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2021-03-29
Begaj, S., Topal, A. O., Ali, M..  2020.  Emotion Recognition Based on Facial Expressions Using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). 2020 International Conference on Computing, Networking, Telecommunications Engineering Sciences Applications (CoNTESA). :58—63.

Over the last few years, there has been an increasing number of studies about facial emotion recognition because of the importance and the impact that it has in the interaction of humans with computers. With the growing number of challenging datasets, the application of deep learning techniques have all become necessary. In this paper, we study the challenges of Emotion Recognition Datasets and we also try different parameters and architectures of the Conventional Neural Networks (CNNs) in order to detect the seven emotions in human faces, such as: anger, fear, disgust, contempt, happiness, sadness and surprise. We have chosen iCV MEFED (Multi-Emotion Facial Expression Dataset) as the main dataset for our study, which is relatively new, interesting and very challenging.

Singh, S., Nasoz, F..  2020.  Facial Expression Recognition with Convolutional Neural Networks. 2020 10th Annual Computing and Communication Workshop and Conference (CCWC). :0324—0328.

Emotions are a powerful tool in communication and one way that humans show their emotions is through their facial expressions. One of the challenging and powerful tasks in social communications is facial expression recognition, as in non-verbal communication, facial expressions are key. In the field of Artificial Intelligence, Facial Expression Recognition (FER) is an active research area, with several recent studies using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In this paper, we demonstrate the classification of FER based on static images, using CNNs, without requiring any pre-processing or feature extraction tasks. The paper also illustrates techniques to improve future accuracy in this area by using pre-processing, which includes face detection and illumination correction. Feature extraction is used to extract the most prominent parts of the face, including the jaw, mouth, eyes, nose, and eyebrows. Furthermore, we also discuss the literature review and present our CNN architecture, and the challenges of using max-pooling and dropout, which eventually aided in better performance. We obtained a test accuracy of 61.7% on FER2013 in a seven-classes classification task compared to 75.2% in state-of-the-art classification.

Pranav, E., Kamal, S., Chandran, C. Satheesh, Supriya, M. H..  2020.  Facial Emotion Recognition Using Deep Convolutional Neural Network. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :317—320.

The rapid growth of artificial intelligence has contributed a lot to the technology world. As the traditional algorithms failed to meet the human needs in real time, Machine learning and deep learning algorithms have gained great success in different applications such as classification systems, recommendation systems, pattern recognition etc. Emotion plays a vital role in determining the thoughts, behaviour and feeling of a human. An emotion recognition system can be built by utilizing the benefits of deep learning and different applications such as feedback analysis, face unlocking etc. can be implemented with good accuracy. The main focus of this work is to create a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) model that classifies 5 different human facial emotions. The model is trained, tested and validated using the manually collected image dataset.

John, A., MC, A., Ajayan, A. S., Sanoop, S., Kumar, V. R..  2020.  Real-Time Facial Emotion Recognition System With Improved Preprocessing and Feature Extraction. 2020 Third International Conference on Smart Systems and Inventive Technology (ICSSIT). :1328—1333.

Human emotion recognition plays a vital role in interpersonal communication and human-machine interaction domain. Emotions are expressed through speech, hand gestures and by the movements of other body parts and through facial expression. Facial emotions are one of the most important factors in human communication that help us to understand, what the other person is trying to communicate. People understand only one-third of the message verbally, and two-third of it is through non-verbal means. There are many face emotion recognition (FER) systems present right now, but in real-life scenarios, they do not perform efficiently. Though there are many which claim to be a near-perfect system and to achieve the results in favourable and optimal conditions. The wide variety of expressions shown by people and the diversity in facial features of different people will not aid in the process of coming up with a system that is definite in nature. Hence developing a reliable system without any flaws showed by the existing systems is a challenging task. This paper aims to build an enhanced system that can analyse the exact facial expression of a user at that particular time and generate the corresponding emotion. Datasets like JAFFE and FER2013 were used for performance analysis. Pre-processing methods like facial landmark and HOG were incorporated into a convolutional neural network (CNN), and this has achieved good accuracy when compared with the already existing models.

