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De Abreu, Sergio.  2019.  A Feasibility Study on Machine Learning Techniques for APT Detection and Protection in VANETs. 2019 IEEE 12th International Conference on Global Security, Safety and Sustainability (ICGS3). :212—212.
It is estimated that by 2030, 1 in 4 vehicles on the road will be driverless with adoption rates increasing this figure substantially over the next few decades.
Shu-fen, NIU, Bo-bin, WANG, You-chen, WANG, Jin-feng, WANG, Jing-min, CHEN.  2019.  Efficient and Secure Proxy re-signature Message Authentication Scheme in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network. 2019 IEEE 3rd Advanced Information Management, Communicates, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :1652–1656.

In order to solve privacy protection problem in the Internet of Vehicles environment, a message authentication scheme based on proxy re-signature is proposed using elliptic curves, which realizes privacy protection by transforming the vehicle's signature of the message into the roadside unit's signature of the same message through the trusted center. And through the trusted center traceability, to achieve the condition of privacy protection, and the use of batch verification technology, greatly improve the efficiency of authentication. It is proved that the scheme satisfies unforgeability in ECDLP hard problem in the random oracle model. The efficiency analysis shows that the scheme meets the security and efficiency requirements of the Internet of Vehicles and has certain practical significance.

Arthi, A., Aravindhan, K..  2019.  Enhancing the Performance Analysis of LWA Protocol Key Agreement in Vehicular Ad hoc Network. 2019 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1070–1074.

Road accidents are challenging threat in the present scenario. In India there are 5, 01,423 road accidents in 2015. A day 400 hundred deaths are forcing to India to take car safety sincerely. The common cause for road accidents is driver's distraction. In current world the people are dominated by the tablet PC and other hand held devices. The VANET technology is a vehicle-to-vehicle communication; here the main challenge will be to deliver qualified communication during mobility. The paper proposes a standard new restricted lightweight authentication protocol utilizing key agreement theme for VANETs. Inside the planned topic, it has three sorts of validations: 1) V2V 2) V2CH; and 3) CH and RSU. Aside from this authentication, the planned topic conjointly keeps up mystery keys between RSUs for the safe communication. Thorough informal security analysis demonstrates the planned subject is skilled to guard different malicious attack. In addition, the NS2 Simulation exhibits the possibility of the proposed plan in VANET background.

Yang, Xiaodong, Liu, Rui, Wang, Meiding, Chen, Guilan.  2019.  Identity-Based Aggregate Signature Scheme in Vehicle Ad-hoc Network. 2019 4th International Conference on Mechanical, Control and Computer Engineering (ICMCCE). :1046–10463.

Vehicle ad-hoc network (VANET) is the main driving force to alleviate traffic congestion and accelerate the construction of intelligent transportation. However, the rapid growth of the number of vehicles makes the construction of the safety system of the vehicle network facing multiple tests. This paper proposes an identity-based aggregate signature scheme to protect the privacy of vehicle identity, receive messages in time and authenticate quickly in VANET. The scheme uses aggregate signature algorithm to aggregate the signatures of multiple users into one signature, and joins the idea of batch authentication to complete the authentication of multiple vehicular units, thereby improving the verification efficiency. In addition, the pseudoidentity of vehicles is used to achieve the purpose of vehicle anonymity and privacy protection. Finally, the secure storage of message signatures is effectively realized by using reliable cloud storage technology. Compared with similar schemes, this paper improves authentication efficiency while ensuring security, and has lower storage overhead.

