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Dua, Amit, Barpanda, Siddharth Sekhar, Kumar, Neeraj, Tanwar, Sudeep.  2020.  Trustful: A Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure and Identity Management System. 2020 IEEE Globecom Workshops GC Wkshps. :1—6.

Modern Internet TCP uses Secure Sockets Layers (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS) for secure communication, which relies on Public Key Infrastructure (PKIs) to authenticate public keys. Conventional PKI is done by Certification Authorities (CAs), issuing and storing Digital Certificates, which are public keys of users with the users identity. This leads to centralization of authority with the CAs and the storage of CAs being vulnerable and imposes a security concern. There have been instances in the past where CAs have issued rogue certificates or the CAs have been hacked to issue malicious certificates. Motivated from these facts, in this paper, we propose a method (named as Trustful), which aims to build a decentralized PKI using blockchain. Blockchains provide immutable storage in a decentralized manner and allows us to write smart contracts. Ethereum blockchain can be used to build a web of trust model where users can publish attributes, validate attributes about other users by signing them and creating a trust store of users that they trust. Trustful works on the Web-of-Trust (WoT) model and allows for any entity on the network to verify attributes about any other entity through a trusted network. This provides an alternative to the conventional CA-based identity verification model. The proposed model has been implemented and tested for efficacy and known major security attacks.

Mane, Y. D., Khot, U. P..  2020.  A Systematic Way to Implement Private Tor Network with Trusted Middle Node. 2020 International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1—6.

Initially, legitimate users were working under a normal web browser to do all activities over the internet [1]. To get more secure service and to get protection against Bot activity, the legitimate users switched their activity from Normal web browser to low latency anonymous communication such as Tor Browser. The Traffic monitoring in Tor Network is difficult as the packets are traveling from source to destination in an encrypted fashion and the Tor network hides its identity from destination. But lately, even the illegitimate users such as attackers/criminals started their activity on the Tor browser. The secured Tor network makes the detection of Botnet more difficult. The existing tools for botnet detection became inefficient against Tor-based bots because of the features of the Tor browser. As the Tor Browser is highly secure and because of the ethical issues, doing practical experiments on it is not advisable which could affect the performance and functionality of the Tor browser. It may also affect the endanger users in situations where the failure of Tor's anonymity has severe consequences. So, in the proposed research work, Private Tor Networks (PTN) on physical or virtual machines with dedicated resources have been created along with Trusted Middle Node. The motivation behind the trusted middle node is to make the Private Tor network more efficient and to increase its performance.

