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2019-12-16
Zhu, Yan, Yang, Shuai, Chu, William Cheng-Chung, Feng, Rongquan.  2019.  FlashGhost: Data Sanitization with Privacy Protection Based on Frequent Colliding Hash Table. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC). :90–99.
Today's extensive use of Internet creates huge volumes of data by users in both client and server sides. Normally users don't want to store all the data in local as well as keep archive in the server. For some unwanted data, such as trash, cache and private data, needs to be deleted periodically. Explicit deletion could be applied to the local data, while it is a troublesome job. But there is no transparency to users on the personal data stored in the server. Since we have no knowledge of whether they're cached, copied and archived by the third parties, or sold by the service provider. Our research seeks to provide an automatic data sanitization system to make data could be self-destructing. Specifically, we give data a life cycle, which would be erased automatically when at the end of its life, and the destroyed data cannot be recovered by any effort. In this paper, we present FlashGhost, which is a system that meets this challenge through a novel integration of cryptography techniques with the frequent colliding hash table. In this system, data will be unreadable and rendered unrecoverable by overwriting multiple times after its validity period has expired. Besides, the system reliability is enhanced by threshold cryptography. We also present a mathematical model and verify it by a number of experiments, which demonstrate theoretically and experimentally our system is practical to use and meet the data auto-sanitization goal described above.
2019-12-09
Bangalore, Laasya, Choudhury, Ashish, Patra, Arpita.  2018.  Almost-Surely Terminating Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement Revisited. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing. :295–304.

The problem of Byzantine Agreement (BA) is of interest to both distributed computing and cryptography community. Following well-known results from the distributed computing literature, BA problem in the asynchronous network setting encounters inevitable non-termination issues. The impasse is overcome via randomization that allows construction of BA protocols in two flavours of termination guarantee - with overwhelming probability and with probability one. The latter type termed as almost-surely terminating BAs are the focus of this paper. An eluding problem in the domain of almost-surely terminating BAs is achieving a constant expected running time. Our work makes progress in this direction. In a setting with n parties and an adversary with unbounded computing power controlling at most t parties in Byzantine fashion, we present two asynchronous almost-surely terminating BA protocols: With the optimal resilience of t \textbackslashtextless n3 , our first protocol runs for expected O(n) time. The existing protocols in the same setting either runs for expected O(n2) time (Abraham et al, PODC 2008) or requires exponential computing power from the honest parties (Wang, CoRR 2015). In terms of communication complexity, our construction outperforms all the known constructions that offer almost-surely terminating feature. With the resilience of t \textbackslashtextless n/3+ε for any ε \textbackslashtextgreater 0, our second protocol runs for expected O( 1 ε ) time. The expected running time of our protocol turns constant when ε is a constant fraction. The known constructions with constant expected running time either require ε to be at least 1 (Feldman-Micali, STOC 1988), implying t \textbackslashtextless n/4, or calls for exponential computing power from the honest parties (Wang, CoRR 2015). We follow the traditional route of building BA via common coin protocol that in turn reduces to asynchronous verifiable secretsharing (AVSS). Our constructions are built on a variant of AVSS that is termed as shunning. A shunning AVSS fails to offer the properties of AVSS when the corrupt parties strike, but allows the honest parties to locally detect and shun a set of corrupt parties for any future communication. Our shunning AVSS with t \textbackslashtextless n/3 and t \textbackslashtextless n 3+ε guarantee Ω(n) and respectively Ω(εt 2) conflicts to be revealed when failure occurs. Turning this shunning AVSS to a common coin protocol constitutes another contribution of our paper.

2019-09-26
Nelmiawati, Arifandi, W..  2018.  A Seamless Secret Sharing Scheme Implementation for Securing Data in Public Cloud Storage Service. 2018 International Conference on Applied Engineering (ICAE). :1-5.