Lekidis, Alexios, Barosan, Ion.  2019.  Model-based simulation and threat analysis of in-vehicle networks. 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS). :1–8.
Automotive systems are currently undergoing a rapid evolution through the integration of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Software Defined Networking (SDN) technologies. The main focus of this evolution is to improve the driving experience, including automated controls, intelligent navigation and safety systems. Moreover, the extremely rapid pace that such technologies are brought into the vehicles, necessitates the presence of adequate testing of new features to avoid operational errors. Apart from testing though, IoT and SDN technologies also widen the threat landscape of cyber-security risks due to the amount of connectivity interfaces that are nowadays exposed in vehicles. In this paper we present a new method, based on OMNET++, for testing new in-vehicle features and assessing security risks through network simulation. The method is demonstrated through a case-study on a Toyota Prius, whose network data are analyzed for the detection of anomalies caused from security threats or operational errors.
Xiao, Yonggang, Liu, Yanbing.  2019.  BayesTrust and VehicleRank: Constructing an Implicit Web of Trust in VANET. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 68:2850–2864.
As Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) features random topology and accommodates freely connected nodes, it is important that the cooperation among the nodes exists. This paper proposes a trust model called Implicit Web of Trust in VANET (IWOT-V) to reason out the trustworthiness of vehicles. Such that untrusted nodes can be identified and avoided when we make a decision regarding whom to follow or cooperate with. Furthermore, the performance of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications improves. The idea of IWOT-V is mainly inspired by web page ranking algorithms such as PageRank. Although there does not exist explicit link structure in VANET because of random topology and dynamic connections, social trust relationship among vehicles exists and an implicit web of trust can be derived. To accomplish the derivation, two algorithms are presented, i.e., BayesTrust and VehicleRank. They are responsible for deriving the local and global trust relationships, respectively. The simulation results show that IWOT-V can accurately identify trusted and untrusted nodes if enough local trust information is collected. The performance of IWOT-V affected by five threat models is demonstrated, and the related discussions are also given.
Eziama, Elvin, Ahmed, Saneeha, Ahmed, Sabbir, Awin, Faroq, Tepe, Kemal.  2019.  Detection of Adversary Nodes in Machine-To-Machine Communication Using Machine Learning Based Trust Model. 2019 IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology (ISSPIT). :1—6.

Security challenges present in Machine-to-Machine Communication (M2M-C) and big data paradigm are fundamentally different from conventional network security challenges. In M2M-C paradigms, “Trust” is a vital constituent of security solutions that address security threats and for such solutions,it is important to quantify and evaluate the amount of trust in the information and its source. In this work, we focus on Machine Learning (ML) Based Trust (MLBT) evaluation model for detecting malicious activities in a vehicular Based M2M-C (VBM2M-C) network. In particular, we present an Entropy Based Feature Engineering (EBFE) coupled Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model which is optimized with Binary Particle Swarm optimization technique. Based on three performance metrics, i.e., Accuracy Rate (AR), True Positive Rate (TPR), False Positive Rate (FPR), the effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated in comparison to the state-of-the-art ensemble models, such as XGBoost and Random Forest. The simulation results demonstrates the superiority of the proposed model with approximately 10% improvement in accuracy, TPR and FPR, with reference to the attacker density of 30% compared with the start-of-the-art algorithms.

Chowdhury, Abdullahi, Karmakar, Gour, Kamruzzaman, Joarder.  2019.  Trusted Autonomous Vehicle: Measuring Trust using On-Board Unit Data. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :787—792.

Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) play an essential role in ensuring safe, reliable and faster transportation with the help of an Intelligent Transportation system. The trustworthiness of vehicles in VANETs is extremely important to ensure the authenticity of messages and traffic information transmitted in extremely dynamic topographical conditions where vehicles move at high speed. False or misleading information may cause substantial traffic congestions, road accidents and may even cost lives. Many approaches exist in literature to measure the trustworthiness of GPS data and messages of an Autonomous Vehicle (AV). To the best of our knowledge, they have not considered the trustworthiness of other On-Board Unit (OBU) components of an AV, along with GPS data and transmitted messages, though they have a substantial relevance in overall vehicle trust measurement. In this paper, we introduce a novel model to measure the overall trustworthiness of an AV considering four different OBU components additionally. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated with a traffic simulation model developed by Simulation of Urban Mobility (SUMO) using realistic traffic data and considering different levels of uncertainty.

