is suitable for handling high-resolution radar signals. However, in CSP, the radar target detection and tracking problems are usually solved separately or by a two-stage strategy, which cannot obtain a globally optimal solution. To jointly optimize the target detection and tracking performance and inspired by the optimal Bayes joint decision and estimation (JDE) framework, a jointly optimized target detection and tracking algorithm in CSP is proposed. Since detection and tracking are highly correlated, we first develop a measurement matrix construction method to acquire the compressive samples, and then a joint CSP Bayesian approach is developed for target detection and tracking. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the two-stage algorithms in terms of the joint performance metric.