Public cloud data storage services were considered as a potential alternative to store low-cost digital data in the short term. They are offered by different providers on the Internet. Some providers offer limited free plans for the users who are starting the service. However, data security concern arises when data stored are considered as a valuable asset. This study explores the usage of secret sharing scheme: Rabin's IDA and Shamir's SSA to implement a tool called dCloud for file protection stored in public cloud storage in a seamless way. It addresses data security by hiding its complexities when targeting ordinary non-technical users. The secret key is automatically generated by dCloud in a secure random way on Rabin's IDA. Shamir's SSA completes the process through dispersing the key into each of Rabin's IDA output files. Moreover, the Hash value of the original file is added to each of those output files to confirm the integrity of the file during reconstruction. Besides, the authentication key is used to communicate with all of the defined service providers during storage and reconstruction as well. It is stored into local secure key-store. By having a key to access the key-store, an ordinary non-technical user will be able to use dCloud to store and retrieve targeted file within defined public cloud storage services securely.

2019-02-14
Liu, Tianren, Vaikuntanathan, Vinod.  2018.  Breaking the Circuit-Size Barrier in Secret Sharing. Proceedings of the 50th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing. :699-708.
We study secret sharing schemes for general (non-threshold) access structures. A general secret sharing scheme for n parties is associated to a monotone function F:\0,1\n$\rightarrow$\0,1\. In such a scheme, a dealer distributes shares of a secret s among n parties. Any subset of parties T $\subseteq$ [n] should be able to put together their shares and reconstruct the secret s if F(T)=1, and should have no information about s if F(T)=0. One of the major long-standing questions in information-theoretic cryptography is to minimize the (total) size of the shares in a secret-sharing scheme for arbitrary monotone functions F. There is a large gap between lower and upper bounds for secret sharing. The best known scheme for general F has shares of size 2n-o(n), but the best lower bound is $Ømega$(n2/logn). Indeed, the exponential share size is a direct result of the fact that in all known secret-sharing schemes, the share size grows with the size of a circuit (or formula, or monotone span program) for F. Indeed, several researchers have suggested the existence of a representation size barrier which implies that the right answer is closer to the upper bound, namely, 2n-o(n). In this work, we overcome this barrier by constructing a secret sharing scheme for any access structure with shares of size 20.994n and a linear secret sharing scheme for any access structure with shares of size 20.999n. As a contribution of independent interest, we also construct a secret sharing scheme with shares of size 2Õ($\surd$n) for 2n n/2 monotone access structures, out of a total of 2n n/2$\cdot$ (1+O(logn/n)) of them. Our construction builds on recent works that construct better protocols for the conditional disclosure of secrets (CDS) problem.
2019-02-08
Bartolucci, Silvia, Bernat, Pauline, Joseph, Daniel.  2018.  SHARVOT: Secret SHARe-Based VOTing on the Blockchain. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Software Engineering for Blockchain. :30-34.

Recently, there has been a growing interest in using online technologies to design protocols for secure electronic voting. The main challenges include vote privacy and anonymity, ballot irrevocability and transparency throughout the vote counting process. The introduction of the blockchain as a basis for cryptocurrency protocols, provides for the exploitation of the immutability and transparency properties of these distributed ledgers. In this paper, we discuss possible uses of the blockchain technology to implement a secure and fair voting system. In particular, we introduce a secret share-based voting system on the blockchain, the so-called SHARVOT protocol1. Our solution uses Shamir's Secret Sharing to enable on-chain, i.e. within the transactions script, votes submission and winning candidate determination. The protocol is also using a shuffling technique, Circle Shuffle, to de-link voters from their submissions.

2019-01-31
Riazi, M. Sadegh, Koushanfar, Farinaz.  2018.  Privacy-Preserving Deep Learning and Inference. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design. :18:1–18:4.

We provide a systemization of knowledge of the recent progress made in addressing the crucial problem of deep learning on encrypted data. The problem is important due to the prevalence of deep learning models across various applications, and privacy concerns over the exposure of deep learning IP and user's data. Our focus is on provably secure methodologies that rely on cryptographic primitives and not trusted third parties/platforms. Computational intensity of the learning models, together with the complexity of realization of the cryptography algorithms hinder the practical implementation a challenge. We provide a summary of the state-of-the-art, comparison of the existing solutions, as well as future challenges and opportunities.

2018-11-14
Sakumoto, S., Kanaoka, A..  2017.  Improvement of Privacy Preserved Rule-Based Risk Analysis via Secure Multi-Party Computation. 2017 12th Asia Joint Conference on Information Security (AsiaJCIS). :15–22.