Khelifi, Hakima, Luo, Senlin, Nour, Boubakr, Moungla, Hassine.  2019.  A QoS-Aware Cache Replacement Policy for Vehicular Named Data Networks. 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM). :1—6.

Vehicular Named Data Network (VNDN) uses Named Data Network (NDN) as a communication enabler. The communication is achieved using the content name instead of the host address. NDN integrates content caching at the network level rather than the application level. Hence, the network becomes aware of content caching and delivering. The content caching is a fundamental element in VNDN communication. However, due to the limitations of the cache store, only the most used content should be cached while the less used should be evicted. Traditional caching replacement policies may not work efficiently in VNDN due to the large and diverse exchanged content. To solve this issue, we propose an efficient cache replacement policy that takes the quality of service into consideration. The idea consists of classifying the traffic into different classes, and split the cache store into a set of sub-cache stores according to the defined traffic classes with different storage capacities according to the network requirements. Each content is assigned a popularity-density value that balances the content popularity with its size. Content with the highest popularity-density value is cached while the lowest is evicted. Simulation results prove the efficiency of the proposed solution to enhance the overall network quality of service.

Sattar, Muhammad Umar, Rehman, Rana Asif.  2019.  Interest Flooding Attack Mitigation in Named Data Networking Based VANETs. 2019 International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT). :245—2454.

Nowadays network applications have more focus on content distribution which is hard to tackle in IP based Internet. Information Centric Network (ICN) have the ability to overcome this problem for various scenarios, specifically for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). Conventional IP based system have issues like mobility management hence ICN solve this issue because data fetching is not dependent on a particular node or physical location. Many initial investigations have performed on an instance of ICN commonly known as Named Data Networking (NDN). However, NDN exposes the new type of security susceptibilities, poisoning cache attack, flooding Interest attack, and violation of privacy because the content in the network is called by the name. This paper focused on mitigation of Interest flooding attack by proposing new scheme, named Interest Flooding Attack Mitigation Scheme (IFAMS) in Vehicular Named Data Network (VNDN). Simulation results depict that proposed IFAMS scheme mitigates the Interest flooding attack in the network.

Liu, Xuejie, Bing, Qi, Lu, Xinhua, Zhong, Lihong, Wei, Da, Qu, Guannan.  2019.  An Identity Privacy Protection Strategy in Vehicle Named Data Network. 2019 IEEE International Conferences on Ubiquitous Computing Communications (IUCC) and Data Science and Computational Intelligence (DSCI) and Smart Computing, Networking and Services (SmartCNS). :818—822.

Although Vehicle Named Data Network (VNDN) possess the communication benefits of Named Data Network and Vehicle Opportunity Network, it also introduces some new privacy problems, including the identity security of Data Requesters and Data Providers. Data providers in VNDN need to sign data packets directly, which will leak the identity information of the providers, while the vicinity malicious nodes can access the sensitive information of Data Requesters by analyzing the relationship between Data Requesters and the data names in Interest Packages that are sent directly in plaintext. In order to solve the above privacy problems, this paper presents an identity privacy protection strategy for Data Requesters and Data Providers in VNDN. A ring signature scheme is used to hide the correlation between the signature and the data provider and the anonymous proxy idea is used to protect the real identity of the data requester in the proposed strategy. Security Analysis and experiments in the ONE-based VNDN platform indicate that the proposed strategy is effective and practical.