Oğuz, K., Korkmaz, İ, Korkmaz, B., Akkaya, G., Alıcı, C., Kılıç, E..  2020.  Effect of Age and Gender on Facial Emotion Recognition. 2020 Innovations in Intelligent Systems and Applications Conference (ASYU). :1—6.

New research fields and applications on human computer interaction will emerge based on the recognition of emotions on faces. With such aim, our study evaluates the features extracted from faces to recognize emotions. To increase the success rate of these features, we have run several tests to demonstrate how age and gender affect the results. The artificial neural networks were trained by the apparent regions on the face such as eyes, eyebrows, nose, mouth, and jawline and then the networks are tested with different age and gender groups. According to the results, faces of older people have a lower performance rate of emotion recognition. Then, age and gender based groups are created manually, and we show that performance rates of facial emotion recognition have increased for the networks that are trained using these particular groups.

Ozdemir, M. A., Elagoz, B., Soy, A. Alaybeyoglu, Akan, A..  2020.  Deep Learning Based Facial Emotion Recognition System. 2020 Medical Technologies Congress (TIPTEKNO). :1—4.

In this study, it was aimed to recognize the emotional state from facial images using the deep learning method. In the study, which was approved by the ethics committee, a custom data set was created using videos taken from 20 male and 20 female participants while simulating 7 different facial expressions (happy, sad, surprised, angry, disgusted, scared, and neutral). Firstly, obtained videos were divided into image frames, and then face images were segmented using the Haar library from image frames. The size of the custom data set obtained after the image preprocessing is more than 25 thousand images. The proposed convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture which is mimics of LeNet architecture has been trained with this custom dataset. According to the proposed CNN architecture experiment results, the training loss was found as 0.0115, the training accuracy was found as 99.62%, the validation loss was 0.0109, and the validation accuracy was 99.71%.

Jia, C., Li, C. L., Ying, Z..  2020.  Facial expression recognition based on the ensemble learning of CNNs. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC). :1—5.

As a part of body language, facial expression is a psychological state that reflects the current emotional state of the person. Recognition of facial expressions can help to understand others and enhance communication with others. We propose a facial expression recognition method based on convolutional neural network ensemble learning in this paper. Our model is composed of three sub-networks, and uses the SVM classifier to Integrate the output of the three networks to get the final result. The recognition accuracy of the model's expression on the FER2013 dataset reached 71.27%. The results show that the method has high test accuracy and short prediction time, and can realize real-time, high-performance facial recognition.

Xu, X., Ruan, Z., Yang, L..  2020.  Facial Expression Recognition Based on Graph Neural Network. 2020 IEEE 5th International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC). :211—214.

Facial expressions are one of the most powerful, natural and immediate means for human being to present their emotions and intensions. In this paper, we present a novel method for fully automatic facial expression recognition. The facial landmarks are detected for characterizing facial expressions. A graph convolutional neural network is proposed for feature extraction and facial expression recognition classification. The experiments were performed on the three facial expression databases. The result shows that the proposed FER method can achieve good recognition accuracy up to 95.85% using the proposed method.