Currently, when companies conduct risk analysis of own networks and systems, it is common to outsource risk analysis to third-party experts. At that time, the company passes the information used for risk analysis including confidential information such as network configuration to third-party expert. It raises the risk of leakage and abuse of confidential information. Therefore, a method of risk analysis by using secure computation without passing confidential information of company has been proposed. Although Liu's method have firstly achieved secure risk analysis method using multiparty computation and attack tree analysis, it has several problems to be practical. In this paper, improvement of secure risk analysis method is proposed. It can dynamically reduce compilation time, enhance scale of target network and system without increasing execution time. Experimental work is carried out by prototype implementation. As a result, we achieved improved performance in compile time and enhance scale of target with equivalent performance on execution time.

2018-05-24
Pontes, Rogério, Pinto, Mário, Barbosa, Manuel, Vila\c ca, Ricardo, Matos, Miguel, Oliveira, Rui.  2017.  Performance Trade-Offs on a Secure Multi-Party Relational Database. Proceedings of the Symposium on Applied Computing. :456–461.

The privacy of information is an increasing concern of software applications users. This concern was caused by attacks to cloud services over the last few years, that have leaked confidential information such as passwords, emails and even private pictures. Once the information is leaked, the users and software applications are powerless to contain the spread of information and its misuse. With databases as a central component of applications that store almost all of their data, they are one of the most common targets of attacks. However, typical deployments of databases do not leverage security mechanisms to stop attacks and do not apply cryptographic schemes to protect data. This issue has been tackled by multiple secure databases that provide trade-offs between security, query capabilities and performance. Despite providing stronger security guarantees, the proposed solutions still entrust their data to a single entity that can be corrupted or hacked. Secret sharing can solve this problem by dividing data in multiple secrets and storing each secret at a different location. The division is done in such a way that if one location is hacked, no information can be leaked. Depending on the protocols used to divide data, functions can be computed over this data through secure protocols that do not disclose information or actually know which values are being calculated. We propose a SQL database prototype capable of offering a trade-off between security and query latency by using a different secure protocol. An evaluation of the protocols is also performed, showing that our most relaxed protocol has an improvement of 5+ on the query latency time over the original protocol.

2018-04-11
Hoang, Thang, Ozkaptan, Ceyhun D., Yavuz, Attila A., Guajardo, Jorge, Nguyen, Tam.  2017.  S3ORAM: A Computation-Efficient and Constant Client Bandwidth Blowup ORAM with Shamir Secret Sharing. Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :491–505.

Oblivious Random Access Machine (ORAM) enables a client to access her data without leaking her access patterns. Existing client-efficient ORAMs either achieve O(log N) client-server communication blowup without heavy computation, or O(1) blowup but with expensive homomorphic encryptions. It has been shown that O(log N) bandwidth blowup might not be practical for certain applications, while schemes with O(1) communication blowup incur even more delay due to costly homomorphic operations. In this paper, we propose a new distributed ORAM scheme referred to as Shamir Secret Sharing ORAM (S3ORAM), which achieves O(1) client-server bandwidth blowup and O(1) blocks of client storage without relying on costly partial homomorphic encryptions. S3ORAM harnesses Shamir Secret Sharing, tree-based ORAM structure and a secure multi-party multiplication protocol to eliminate costly homomorphic operations and, therefore, achieves O(1) client-server bandwidth blowup with a high computational efficiency. We conducted comprehensive experiments to assess the performance of S3ORAM and its counterparts on actual cloud environments, and showed that S3ORAM achieves three orders of magnitude lower end-to-end delay compared to alternatives with O(1) client communication blowup (Onion-ORAM), while it is one order of magnitude faster than Path-ORAM for a network with a moderate bandwidth quality. We have released the implementation of S3ORAM for further improvement and adaptation.

2018-02-06
Guan, Z., Si, G., Du, X., Liu, P., Zhang, Z., Zhou, Z..  2017.  Protecting User Privacy Based on Secret Sharing with Fault Tolerance for Big Data in Smart Grid. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

In smart grid, large quantities of data is collected from various applications, such as smart metering substation state monitoring, electric energy data acquisition, and smart home. Big data acquired in smart grid applications is usually sensitive. For instance, in order to dispatch accurately and support the dynamic price, lots of smart meters are installed at user's house to collect the real-time data, but all these collected data are related to user privacy. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation scheme based on secret sharing with fault tolerance in smart grid, which ensures that control center gets the integrated data without revealing user's privacy. Meanwhile, we also consider fault tolerance during the data aggregation. At last, we analyze the security of our scheme and carry out experiments to validate the results.