Tiennoy, Sasirom, Saivichit, Chaiyachet.  2018.  Using a Distributed Roadside Unit for the Data Dissemination Protocol in VANET With the Named Data Architecture. IEEE Access. 6:32612–32623.
Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) has recently become one of the highly active research areas for wireless networking. Since VANET is a multi-hop wireless network with very high mobility and intermittent connection lifetime, it is important to effectively handle the data dissemination issue in this rapidly changing environment. However, the existing TCP/IP implementation may not fit into such a highly dynamic environment because the nodes in the network must often perform rerouting due to their inconsistency of connectivity. In addition, the drivers in the vehicles may want to acquire some data, but they do not know the address/location of such data storage. Hence, the named data networking (NDN) approach may be more desirable here. The NDN architecture is proposed for the future Internet, which focuses on the delivering mechanism based on the message contents instead of relying on the host addresses of the data. In this paper, a new protocol named roadside unit (RSU) assisted of named data network (RA-NDN) is presented. The RSU can operate as a standalone node [standalone RSU (SA-RSU)]. One benefit of deploying SA-RSUs is the improved network connectivity. This study uses the NS3 and SUMO software packages for the network simulator and traffic simulator software, respectively, to verify the performance of the RA-NDN protocol. To reduce the latency under various vehicular densities, vehicular transmission ranges, and number of requesters, the proposed approach is compared with vehicular NDN via a real-world data set in the urban area of Sathorn road in Bangkok, Thailand. The simulation results show that the RA-NDN protocol improves the performance of ad hoc communications with the increase in data received ratio and throughput and the decrease in total dissemination time and traffic load.
Ostrovskaya, Svetlana, Surnin, Oleg, Hussain, Rasheed, Bouk, Safdar Hussain, Lee, JooYoung, Mehran, Narges, Ahmed, Syed Hassan, Benslimane, Abderrahim.  2018.  Towards Multi-metric Cache Replacement Policies in Vehicular Named Data Networks. 2018 IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC). :1–7.
Vehicular Named Data Network (VNDN) uses NDN as an underlying communication paradigm to realize intelligent transportation system applications. Content communication is the essence of NDN, which is primarily carried out through content naming, forwarding, intrinsic content security, and most importantly the in-network caching. In vehicular networks, vehicles on the road communicate with other vehicles and/or infrastructure network elements to provide passengers a reliable, efficient, and infotainment-rich commute experience. Recently, different aspects of NDN have been investigated in vehicular networks and in vehicular social networks (VSN); however, in this paper, we investigate the in-network caching, realized in NDN through the content store (CS) data structure. As the stale contents in CS do not just occupy cache space, but also decrease the overall performance of NDN-driven VANET and VSN applications, therefore the size of CS and the content lifetime in CS are primary issues in VNDN communications. To solve these issues, we propose a simple yet efficient multi-metric CS management mechanism through cache replacement (M2CRP). We consider the content popularity, relevance, freshness, and distance of a node to devise a set of algorithms for selection of the content to be replaced in CS in the case of replacement requirement. Simulation results show that our multi-metric strategy outperforms the existing cache replacement mechanisms in terms of Hit Ratio.
Tahir, Muhammad Usman, Rehman, Rana Asif.  2018.  CUIF: Control of Useless Interests Flooding in Vehicular Named Data Networks. 2018 International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT). :303–308.
Now-a-days vehicular information network technology is receiving a lot of attention due to its practical as well as safety related applications. By using this technology, participating vehicles can communicate among themselves on the road in order to obtain any interested data or emergency information. In Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET), due to the fast speed of the vehicles, the traditional host centric approach (i.e. TCP/IP) fails to provide efficient and robust communication between large number of vehicles. Therefore, Named Data Network (NDN) newly proposed Internet architecture is applied in VANET, named as VNDN. In which, the vehicles can communicate with the help of content name rather than vehicle address. In this paper, we explored the concepts and identify the main packet forwarding issues in VNDN. Furthermore, we proposed a protocol, named Control of Useless Interests Flooding (CUIF) in Vehicular Named Data Network. In which, it provides the best and efficient communication environment to users while driving on the highway. CUIF scheme reduces the Interest forwarding storm over the network and control the flooding of useless packets against the direction of a Producer vehicle. Our simulation results show that CUIF scheme decreases the number of outgoing Interest packets as well as data download time in the network.
Desmoulins, Nicolas, Diop, Aïda, Rafflé, Yvan, Traoré, Jacques, Gratesac, Josselin.  2019.  Practical Anonymous Attestation-based Pseudonym Schemes for Vehicular Networks. 2019 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC). :1—8.

