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Sharnagat, Lekhchand, Babu, Rajesh, Adhikari, Jayant.  2020.  Trust Evaluation for Securing Compromised data Aggregation against the Collusion Attack in WSN. 2020 Second International Conference on Inventive Research in Computing Applications (ICIRCA). :1–5.
With a storage space limit on the sensors, WSN has some drawbacks related to bandwidth and computational skills. This limited resources would reduce the amount of data transmitted across the network. For this reason, data aggregation is considered as a new process. Iterative filtration (IF) algorithms, which provide trust assessment to the various sources from which the data aggregation has been performed, are efficient in the present data aggregation algorithms. Trust assessment is done with weights from the simple average method to aggregation, which treats attack susceptibility. Iteration filter algorithms are stronger than the ordinary average, but they do not handle the current advanced attack that takes advantage of false information with many compromise nodes. Iterative filters are strengthened by an initial confidence estimate to track new and complex attacks, improving the solidity and accuracy of the IF algorithm. The new method is mainly concerned with attacks against the clusters and not against the aggregator. In this process, if an aggregator is attacked, the current system fails, and the information is eventually transmitted to the aggregator by the cluster members. This problem can be detected when both cluster members and aggregators are being targeted. It is proposed to choose an aggregator which chooses a new aggregator according to the remaining maximum energy and distance to the base station when an aggregator attack is detected. It also save time and energy compared to the current program against the corrupted aggregator node.
Mheisn, Alaa, Shurman, Mohammad, Al-Ma’aytah, Abdallah.  2020.  WSNB: Wearable Sensors with Neural Networks Located in a Base Station for IoT Environment. 2020 7th International Conference on Internet of Things: Systems, Management and Security (IOTSMS). :1—4.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system paradigm that recently introduced, which includes different smart devices and applications, especially, in smart cities, e.g.; manufacturing, homes, and offices. To improve their awareness capabilities, it is attractive to add more sensors to their framework. In this paper, we propose adding a new sensor as a wearable sensor connected wirelessly with a neural network located on the base station (WSNB). WSNB enables the added sensor to refine their labels through active learning. The new sensors achieve an average accuracy of 93.81%, which is 4.5% higher than the existing method, removing human support and increasing the life cycle for the sensors by using neural network approach in the base station.
Wang, H., Ma, L., Bai, H..  2020.  A Three-tier Scheme for Sybil Attack Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2020 5th International Conference on Computer and Communication Systems (ICCCS). :752–756.
Wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless self-organizing multi-hop network that can sense and collect the information of the monitored environment through a certain number of sensor nodes which deployed in a certain area and transmit the collected information to the client. Due to the limited power and data capacity stored by the micro sensor, it is weak in communication with other nodes, data storage and calculation, and is very vulnerable to attack and harm to the entire network. The Sybil attack is a classic example. Sybil attack refers to the attack in which malicious nodes forge multiple node identities to participate in network operation. Malicious attackers can forge multiple node identities to participate in data forwarding. So that the data obtained by the end user without any use value. In this paper, we propose a three-tier detection scheme for the Sybil node in the severe environment. Every sensor node will determine whether they are Sybil nodes through the first-level and second-level high-energy node detection. Finally, the base station determines whether the Sybil node detected by the first two stages is true Sybil node. The simulation results show that our proposed scheme significantly improves network lifetime, and effectively improves the accuracy of Sybil node detection.
Davydov, Vadim, Bezzateev, Sergey.  2018.  Secure Information Exchange in Defining the Location of the Vehicle. 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :1—5.

With the advent of the electric vehicle market, the problem of locating a vehicle is becoming more and more important. Smart roads are creating, where the car control system can work without a person - communicating with the elements on the road. The standard technologies, such as GPS, can't always accurately determine the location, and not all vehicles have a GPS-module. It is very important to build an effective secure communication protocol between the vehicle and the base stations on the road. In this paper we consider different methods of location determination, propose the improved communicating protocol between the vehicle and the base station.