2021-03-01
Hynes, E., Flynn, R., Lee, B., Murray, N..  2020.  An Evaluation of Lower Facial Micro Expressions as an Implicit QoE Metric for an Augmented Reality Procedure Assistance Application. 2020 31st Irish Signals and Systems Conference (ISSC). :1–6.
Augmented reality (AR) has been identified as a key technology to enhance worker utility in the context of increasing automation of repeatable procedures. AR can achieve this by assisting the user in performing complex and frequently changing procedures. Crucial to the success of procedure assistance AR applications is user acceptability, which can be measured by user quality of experience (QoE). An active research topic in QoE is the identification of implicit metrics that can be used to continuously infer user QoE during a multimedia experience. A user's QoE is linked to their affective state. Affective state is reflected in facial expressions. Emotions shown in micro facial expressions resemble those expressed in normal expressions but are distinguished from them by their brief duration. The novelty of this work lies in the evaluation of micro facial expressions as a continuous QoE metric by means of correlation analysis to the more traditional and accepted post-experience self-reporting. In this work, an optimal Rubik's Cube solver AR application was used as a proof of concept for complex procedure assistance. This was compared with a paper-based procedure assistance control. QoE expressed by affect in normal and micro facial expressions was evaluated through correlation analysis with post-experience reports. The results show that the AR application yielded higher task success rates and shorter task durations. Micro facial expressions reflecting disgust correlated moderately to the questionnaire responses for instruction disinterest in the AR application.
2020-11-02
Zhong, J., Yang, C..  2019.  A Compositionality Assembled Model for Learning and Recognizing Emotion from Bodily Expression. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Advanced Robotics and Mechatronics (ICARM). :821–826.
When we are express our internal status, such as emotions, the human body expression we use follows the compositionality principle. It is a theory in linguistic which proposes that the single components of the bodily presentation as well as the rules used to combine them are the major parts to finish this process. In this paper, such principle is applied to the process of expressing and recognizing emotional states through body expression, in which certain key features can be learned to represent certain primitives of the internal emotional state in the form of basic variables. This is done by a hierarchical recurrent neural learning framework (RNN) because of its nonlinear dynamic bifurcation, so that variables can be learned to represent different hierarchies. In addition, we applied some adaptive learning techniques in machine learning for the requirement of real-time emotion recognition, in which a stable representation can be maintained compared to previous work. The model is examined by comparing the PB values between the training and recognition phases. This hierarchical model shows the rationality of the compositionality hypothesis by the RNN learning and explains how key features can be used and combined in bodily expression to show the emotional state.
2020-06-19
Ly, Son Thai, Do, Nhu-Tai, Lee, Guee-Sang, Kim, Soo-Hyung, Yang, Hyung-Jeong.  2019.  A 3d Face Modeling Approach for in-The-Wild Facial Expression Recognition on Image Datasets. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP). :3492—3496.

This paper explores the benefits of 3D face modeling for in-the-wild facial expression recognition (FER). Since there is limited in-the-wild 3D FER dataset, we first construct 3D facial data from available 2D dataset using recent advances in 3D face reconstruction. The 3D facial geometry representation is then extracted by deep learning technique. In addition, we also take advantage of manipulating the 3D face, such as using 2D projected images of 3D face as additional input for FER. These features are then fused with that of 2D FER typical network. By doing so, despite using common approaches, we achieve a competent recognition accuracy on Real-World Affective Faces (RAF) database and Static Facial Expressions in the Wild (SFEW 2.0) compared with the state-of-the-art reports. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such a deep learning combination of 3D and 2D facial modalities is presented in the context of in-the-wild FER.

Saboor khan, Abdul, Shafi, Imran, Anas, Muhammad, Yousuf, Bilal M, Abbas, Muhammad Jamshed, Noor, Aqib.  2019.  Facial Expression Recognition using Discrete Cosine Transform Artificial Neural Network. 2019 22nd International Multitopic Conference (INMIC). :1—5.

Every so often Humans utilize non-verbal gestures (e.g. facial expressions) to express certain information or emotions. Moreover, countless face gestures are expressed throughout the day because of the capabilities possessed by humans. However, the channels of these expression/emotions can be through activities, postures, behaviors & facial expressions. Extensive research unveiled that there exists a strong relationship between the channels and emotions which has to be further investigated. An Automatic Facial Expression Recognition (AFER) framework has been proposed in this work that can predict or anticipate seven universal expressions. In order to evaluate the proposed approach, Frontal face Image Database also named as Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) is opted as input. This database is further processed with a frequency domain technique known as Discrete Cosine transform (DCT) and then classified using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). So as to check the robustness of this novel strategy, the random trial of K-fold cross validation, leave one out and person independent methods is repeated many times to provide an overview of recognition rates. The experimental results demonstrate a promising performance of this application.

Liu, Keng-Cheng, Hsu, Chen-Chien, Wang, Wei-Yen, Chiang, Hsin-Han.  2019.  Facial Expression Recognition Using Merged Convolution Neural Network. 2019 IEEE 8th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics (GCCE). :296—298.