Vehicular communication systems increase traffic efficiency and safety by allowing vehicles to share safety-related information and location-based services. Pseudonym schemes are the standard solutions providing driver/vehicle anonymity, whilst enforcing vehicle accountability in case of liability issues. State-of-the-art PKI-based pseudonym schemes present scalability issues, notably due to the centralized architecture of certificate-based solutions. The first Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA)-based pseudonym scheme was introduced at VNC 2017, providing a decentralized approach to the pseudonym generation and update phases. The DAA-based construction leverages the properties of trusted computing, allowing vehicles to autonomously generate their own pseudonyms by using a (resource constrained) Trusted Hardware Module or Component (TC). This proposition however requires the TC to delegate part of the (heavy) pseudonym generation computations to the (more powerful) vehicle's On-Board Unit (OBU), introducing security and privacy issues in case the OBU becomes compromised. In this paper, we introduce a novel pseudonym scheme based on a variant of DAA, namely a pre-DAA-based pseudonym scheme. All secure computations in the pre-DAA pseudonym lifecycle are executed by the secure element, thus creating a secure enclave for pseudonym generation, update, and revocation. We instantiate vehicle-to-everything (V2X) with our pre-DAA solution, thus ensuring user anonymity and user-controlled traceability within the vehicular network. In addition, the pre-DAA-based construction transfers accountability from the vehicle to the user, thus complying with the many-to-many driver/vehicle relation. We demonstrate the efficiency of our solution with a prototype implementation on a standard Javacard (acting as a TC), showing that messages can be anonymously signed and verified in less than 50 ms.

Lai, Chengzhe, Ding, Yuhan.  2019.  A Secure Blockchain-Based Group Mobility Management Scheme in VANETs. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :340–345.

Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) can provide vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications for efficient and safe transportation. The vehicles features high mobility, thus undergoing frequent handovers when they are moving, which introduces the significant overload on the network entities. To address the problem, the distributed mobility management (DMM) protocol for next generation mobile network has been proposed, which can be well combined with VANETs. Although the existing DMM solutions can guarantee the smooth handovers of vehicles, the security has not been fully considered in the mobility management. Moreover, the most of existing schemes cannot support group communication scenario. In this paper, we propose an efficient and secure group mobility management scheme based on the blockchain. Specifically, to reduce the handover latency and signaling cost during authentication, aggregate message authentication code (AMAC) and one-time password (OTP) are adopted. The security analysis and the performance evaluation results show that the proposed scheme can not only enhance the security functionalities but also support fast handover authentication.

Bai, He, Wu, Cangshuai, Yang, Yuexiang, Xia, Geming, Jiang, Yue.  2019.  A Blockchain-Based Traffic Conditions and Driving Behaviors Warning Scheme in the Internet of Vehicles. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :1160–1164.

With the economic development, the number of cars is increasing, and the traffic accidents and congestion problems that follow will not be underestimated. The concept of the Internet of Vehicles is becoming popular, and demand for intelligent traffic is growing. In this paper, the warning scheme we proposed aims to solve the traffic problems. Using intelligent terminals, it is faster and more convenient to obtain driving behaviors and road condition information. The application of blockchain technology can spread information to other vehicles for sharing without third-party certification. Group signature-based authentication protocol guarantees privacy and security while ensuring identity traceability. In experiments and simulations, the recognition accuracy of driving behavior can reach up to 94.90%. The use of blockchain provides secure, distributed, and autonomous features for the solution. Compared with the traditional signature method, the group signature-based authentication time varies less with the increase of the number of vehicles, and the communication time is more stable.