2018-01-16
Zouari, J., Hamdi, M., Kim, T. H..  2017.  A privacy-preserving homomorphic encryption scheme for the Internet of Things. 2017 13th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :1939–1944.

The Internet of Things is a disruptive paradigm based on the cooperation of a plethora of heterogeneous smart things to collect, transmit, and analyze data from the ambient environment. To this end, many monitored variables are combined by a data analysis module in order to implement efficient context-aware decision mechanisms. To ensure resource efficiency, aggregation is a long established solution, however it is applicable only in the case of one sensed variable. We extend the use of aggregation to the complex context of IoT by proposing a novel approach for secure cooperation of smart things while granting confidentiality and integrity. Traditional solutions for data concealment in resource constrained devices rely on hop-by-hop or end-to-end encryption, which are shown to be inefficient in our context. We use a more sophisticated scheme relying on homomorphic encryption which is not compromise resilient. We combine fully additive encryption with fully additive secret sharing to fulfill the required properties. Thorough security analysis and performance evaluation show a viable tradeoff between security and efficiency for our scheme.

Bindschaedler, Vincent, Rane, Shantanu, Brito, Alejandro E., Rao, Vanishree, Uzun, Ersin.  2017.  Achieving Differential Privacy in Secure Multiparty Data Aggregation Protocols on Star Networks. Proceedings of the Seventh ACM on Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. :115–125.

We consider the problem of privacy-preserving data aggregation in a star network topology, i.e., several untrusting participants connected to a single aggregator. We require that the participants do not discover each other's data, and the service provider remains oblivious to each participant's individual contribution. Furthermore, the final result is to be published in a differentially private manner, i.e., the result should not reveal the contribution of any single participant to a (possibly external) adversary who knows the contributions of all other participants. In other words, we require a secure multiparty computation protocol that also incorporates a differentially private mechanism. Previous solutions have resorted to caveats such as postulating a trusted dealer to distribute keys to the participants, or introducing additional entities to withhold the decryption key from the aggregator, or relaxing the star topology by allowing pairwise communication amongst the participants. In this paper, we show how to obtain a noisy (differentially private) aggregation result using Shamir secret sharing and additively homomorphic encryption without these mitigating assumptions. More importantly, while we assume semi-honest participants, we allow the aggregator to be stronger than semi-honest, specifically in the sense that he can try to reduce the noise in the differentially private result. To respect the differential privacy requirement, collusions of mutually untrusting entities need to be analyzed differently from traditional secure multiparty computation: It is not sufficient that such collusions do not reveal the data of honest participants; we must also ensure that the colluding entities cannot undermine differential privacy by reducing the amount of noise in the final result. Our protocols avoid this by requiring that no entity – neither the aggregator nor any participant – knows how much noise a participant contributes to the final result. We also ensure that if a cheating aggregator tries to influence the noise term in the differentially private output, he can be detected with overwhelming probability.

2017-10-25
Chefranov, Alexander G., Narimani, Amir.  2016.  Participant Authenticating, Error Detecting, and 100% Multiple Errors Repairing Chang-Chen-Wang's Secret Sharing Method Enhancement. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks. :112–115.

Chang-Chen-Wang's (3,n) Secret grayscale image Sharing between n grayscale cover images method with participant Authentication and damaged pixels Repairing (SSAR) properties is analyzed; it restores the secret image from any three of the cover images used. We show that SSAR may fail, is not able fake participant recognizing, and has limited by 62.5% repairing ability. We propose SSAR (4,n) enhancement, SSAR-E, allowing 100% exact restoration of a corrupted pixel using any four of n covers, and recognizing a fake participant with the help of cryptographic hash functions with 5-bit values that allows better (vs. 4 bits) error detection. Using a special permutation with only one loop including all the secret image pixels, SSAR-E is able restoring all the secret image damaged pixels having just one correct pixel left. SSAR-E allows restoring the secret image to authorized parties only contrary to SSAR. The performance and size of cover images for SSAR-E are the same as for SSAR.

2017-09-19
Asghar, Hassan Jameel, Melis, Luca, Soldani, Cyril, De Cristofaro, Emiliano, Kaafar, Mohamed Ali, Mathy, Laurent.  2016.  SplitBox: Toward Efficient Private Network Function Virtualization. Proceedings of the 2016 Workshop on Hot Topics in Middleboxes and Network Function Virtualization. :7–13.