Zhou, Liming, Shan, Yingzi.  2019.  Multi-branch Source Location Privacy Protection Scheme Based on Random Walk in WSNs. 2019 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Big Data Analysis (ICCCBDA). :543–547.
In many applications, source nodes send the sensing information of the monitored objects and the sinks receive the transmitted data. Considering the limited resources of sensor nodes, location privacy preservation becomes an important issue. Although many schemes are proposed to preserve source or sink location security, few schemes can preserve the location security of source nodes and sinks. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel of multi-branch source location privacy protection method based on random walk. This method hides the location of real source nodes by setting multiple proxy sources. And multiple neighbors are randomly selected by the real source node as receivers until a proxy source receives the packet. In addition, the proxy source is chosen randomly, which can prevent the attacker from obtaining the location-related data of the real source node. At the same time, the scheme sets up a branch interference area around the base station to interfere with the adversary by increasing routing branches. Simulation results describe that our scheme can efficiently protect source and sink location privacy, reduce the communication overhead, and prolong the network lifetime.
DaSilva, Gianni, Loud, Vincent, Salazar, Ana, Soto, Jeff, Elleithy, Abdelrahman.  2019.  Context-Oriented Privacy Protection in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 IEEE Long Island Systems, Applications and Technology Conference (LISAT). :1–4.
As more devices become connected to the internet and new technologies emerge to connect them, security must keep up to protect data during transmission and at rest. Several instances of security breaches have forced many companies to investigate the effectiveness of their security measures. In this paper, we discuss different methodologies for protecting data as it relates to wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Data collected from these sensors range in type from location data of an individual to surveillance for military applications. We propose a solution that protects the location of the base station and the nodes while transmitting data.
Rimjhim, Roy, Pradeep Kumar, Prakash Singh, Jyoti.  2018.  Encircling the Base Station for Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2018 3rd International Conference on Computational Systems and Information Technology for Sustainable Solutions (CSITSS). :307–312.
Location Privacy breach in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) cannot be controlled by encryption techniques as all the communications are signal based. Signal strength can be analyzed to reveal many routing information. Adversary takes advantage of this and tracks the incoming packet to know the direction of the packet. With the information of location of origin of packets, the Source is also exposed which is generating packets on sensing any object. Thus, the location of subject is exposed. For protecting such privacy breaches, routing schemes are used which create anonymization or diverts the adversary. In this paper, we are using `Dummy' packets that will be inserted into real traffic to confuse the adversary. The dummy packets are such inserted that they encircle the Sink or Base Station. These Dummy packets are send with a value of TTL (Time To Live) field such that they travel only a few hops. Since adversary starts backtracking from the Sink, it will be trapped in the dummy traffic. In our protocol, we are confusing adversary without introducing any delay in packet delivery. Adversary uses two common methods for knowing the source i.e. Traffic Analysis and Back-tracing. Mathematically and experimentally, our proposal is sound for both type of methods. Overhead is also balanced as packets will not live long.
Zhou, Liming, Shan, Yingzi, Chen, Xiaopan.  2019.  An Anonymous Routing Scheme for Preserving Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2019 IEEE 3rd Information Technology, Networking, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (ITNEC). :262-265.

Wireless sensor networks consist of various sensors that are deployed to monitor the physical world. And many existing security schemes use traditional cryptography theory to protect message content and contextual information. However, we are concerned about location security of nodes. In this paper, we propose an anonymous routing strategy for preserving location privacy (ARPLP), which sets a proxy source node to hide the location of real source node. And the real source node randomly selects several neighbors as receivers until the packets are transmitted to the proxy source. And the proxy source is randomly selected so that the adversary finds it difficult to obtain the location information of the real source node. Meanwhile, our scheme sets a branch area around the sink, which can disturb the adversary by increasing the routing branch. According to the analysis and simulation experiments, our scheme can reduce traffic consumption and communication delay, and improve the security of source node and base station.

Abdel-Fattah, F., Farhan, K. A., Al-Tarawneh, F. H., AlTamimi, F..  2019.  Security Challenges and Attacks in Dynamic Mobile Ad Hoc Networks MANETs. 2019 IEEE Jordan International Joint Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information Technology (JEEIT). :28-33.

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET for short) is a new art of wireless technology that connect a group of mobile nodes in a dynamically decentralized fashion without the need of a base station, or a centralized administration, whereas each mobile node can work as a router. MANET topology changes frequently, because of the MANET dynamically formation nature, and freely to move randomly. MANET can function as standalone or can be connected to external networks. Mobile nodes are characterized with minimal human interaction, weight, less memory, and power. Despite all the pros of MANET and the widely spreading in many and critical industries, MANET has some cons and suffers from severe security issues. In this survey we emphasize on the different types of attacks at MANET protocol stack, and show how MANET is vulnerable to those attacks.

Son, W., Jung, B. C., Kim, C., Kim, J. M..  2018.  Pseudo-Random Beamforming with Beam Selection for Improving Physical-Layer Security. 2018 Tenth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN). :382–384.
In this paper, we propose a novel pseudo-random beamforming technique with beam selection for improving physical-layer security (PLS) in a downlink cellular network where consists of a base station (BS) with Ntantennas, NMSlegitimate mobile stations (MSs), and NEeavesdroppers. In the proposed technique, the BS generates multiple candidates of beamforming matrix each of which consists of orthogonal beamforming vectors in a pseudo-random manner. Each legitimate MS opportunistically feeds back the received signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) value for all beamforming vectors to the BS. The BS transmits data to the legitimate MSs with the optimal beamforming matrix among multiple beam forming matrices that maximizes the secrecy sum-rate. Simulation results show that the proposed technique outperforms the conventional random beamforming technique in terms of the achievable secrecy sum-rate.
Joshi, V. B., Goudar, R. H..  2017.  Intrusion detection systems in MANETs using hybrid techniques. 2017 International Conference On Smart Technologies For Smart Nation (SmartTechCon). :534–538.