In this paper, a merged convolution neural network (MCNN) is proposed to improve the accuracy and robustness of real-time facial expression recognition (FER). Although there are many ways to improve the performance of facial expression recognition, a revamp of the training framework and image preprocessing renders better results in applications. When the camera is capturing images at high speed, however, changes in image characteristics may occur at certain moments due to the influence of light and other factors. Such changes can result in incorrect recognition of human facial expression. To solve this problem, we propose a statistical method for recognition results obtained from previous images, instead of using the current recognition output. Experimental results show that the proposed method can satisfactorily recognize seven basic facial expressions in real time.

Keshari, Tanya, Palaniswamy, Suja.  2019.  Emotion Recognition Using Feature-level Fusion of Facial Expressions and Body Gestures. 2019 International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES). :1184—1189.

Automatic emotion recognition using computer vision is significant for many real-world applications like photojournalism, virtual reality, sign language recognition, and Human Robot Interaction (HRI) etc., Psychological research findings advocate that humans depend on the collective visual conduits of face and body to comprehend human emotional behaviour. Plethora of studies have been done to analyse human emotions using facial expressions, EEG signals and speech etc., Most of the work done was based on single modality. Our objective is to efficiently integrate emotions recognized from facial expressions and upper body pose of humans using images. Our work on bimodal emotion recognition provides the benefits of the accuracy of both the modalities.

Chen, Yuedong, Wang, Jianfeng, Chen, Shikai, Shi, Zhongchao, Cai, Jianfei.  2019.  Facial Motion Prior Networks for Facial Expression Recognition. 2019 IEEE Visual Communications and Image Processing (VCIP). :1—4.

Deep learning based facial expression recognition (FER) has received a lot of attention in the past few years. Most of the existing deep learning based FER methods do not consider domain knowledge well, which thereby fail to extract representative features. In this work, we propose a novel FER framework, named Facial Motion Prior Networks (FMPN). Particularly, we introduce an addition branch to generate a facial mask so as to focus on facial muscle moving regions. To guide the facial mask learning, we propose to incorporate prior domain knowledge by using the average differences between neutral faces and the corresponding expressive faces as the training guidance. Extensive experiments on three facial expression benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.

Yang, Jiannan, Zhang, Fan, Chen, Bike, Khan, Samee U..  2019.  Facial Expression Recognition Based on Facial Action Unit. 2019 Tenth International Green and Sustainable Computing Conference (IGSC). :1—6.

In the past few years, there has been increasing interest in the perception of human expressions and mental states by machines, and Facial Expression Recognition (FER) has attracted increasing attention. Facial Action Unit (AU) is an early proposed method to describe facial muscle movements, which can effectively reflect the changes in people's facial expressions. In this paper, we propose a high-performance facial expression recognition method based on facial action unit, which can run on low-configuration computer and realize video and real-time camera FER. Our method is mainly divided into two parts. In the first part, 68 facial landmarks and image Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) are obtained, and the feature values of action units are calculated accordingly. The second part uses three classification methods to realize the mapping from AUs to FER. We have conducted many experiments on the popular human FER benchmark datasets (CK+ and Oulu CASIA) to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