This paper presents SplitBox, an efficient system for privacy-preserving processing of network functions that are outsourced as software processes to the cloud. Specifically, cloud providers processing the network functions do not learn the network policies instructing how the functions are to be processed. First, we propose an abstract model of a generic network function based on match-action pairs. We assume that this function is processed in a distributed manner by multiple honest-but-curious cloud service providers. Then, we introduce our SplitBox system for private network function virtualization and present a proof-of-concept implementation on FastClick, an extension of the Click modular router, using a firewall as a use case. Our experimental results achieve a throughput of over 2 Gbps with 1 kB-sized packets on average, traversing up to 60 firewall rules.

2017-09-15
De Santis, Fabrizio, Bauer, Tobias, Sigl, Georg.  2016.  Hiding Higher-Order Univariate Leakages by Shuffling Polynomial Masking Schemes: A More Efficient, Shuffled, and Higher-Order Masked AES S-box. Chained Attacks, Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Workshop on Theory of Implementation Security. :17–26.

Polynomial masking is a glitch-resistant and higher-order masking scheme based upon Shamir's secret sharing scheme and multi-party computation protocols. Polynomial masking was first introduced at CHES 2011, while a 1st-order implementation of the AES S-box on FPGA was presented at CHES 2013. In this latter work, the authors showed a 2nd-order univariate leakage by side-channel collision analysis on a tuned measurement setup. This negative result motivates the need to evaluate the performance, area-costs, and security margins of combined \shuffled\ and higher-order polynomially masking schemes to counteract trivial univariate leakages. In this work, we provide the following contributions: first, we introduce additional principles for the selection of efficient addition chains, which allow for more compact and faster implementations of cryptographic S-boxes. Our 1st-order AES S-box implementation requires approximately 27% less registers, 20% less clock cycles, and 5% less random bits than the CHES 2013 implementation. Then, we propose a lightweight shuffling countermeasure, which inherently applies to polynomial masking schemes and effectively enhances their univariate security at negligible area expenses. Finally, we present the design of a \combined\ \shuffled\ \and\ higher-order polynomially masked AES S-box in hardware, while providing ASIC synthesis and side-channel analysis results in the Electro-Magnetic (EM) domain.

2017-08-18
Chefranov, Alexander G., Narimani, Amir.  2016.  Participant Authenticating, Error Detecting, and 100% Multiple Errors Repairing Chang-Chen-Wang's Secret Sharing Method Enhancement. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks. :112–115.

Chang-Chen-Wang's (3,n) Secret grayscale image Sharing between n grayscale cover images method with participant Authentication and damaged pixels Repairing (SSAR) properties is analyzed; it restores the secret image from any three of the cover images used. We show that SSAR may fail, is not able fake participant recognizing, and has limited by 62.5% repairing ability. We propose SSAR (4,n) enhancement, SSAR-E, allowing 100% exact restoration of a corrupted pixel using any four of n covers, and recognizing a fake participant with the help of cryptographic hash functions with 5-bit values that allows better (vs. 4 bits) error detection. Using a special permutation with only one loop including all the secret image pixels, SSAR-E is able restoring all the secret image damaged pixels having just one correct pixel left. SSAR-E allows restoring the secret image to authorized parties only contrary to SSAR. The performance and size of cover images for SSAR-E are the same as for SSAR.

2017-08-02
Asghar, Hassan Jameel, Melis, Luca, Soldani, Cyril, De Cristofaro, Emiliano, Kaafar, Mohamed Ali, Mathy, Laurent.  2016.  SplitBox: Toward Efficient Private Network Function Virtualization. Proceedings of the 2016 Workshop on Hot Topics in Middleboxes and Network Function Virtualization. :7–13.

This paper presents SplitBox, an efficient system for privacy-preserving processing of network functions that are outsourced as software processes to the cloud. Specifically, cloud providers processing the network functions do not learn the network policies instructing how the functions are to be processed. First, we propose an abstract model of a generic network function based on match-action pairs. We assume that this function is processed in a distributed manner by multiple honest-but-curious cloud service providers. Then, we introduce our SplitBox system for private network function virtualization and present a proof-of-concept implementation on FastClick, an extension of the Click modular router, using a firewall as a use case. Our experimental results achieve a throughput of over 2 Gbps with 1 kB-sized packets on average, traversing up to 60 firewall rules.