Xiaoxin, LOU, Xiulan, SONG, Defeng, HE, Liming, MENG.  2019.  Secure estimation for intelligent connected vehicle systems against sensor attacks. 2019 Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :6658–6662.
Intelligent connected vehicle system tightly integrates computing, communication, and control strategy. It can increase the traffic throughput, minimize the risk of accidents and reduce the energy consumption. However, because of the openness of the vehicular ad hoc network, the system is vulnerable to cyber-attacks and may result in disastrous consequences. Hence, it is interesting in design of the connected vehicular systems to be resilient to the sensor attacks. The paper focuses on the estimation and control of the intelligent connected vehicle systems when the sensors or the wireless channels of the system are attacked by attackers. We give the upper bound of the corrupted sensors that can be corrected and design the state estimator to reconstruct the initial state by designing a closed-loop controller. Finally, we verify the algorithm for the connected vehicle system by some classical simulations.
Li, Wei, Zhang, Dongmei.  2019.  RSSI Sequence and Vehicle Driving Matrix Based Sybil Nodes Detection in VANET. 2019 IEEE 11th International Conference on Communication Software and Networks (ICCSN). :763–767.

In VANET, Sybil nodes generated by attackers cause serious damages to network protocols, resource allocation mechanisms, and reputation models. Other types of attacks can also be launched on the basis of Sybil attack, which bring more threats to VANET. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a Sybil nodes detection method based on RSSI sequence and vehicle driving matrix - RSDM. RSDM evaluates the difference between the RSSI sequence and the driving matrix by dynamic distance matching to detect Sybil nodes. Moreover, RSDM does not rely on VANET infrastructure, neighbor nodes or specific hardware. The experimental results show that RSDM performs well with a higher detection rate and a lower error rate.

Lastinec, Jan, Keszeli, Mario.  2019.  Analysis of Realistic Attack Scenarios in Vehicle Ad-Hoc Networks. 2019 7th International Symposium on Digital Forensics and Security (ISDFS). :1–6.

The pace of technological development in automotive and transportation has been accelerating rapidly in recent years. Automation of driver assistance systems, autonomous driving, increasing vehicle connectivity and emerging inter-vehicular communication (V2V) are among the most disruptive innovations, the latter of which also raises numerous unprecedented security concerns. This paper is focused on the security of V2V communication in vehicle ad-hoc networks (VANET) with the main goal of identifying realistic attack scenarios and evaluating their impact, as well as possible security countermeasures to thwart the attacks. The evaluation has been done in OMNeT++ simulation environment and the results indicate that common attacks, such as replay attack or message falsification, can be eliminated by utilizing digital signatures and message validation. However, detection and mitigation of advanced attacks such as Sybil attack requires more complex approach. The paper also presents a simple detection method of Sybil nodes based on measuring the signal strength of received messages and maintaining reputation of sending nodes. The evaluation results suggest that the presented method is able to detect Sybil nodes in VANET and contributes to the improvement of traffic flow.

Gyawali, Sohan, Qian, Yi.  2019.  Misbehavior Detection Using Machine Learning in Vehicular Communication Networks. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.

Vehicular networks are susceptible to variety of attacks such as denial of service (DoS) attack, sybil attack and false alert generation attack. Different cryptographic methods have been proposed to protect vehicular networks from these kind of attacks. However, cryptographic methods have been found to be less effective to protect from insider attacks which are generated within the vehicular network system. Misbehavior detection system is found to be more effective to detect and prevent insider attacks. In this paper, we propose a machine learning based misbehavior detection system which is trained using datasets generated through extensive simulation based on realistic vehicular network environment. The simulation results demonstrate that our proposed scheme outperforms previous methods in terms of accurately identifying various misbehavior.

Ayaida, Marwane, Messai, Nadhir, Wilhelm, Geoffrey, Najeh, Sameh.  2019.  A Novel Sybil Attack Detection Mechanism for C-ITS. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :913–918.

Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) are expected to play an important role in our lives. They will improve the traffic safety and bring about a revolution on the driving experience. However, these benefits are counterbalanced by possible attacks that threaten not only the vehicle's security, but also passengers' lives. One of the most common attacks is the Sybil attack, which is even more dangerous than others because it could be the starting point of many other attacks in C-ITS. This paper proposes a distributed approach allowing the detection of Sybil attacks by using the traffic flow theory. The key idea here is that each vehicle will monitor its neighbourhood in order to detect an eventual Sybil attack. This is achieved by a comparison between the real accurate speed of the vehicle and the one estimated using the V2V communications with vehicles in the vicinity. The estimated speed is derived by using the traffic flow fundamental diagram of the road's portion where the vehicles are moving. This detection algorithm is validated through some extensive simulations conducted using the well-known NS3 network simulator with SUMO traffic simulator.