2019-12-30
Toliupa, Serhiy, Tereikovskiy, Ihor, Dychka, Ivan, Tereikovska, Liudmyla, Trush, Alexander.  2019.  The Method of Using Production Rules in Neural Network Recognition of Emotions by Facial Geometry. 2019 3rd International Conference on Advanced Information and Communications Technologies (AICT). :323–327.
The article is devoted to the improvement of neural network means of recognition of emotions on human geometry, which are defined for use in information systems of general purpose. It is shown that modern means of emotional recognition are based on the usual networks of critical disadvantage, because there is a lack of accuracy of recognition under the influence of purchased, characteristic of general-purpose information systems. It is determined that the above remarks relate to the turning of the face and the size of the image. A typical approach to overcoming this disadvantage through training is unacceptable for all protection options that are inappropriate for reasons of duration and compilation of the required training sample. It is proposed to increase the accuracy of recognition by submitting an expert data model to the neural network. An appropriate method for representing expert knowledge is developed. A feature of the method is the use of productive rules and the PNN neural network. Experimental verification of the developed solutions has been carried out. The obtained results allow to increase the efficiency of the termination and disclosure of the set of age networks, the characteristics of which are not presented in the registered statistical data.
Liu, Keng-Cheng, Hsu, Chen-Chien, Wang, Wei-Yen, Chiang, Hsin-Han.  2019.  Real-Time Facial Expression Recognition Based on CNN. 2019 International Conference on System Science and Engineering (ICSSE). :120–123.
In this paper, we propose a method for improving the robustness of real-time facial expression recognition. Although there are many ways to improve the accuracy of facial expression recognition, a revamp of the training framework and image preprocessing allow better results in applications. One existing problem is that when the camera is capturing images in high speed, changes in image characteristics may occur at certain moments due to the influence of light and other factors. Such changes can result in incorrect recognition of the human facial expression. To solve this problem for smooth system operation and maintenance of recognition speed, we take changes in image characteristics at high speed capturing into account. The proposed method does not use the immediate output for reference, but refers to the previous image for averaging to facilitate recognition. In this way, we are able to reduce interference by the characteristics of the images. The experimental results show that after adopting this method, overall robustness and accuracy of facial expression recognition have been greatly improved compared to those obtained by only the convolution neural network (CNN).
Taha, Bilal, Hatzinakos, Dimitrios.  2019.  Emotion Recognition from 2D Facial Expressions. 2019 IEEE Canadian Conference of Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE). :1–4.
This work proposes an approach to find and learn informative representations from 2 dimensional gray-level images for facial expression recognition application. The learned features are obtained from a designed convolutional neural network (CNN). The developed CNN enables us to learn features from the images in a highly efficient manner by cascading different layers together. The developed model is computationally efficient since it does not consist of a huge number of layers and at the same time it takes into consideration the overfitting problem. The outcomes from the developed CNN are compared to handcrafted features that span texture and shape features. The experiments conducted on the Bosphours database show that the developed CNN model outperforms the handcrafted features when coupled with a Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier.
Lian, Zheng, Li, Ya, Tao, Jianhua, Huang, Jian, Niu, Mingyue.  2018.  Region Based Robust Facial Expression Analysis. 2018 First Asian Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII Asia). :1–5.
Facial emotion recognition is an essential aspect in human-machine interaction. In the real-world conditions, it faces many challenges, i.e., illumination changes, large pose variations and partial or full occlusions, which cause different facial areas with different sharpness and completeness. Inspired by this fact, we focus on facial expression recognition based on partial faces in this paper. We compare contribution of seven facial areas of low-resolution images, including nose areas, mouse areas, eyes areas, nose to mouse areas, nose to eyes areas, mouth to eyes areas and the whole face areas. Through analysis on the confusion matrix and the class activation map, we find that mouth regions contain much emotional information compared with nose areas and eyes areas. In the meantime, considering larger facial areas is helpful to judge the expression more precisely. To sum up, contributions of this paper are two-fold: (1) We reveal concerned areas of human in emotion recognition. (2) We quantify the contribution of different facial parts.
Kim, Sunbin, Kim, Hyeoncheol.  2019.  Deep Explanation Model for Facial Expression Recognition Through Facial Action Coding Unit. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data and Smart Computing (BigComp). :1–4.
Facial expression is the most powerful and natural non-verbal emotional communication method. Facial Expression Recognition(FER) has significance in machine learning tasks. Deep Learning models perform well in FER tasks, but it doesn't provide any justification for its decisions. Based on the hypothesis that facial expression is a combination of facial muscle movements, we find that Facial Action Coding Units(AUs) and Emotion label have a relationship in CK+ Dataset. In this paper, we propose a model which utilises AUs to explain Convolutional Neural Network(CNN) model's classification results. The CNN model is trained with CK+ Dataset and classifies emotion based on extracted features. Explanation model classifies the multiple AUs with the extracted features and emotion classes from the CNN model. Our experiment shows that with only features and emotion classes obtained from the CNN model, Explanation model generates AUs very well.
2019-12-16
DiPaola, Steve, Yalçin, Özge Nilay.  2019.  A multi-layer artificial intelligence and sensing based affective conversational embodied agent. 2019 8th International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction Workshops and Demos (ACIIW). :91–92.