2017-07-24
Beimel, Amos, Gabizon, Ariel, Ishai, Yuval, Kushilevitz, Eyal.  2016.  Distribution Design. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science. :81–92.

Motivated by applications in cryptography, we introduce and study the problem of distribution design. The goal of distribution design is to find a joint distribution on \$n\$ random variables that satisfies a given set of constraints on the marginal distributions. Each constraint can either require that two sequences of variables be identically distributed or, alternatively, that the two sequences have disjoint supports. We present several positive and negative results on the existence and efficiency of solutions for a given set of constraints. Distribution design can be seen as a strict generalization of several well-studied problems in cryptography. These include secret sharing, garbling schemes, and non-interactive protocols for secure multiparty computation. We further motivate the problem and our results by demonstrating their usefulness towards realizing non-interactive protocols for ad-hoc secure multiparty computation, in which any subset of the parties may choose to participate and the identity of the participants should remain hidden to the extent possible.

De Santis, Fabrizio, Bauer, Tobias, Sigl, Georg.  2016.  Hiding Higher-Order Univariate Leakages by Shuffling Polynomial Masking Schemes: A More Efficient, Shuffled, and Higher-Order Masked AES S-box. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Workshop on Theory of Implementation Security. :17–26.

Polynomial masking is a glitch-resistant and higher-order masking scheme based upon Shamir's secret sharing scheme and multi-party computation protocols. Polynomial masking was first introduced at CHES 2011, while a 1st-order implementation of the AES S-box on FPGA was presented at CHES 2013. In this latter work, the authors showed a 2nd-order univariate leakage by side-channel collision analysis on a tuned measurement setup. This negative result motivates the need to evaluate the performance, area-costs, and security margins of combined \shuffled\ and higher-order polynomially masking schemes to counteract trivial univariate leakages. In this work, we provide the following contributions: first, we introduce additional principles for the selection of efficient addition chains, which allow for more compact and faster implementations of cryptographic S-boxes. Our 1st-order AES S-box implementation requires approximately 27% less registers, 20% less clock cycles, and 5% less random bits than the CHES 2013 implementation. Then, we propose a lightweight shuffling countermeasure, which inherently applies to polynomial masking schemes and effectively enhances their univariate security at negligible area expenses. Finally, we present the design of a \combined\ \shuffled\ \and\ higher-order polynomially masked AES S-box in hardware, while providing ASIC synthesis and side-channel analysis results in the Electro-Magnetic (EM) domain.

2017-05-30
Dolev, Shlomi, ElDefrawy, Karim, Lampkins, Joshua, Ostrovsky, Rafail, Yung, Moti.  2016.  Brief Announcement: Proactive Secret Sharing with a Dishonest Majority. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing. :401–403.

In a secret sharing scheme a dealer shares a secret s among n parties such that an adversary corrupting up to t parties does not learn s, while any t+1 parties can efficiently recover s. Over a long period of time all parties may be corrupted thus violating the threshold, which is accounted for in Proactive Secret Sharing (PSS). PSS schemes periodically rerandomize (refresh) the shares of the secret and invalidate old ones. PSS retains confidentiality even when all parties are corrupted over the lifetime of the secret, but no more than t during a certain window of time, called the refresh period. Existing PSS schemes only guarantee secrecy in the presence of an honest majority with less than n2 total corruptions during a refresh period; an adversary corrupting a single additional party, even if only passively, obtains the secret. This work is the first feasibility result demonstrating PSS tolerating a dishonest majority, it introduces the first PSS scheme secure against t passive adversaries without recovery of lost shares, it can also recover from honest faulty parties losing their shares, and when tolerating e faults the scheme tolerates t passive corruptions. A non-robust version of the scheme can tolerate t active adversaries, and mixed adversaries that control a combination of passively and actively corrupted parties that are a majority, but where less than n/2-e of such corruptions are active. We achieve these high thresholds with O(n4) communication when sharing a single secret, and O(n3) communication when sharing multiple secrets in batches.