Jiang, Qi, Zhang, Xin, Zhang, Ning, Tian, Youliang, Ma, Xindi, Ma, Jianfeng.  2019.  Two-Factor Authentication Protocol Using Physical Unclonable Function for IoV. 2019 IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC). :195–200.
As an extension of Internet of Things (IoT) in transportation sector, the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) can greatly facilitate vehicle management and route planning. With ever-increasing penetration of IoV, the security and privacy of driving data should be guaranteed. Moreover, since vehicles are often left unattended with minimum human interventions, the onboard sensors are vulnerable to physical attacks. Therefore, the physically secure authentication and key agreement (AKA) protocol is urgently needed for IoV to implement access control and information protection. In this paper, physical unclonable function (PUF) is introduced in the AKA protocol to ensure that the system is secure even if the user devices or sensors are compromised. Specifically, PUF, as a hardware fingerprint generator, eliminates the storage of any secret information in user devices or vehicle sensors. By combining password with PUF, the user device cannot be used by someone else to be successfully authenticated as the user. By resorting to public key cryptography, the proposed protocol can provide anonymity and desynchronization resilience. Finally, the elaborate security analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is free from the influence of known attacks and can achieve expected security properties, and the performance evaluation indicates the efficiency of our protocol.
Dewangan, Ruchi, Altaf, Fahiem, Maity, Soumyadev.  2019.  Certificateless Aggregate Message Authentication for Hierarchical Trusted Authority based VANET. 2019 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :429–434.
In VANET, vehicles periodically transmit beacon messages to the neighboring vehicles and the RSU. To establish the authenticity of these messages, a number of digital signature schemes have been proposed in literature. Many of these schemes enable an RSU to perform aggregate verification of the signatures to deal with high vehicle density scenarios. These schemes are either based on traditional PKC concept involving certificate management overhead or identity based cryptography having key escrow problem. Further, these schemes require the existence of OBU device which is resistant to side channel attacks. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical trusted authority privacy preserving certificateless aggregate signature scheme for VANET. In addition to providing message authentication, integrity and non-repudiation, our scheme is resistant to message forgeability attack. The proposed scheme assumes hierarchical organization of network such that vehicles operate under multiple trusted authorities (TA) which in turn are controlled by single root TA. Using our scheme, the entity could verify messages received from vehicles which operate under multiple TAs. The proposed scheme is free from key escrow problem and resistant to side channel attacks on OBU. It also possesses conditional linkability such that originator of a message could be revealed whenever required. Simulations confirm the efficient nature in terms of verification delay as compared to other well known schemes proposed in literature.
Tahir, Faiza, Nasir, Samra, Khalid, Zainab.  2019.  Privacy-Preserving Authentication Protocol based on Hybrid Cryptography for VANETs. 2019 International Conference on Applied and Engineering Mathematics (ICAEM). :80–85.
The key concerns in VANET communication are the security and privacy of the vehicles involved, but at the same time an efficient way to provide non-repudiation in the ad-hoc network is an important requirement. Most schemes proposed are using public key infrastructure (PKI) or symmetric key encryption to achieve security in VANET; both individually lack in serving the required purpose of providing privacy preservation of the involved On-Board Units (OBUs) (while still being able to offer non-repudiation) and amount to very sizeable overheads in computation. This paper proposes a privacy-preserving authentication protocol that employs hybrid cryptography, using the best features of PKI and symmetric cryptography to form a protocol that is scalable, efficient and offers services of integrity, non-repudiation, conditional privacy, and unlinkability; while still keeping the computational overhead at a reasonable level. The performance and security analysis of this scheme is provided to support the propositions.