Walla, Sebastian, Rossow, Christian.  2019.  MALPITY: Automatic Identification and Exploitation of Tarpit Vulnerabilities in Malware. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :590—605.
Law enforcement agencies regularly take down botnets as the ultimate defense against global malware operations. By arresting malware authors, and simultaneously infiltrating or shutting down a botnet's network infrastructures (such as C2 servers), defenders stop global threats and mitigate pending infections. In this paper, we propose malware tarpits, an orthogonal defense that does not require seizing botnet infrastructures, and at the same time can also be used to slow down malware spreading and infiltrate its monetization techniques. A tarpit is a network service that causes a client to stay busy with a network operation. Our work aims to automatically identify network operations used by malware that will block the malware either forever or for a significant amount of time. We describe how to non-intrusively exploit such tarpit vulnerabilities in malware to slow down or, ideally, even stop malware. Using dynamic malware analysis, we monitor how malware interacts with the POSIX and Winsock socket APIs. From this, we infer network operations that would have blocked when provided certain network inputs. We augment this vulnerability search with an automated generation of tarpits that exploit the identified vulnerabilities. We apply our prototype MALPITY on six popular malware families and discover 12 previously-unknown tarpit vulnerabilities, revealing that all families are susceptible to our defense. We demonstrate how to, e.g., halt Pushdo's DGA-based C2 communication, hinder SalityP2P peers from receiving commands or updates, and stop Bashlite's spreading engine.
Basyoni, Lamiaa, Erbad, Aiman, Alsabah, Mashael, Fetais, Noora, Guizani, Mohsen.  2019.  Empirical Performance Evaluation of QUIC Protocol for Tor Anonymity Network. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :635—642.
Tor's anonymity network is one of the most widely used anonymity networks online, it consists of thousands of routers run by volunteers. Tor preserves the anonymity of its users by relaying the traffic through a number of routers (called onion routers) forming a circuit. The current design of Tor's transport layer suffers from a number of problems affecting the performance of the network. Several researches proposed changes in the transport design in order to eliminate the effect of these problems and improve the performance of Tor's network. In this paper. we propose "QuicTor", an improvement to the transport layer of Tor's network by using Google's protocol "QUIC" instead of TCP. QUIC was mainly developed to eliminate TCP's latency introduced from the handshaking delays and the head-of-line blocking problem. We provide an empirical evaluation of our proposed design and compare it to two other proposed designs, IMUX and PCTCP. We show that QuicTor significantly enhances the performance of Tor's network.
Liu, Xiaohu, Li, Laiqiang, Ma, Zhuang, Lin, Xin, Cao, Junyang.  2019.  Design of APT Attack Defense System Based on Dynamic Deception. 2019 IEEE 5th International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1655—1659.
Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) attack has the characteristics of complex attack means, long duration and great harmfulness. Based on the idea of dynamic deception, the paper proposed an APT defense system framework, and analyzed the deception defense process. The paper proposed a hybrid encryption communication mechanism based on socket, a dynamic IP address generation method based on SM4, a dynamic timing selection method based on Viterbi algorithm and a dynamic policy allocation mechanism based on DHCPv6. Tests show that the defense system can dynamically change and effectively defense APT attacks.
Letychevskyi, Oleksandr, Peschanenko, Volodymyr, Radchenko, Viktor, Hryniuk, Yaroslav, Yakovlev, Viktor.  2019.  Algebraic Patterns of Vulnerabilities in Binary Code. 2019 10th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). :70–73.
This paper presents an algebraic approach for formalizing and detecting vulnerabilities in binary code. It uses behaviour algebra equations for creating patterns of vulnerabilities and algebraic matching methods for vulnerability detection. Algebraic matching is based on symbolic modelling. This paper considers a known vulnerability, buffer overflow, as an example to demonstrate an algebraic approach for pattern creation.
Sun, Xiaoyan, Dai, Jun, Liu, Peng, Singhal, Anoop, Yen, John.  2016.  Towards probabilistic identification of zero-day attack paths. 2016 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :64–72.
Zero-day attacks continue to challenge the enterprise network security defense. A zero-day attack path is formed when a multi-step attack contains one or more zero-day exploits. Detecting zero-day attack paths in time could enable early disclosure of zero-day threats. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic approach to identify zero-day attack paths and implement a prototype system named ZePro. An object instance graph is first built from system calls to capture the intrusion propagation. To further reveal the zero-day attack paths hiding in the instance graph, our system constructs an instance-graph-based Bayesian network. By leveraging intrusion evidence, the Bayesian network can quantitatively compute the probabilities of object instances being infected. The object instances with high infection probabilities reveal themselves and form the zero-day attack paths. The experiment results show that our system can effectively identify zero-day attack paths.
Liu, C., Singhal, A., Wijesekera, D..  2017.  A Layered Graphical Model for Mission Attack Impact Analysis. 2017 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :602–609.

Business or military missions are supported by hardware and software systems. Unanticipated cyber activities occurring in supporting systems can impact such missions. In order to quantify such impact, we describe a layered graphical model as an extension of forensic investigation. Our model has three layers: the upper layer models operational tasks that constitute the mission and their inter-dependencies. The middle layer reconstructs attack scenarios from available evidence to reconstruct their inter-relationships. In cases where not all evidence is available, the lower level reconstructs potentially missing attack steps. Using the three levels of graphs constructed in these steps, we present a method to compute the impacts of attack activities on missions. We use NIST National Vulnerability Database's (NVD)-Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) scores or forensic investigators' estimates in our impact computations. We present a case study to show the utility of our model.

Morrell, C., Ransbottom, J.S., Marchany, R., Tront, J.G..  2014.  Scaling IPv6 address bindings in support of a moving target defense. Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST), 2014 9th International Conference for. :440-445.

Moving target defense is an area of network security research in which machines are moved logically around a network in order to avoid detection. This is done by leveraging the immense size of the IPv6 address space and the statistical improbability of two machines selecting the same IPv6 address. This defensive technique forces a malicious actor to focus on the reconnaissance phase of their attack rather than focusing only on finding holes in a machine's static defenses. We have a current implementation of an IPv6 moving target defense entitled MT6D, which works well although is limited to functioning in a peer to peer scenario. As we push our research forward into client server networks, we must discover what the limits are in reference to the client server ratio. In our current implementation of a simple UDP echo server that binds large numbers of IPv6 addresses to the ethernet interface, we discover limits in both the number of addresses that we can successfully bind to an interface and the speed at which UDP requests can be successfully handled across a large number of bound interfaces.

Luchian, E., Terebes, R., Cremene, M..  2014.  Design and implementation of a mobile VoIP system on Android. Electronics and Telecommunications (ISETC), 2014 11th International Symposium on. :1-4.

The paper presents a secure solution that provides VoIP service for mobile users, handling both pre-call and mid-call mobility. Pre-call mobility is implemented using a presence server that acts as a DNS for the moving users. Our approach also detects any change in the attachment point of the moving users and transmits it to the peer entity by in band signaling using socket communications. For true mid-call mobility we also employ buffering techniques that store packets for the duration of the signaling procedure. The solution was implemented for Android devices and it uses ASP technology for the server part.