2017-05-16
Zhang, Lin, Zhang, Zhenfeng, Hu, Xuexian.  2016.  UC-secure Two-Server Password-Based Authentication Protocol and Its Applications. Proceedings of the 11th ACM on Asia Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :153–164.

A two-server password-based authentication (2PA) protocol is a special kind of authentication primitive that provides additional protection for the user's password. Through a 2PA protocol, a user can distribute his low-entropy password between two authentication servers in the initialization phase and authenticate himself merely via a matching password in the login phase. No single server can learn any information about the user's password, nor impersonate the legitimate user to authenticate to the honest server. In this paper, we first formulate and realize the security definition of two-server password-based authentication in the well-known universal composability (UC) framework, which thus provides desirable properties such as composable security. We show that our construction is suitable for the asymmetric communication model in which one server acts as the front-end server interacting directly with the user and the other stays backstage. Then, we show that our protocol could be easily extended to more complicate password-based cryptographic protocols such as two-server password-authenticated key exchange (2PAKE) and two-server password-authenticated secret sharing (2PASS), which enjoy stronger security guarantees and better efficiency performances in comparison with the existing schemes.

2017-02-23
I. Mukherjee, R. Ganguly.  2015.  "Privacy preserving of two sixteen-segmented image using visual cryptography". 2015 IEEE International Conference on Research in Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (ICRCICN). :417-422.

With the advancement of technology, the world has not only become a better place to live in but have also lost the privacy and security of shared data. Information in any form is never safe from the hands of unauthorized accessing individuals. Here, in our paper we propose an approach by which we can preserve data using visual cryptography. In this paper, two sixteen segment displayed text is broken into two shares that does not reveal any information about the original images. By this process we have obtained satisfactory results in statistical and structural testes.

2015-05-05
Veugen, T., de Haan, R., Cramer, R., Muller, F..  2015.  A Framework for Secure Computations With Two Non-Colluding Servers and Multiple Clients, Applied to Recommendations. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on. 10:445-457.

We provide a generic framework that, with the help of a preprocessing phase that is independent of the inputs of the users, allows an arbitrary number of users to securely outsource a computation to two non-colluding external servers. Our approach is shown to be provably secure in an adversarial model where one of the servers may arbitrarily deviate from the protocol specification, as well as employ an arbitrary number of dummy users. We use these techniques to implement a secure recommender system based on collaborative filtering that becomes more secure, and significantly more efficient than previously known implementations of such systems, when the preprocessing efforts are excluded. We suggest different alternatives for preprocessing, and discuss their merits and demerits.

Yi-Hui Chen, Chi-Shiang Chan, Po-Yu Hsu, Wei-Lin Huang.  2014.  Tagged visual cryptography with access control. Multimedia and Expo Workshops (ICMEW), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :1-5.

Visual cryptography is a way to encrypt the secret image into several meaningless share images. Noted that no information can be obtained if not all of the shares are collected. Stacking the share images, the secret image can be retrieved. The share images are meaningless to owner which results in difficult to manage. Tagged visual cryptography is a skill to print a pattern onto meaningless share images. After that, users can easily manage their own share images according to the printed pattern. Besides, access control is another popular topic to allow a user or a group to see the own authorizations. In this paper, a self-authentication mechanism with lossless construction ability for image secret sharing scheme is proposed. The experiments provide the positive data to show the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
 

2015-05-04
Sriborrirux, W., Promsiri, P., Limmanee, A..  2014.  Multiple Secret Key Sharing Based on the Network Coding Technique for an Open Cloud DRM Service Provider. Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), 2014 IEEE 17th International Conference on. :953-959.

In this paper, we present an open cloud DRM service provider to protect the digital content's copyright. The proposed architecture enables the service providers to use an on-the fly DRM technique with digital signature and symmetric-key encryption. Unlike other similar works, our system does not keep the encrypted digital content but lets the content creators do so in their own cloud storage. Moreover, the key used for symmetric encryption are managed in an extremely secure way by means of the key fission engine and the key fusion engine. The ideas behind the two engines are taken from the works in secure network coding and secret sharing. Although the use of secret sharing and secure network coding for the storage of digital content is proposed in some other works, this paper is the first one employing those ideas only for key management while letting the content be stored in the owner's cloud storage. In addition, we implement an Android SDK for e-Book readers to be compatible with our proposed open cloud DRM service provider. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposal is feasible for the real e-Book market, especially for individual businesses.