The use of self organized wireless technologies called as Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) has increased and these wireless devices can be deployed anywhere without any infrastructural support or without any base station, hence securing these networks and preventing from Intrusions is necessary. This paper describes a method for securing the MANETs using Hybrid cryptographic technique which uses RSA and AES algorithm along with SHA 256 Hashing technique. This hybrid cryptographic technique provides authentication to the data. To check whether there is any malicious node present, an Intrusion Detection system (IDS) technique called Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgement (EAACK) is used, which checks for the acknowledgement packets to detect any malicious node present in the system. The routing of packets is done through two protocols AODV and ZRP and both the results are compared. The ZRP protocol when used for routing provides better performance as compared to AODV.

Kumar, V., Kumar, A., Singh, M..  2017.  Boosting Anonymity in Wireless Sensor Networks. 2017 4th International Conference on Signal Processing, Computing and Control (ISPCC). :344–348.

The base station (BS) is the main device in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and used to collect data from all the sensor nodes. The information of the whole network is stored in the BS and hence it is always targeted by the adversaries who want to interrupt the operation of the network. The nodes transmit their data to the BS using multi-hop technique and hence form an eminent traffic pattern that can be easily observed by a remote adversary. The presented research aims to increase the anonymity of the BS. The proposed scheme uses a mobile BS and ring nodes to complete the above mentioned objective. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has superior outcomes as compared to the existing techniques.

Naureen, Ayesha, Zhang, Ning.  2016.  A Comparative Study of Data Aggregation Approaches for Wireless Sensor Networks. Proceedings of the 12th ACM Symposium on QoS and Security for Wireless and Mobile Networks. :125–128.

In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), data aggregation has been used to reduce bandwidth and energy costs during a data collection process. However, data aggregation, while bringing us the benefit of improving bandwidth usage and energy efficiency, also introduces opportunities for security attacks, thus reducing data delivery reliability. There is a trade-off between bandwidth and energy efficiency and achieving data delivery reliability. In this paper, we present a comparative study on the reliability and efficiency characteristics of different data aggregation approaches using both simulation studies and test bed evaluations. We also analyse the factors that contribute to network congestion and affect data delivery reliability. Finally, we investigate an optimal trade-off between reliability and efficiency properties of the different approaches by using an intermediate approach, called Multi-Aggregator based Multi-Cast (MAMC) data aggregation approach. Our evaluation results for MAMC show that it is possible to achieve reliability and efficiency at the same time.

Tombaz, S., Sang-wook Han, Ki Won Sung, Zander, J..  2014.  Energy Efficient Network Deployment With Cell DTX. Communications Letters, IEEE. 18:977-980.

Cell discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a new feature that enables sleep mode operations at base station (BS) side during the transmission time intervals when there is no traffic. In this letter, we analyze the maximum achievable energy saving of the cell DTX. We incorporate the cell DTX with a clean-slate network deployment and obtain optimal BS density for lowest energy consumption satisfying a certain quality of service requirement considering daily traffic variation. The numerical result indicates that the fast traffic adaptation capability of cell DTX favors dense network deployment with lightly loaded cells, which brings about considerable improvement in energy saving.

Manjula, R., Datta, R..  2014.  An energy-efficient routing technique for privacy preservation of assets monitored with WSN. Students' Technology Symposium (TechSym), 2014 IEEE. :325-330.

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are deployed to monitor the assets (endangered species) and report the locations of these assets to the Base Station (BS) also known as Sink. The hunter (adversary) attacks the network at one or two hops away from the Sink, eavesdrops the wireless communication links and traces back to the location of the asset to capture them. The existing solutions proposed to preserve the privacy of the assets lack in energy efficiency as they rely on random walk routing technique and fake packet injection technique so as to obfuscate the hunter from locating the assets. In this paper we present an energy efficient privacy preserved routing algorithm where the event (i.e., asset) detected nodes called as source nodes report the events' location information to the Base Station using phantom source (also known as phantom node) concept and a-angle anonymity concept. Routing is done using existing greedy routing protocol. Comparison through simulations shows that our solution reduces the energy consumption and delay while maintaining the same level of privacy as that of two existing popular techniques.