Building natural and conversational virtual humans is a task of formidable complexity. We believe that, especially when building agents that affectively interact with biological humans in real-time, a cognitive science-based, multilayered sensing and artificial intelligence (AI) systems approach is needed. For this demo, we show a working version (through human interaction with it) our modular system of natural, conversation 3D virtual human using AI or sensing layers. These including sensing the human user via facial emotion recognition, voice stress, semantic meaning of the words, eye gaze, heart rate, and galvanic skin response. These inputs are combined with AI sensing and recognition of the environment using deep learning natural language captioning or dense captioning. These are all processed by our AI avatar system allowing for an affective and empathetic conversation using an NLP topic-based dialogue capable of using facial expressions, gestures, breath, eye gaze and voice language-based two-way back and forth conversations with a sensed human. Our lab has been building these systems in stages over the years.

2018-12-03
Faria, Diego Resende, Vieira, Mario, Faria, Fernanda C.C..  2017.  Towards the Development of Affective Facial Expression Recognition for Human-Robot Interaction. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments. :300–304.

Affective facial expression is a key feature of non-verbal behavior and is considered as a symptom of an internal emotional state. Emotion recognition plays an important role in social communication: human-human and also for human-robot interaction. This work aims at the development of a framework able to recognise human emotions through facial expression for human-robot interaction. Simple features based on facial landmarks distances and angles are extracted to feed a dynamic probabilistic classification framework. The public online dataset Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces (KDEF) [12] is used to learn seven different emotions (e.g. angry, fearful, disgusted, happy, sad, surprised, and neutral) performed by seventy subjects. Offline and on-the-fly tests were carried out: leave-one-out cross validation tests using the dataset and on-the-fly tests during human-robot interactions. Preliminary results show that the proposed framework can correctly recognise human facial expressions with potential to be used in human-robot interaction scenarios.

2018-01-23
Khan, S., Ullah, K..  2017.  Smart elevator system for hazard notification. 2017 International Conference on Innovations in Electrical Engineering and Computational Technologies (ICIEECT). :1–4.

In this proposed method, the traditional elevators are upgraded in such a way that any alarming situation in the elevator can be detected and then sent to a main center where further action can be taken accordingly. Different emergency situation can be handled by implementing the system. Smart elevator system works by installing different modules inside the elevator such as speed sensors which will detect speed variations occurring above or below a certain threshold of elevator speed. The smart elevator system installed within the elevator sends a message to the emergency response center and sends an automated call as well. The smart system also includes an emotion detection algorithm which will detect emotions of the individual based on their expression in the elevator. The smart system also has a whisper detection system as well to know if someone stuck inside the elevator is alive during any hazardous situation. A broadcast signal is used as a check in the elevator system to evaluate if every part of the system is in stable state. Proposed system can completely replace the current elevator systems and become part of smart homes.

2015-05-04
Luque, J., Anguera, X..  2014.  On the modeling of natural vocal emotion expressions through binary key. Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO), 2014 Proceedings of the 22nd European. :1562-1566.

This work presents a novel method to estimate natural expressed emotions in speech through binary acoustic modeling. Standard acoustic features are mapped to a binary value representation and a support vector regression model is used to correlate them with the three-continuous emotional dimensions. Three different sets of speech features, two based on spectral parameters and one on prosody are compared on the VAM corpus, a set of spontaneous dialogues from a German TV talk-show. The regression analysis, in terms of correlation coefficient and mean absolute error, show that the binary key modeling is able to successfully capture speaker emotion characteristics. The proposed algorithm obtains comparable results to those reported on the literature while it relies on a much smaller set of acoustic descriptors. Furthermore, we also report on preliminary results based on the combination of the binary models, which brings further performance improvements.