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Aman, Muhammad Naveed, Sikdar, Biplab.  2021.  AI Based Algorithm-Hardware Separation for IoV Security. 2021 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps). :1–6.
The Internet of vehicles is emerging as an exciting application to improve safety and providing better services in the form of active road signs, pay-as-you-go insurance, electronic toll, and fleet management. Internet connected vehicles are exposed to new attack vectors in the form of cyber threats and with the increasing trend of cyber attacks, the success of autonomous vehicles depends on their security. Existing techniques for IoV security are based on the un-realistic assumption that all the vehicles are equipped with the same hardware (at least in terms of computational capabilities). However, the hardware platforms used by various vehicle manufacturers are highly heterogeneous. Therefore, a security protocol designed for IoVs should be able to detect the computational capabilities of the underlying platform and adjust the security primitives accordingly. To solve this issue, this paper presents a technique for algorithm-hardware separation for IoV security. The proposed technique uses an iterative routine and the corresponding execution time to detect the computational capabilities of a hardware platform using an artificial intelligence based inference engine. The results on three different commonly used micro-controllers show that the proposed technique can effectively detect the type of hardware platform with up to 100% accuracy.
Lin, Hua Yi, Hsieh, Meng-Yen, Li, Kuan-Ching.  2021.  A Multi-level Security Key Management Protocol Based on Dynamic M-tree Structures for Internet of Vehicles. 2021 International Symposium on Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (SPECTS). :1–5.
With the gradually popular high-speed wireless networks and 5G environments, the quality and reliability of network services will be suited for mobile vehicles. In addition to communicating information between vehicles, they can also communicate information with surrounding roadside equipment, pedestrians or traffic signs, and thus improve the road safety of passers-by.Recently, various countries have continuously invested in research on autonomous driving and unmanned vehicles. The open communication environment of the Internet of Vehicles in 5G will expose all personal information in the field of wireless networks. This research is based on the consideration of information security and personal data protection. We will focus on how to protect the real-time transmission of information between mobile vehicles to prevent from imbedding or altering important transmission information by unauthorized vehicles, drivers or passers-by participating in communications. Moreover, this research proposes a multi-level security key management agreement based on a dynamic M-tree structure for Internet of Vehicles to achieve flexible and scalable key management on large-scale Internet of Vehicles.
Xu, Qichao, Zhao, Lifeng, Su, Zhou.  2021.  UAV-assisted Abnormal Vehicle Behavior Detection in Internet of Vehicles. 2021 40th Chinese Control Conference (CCC). :7500–7505.
With advantages of low cost, high mobility, and flexible deployment, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs) are employed to efficiently detect abnormal vehicle behaviors (AVBs) in the internet of vehicles (IoVs). However, due to limited resources including battery, computing, and communication, UAVs are selfish to work cooperatively. To solve the above problem, in this paper, a game theoretical UAV incentive scheme in IoVs is proposed. Specifically, the abnormal behavior model is first constructed, where three model categories are defined: velocity abnormality, distance abnormality, and overtaking abnormality. Then, the barging pricing framework is designed to model the interactions between UAVs and IoVs, where the transaction prices are determined with the abnormal behavior category detected by UAVs. At last, simulations are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed scheme.
Luo, Baiting, Liu, Xiangguo, Zhu, Qi.  2021.  Credibility Enhanced Temporal Graph Convolutional Network Based Sybil Attack Detection On Edge Computing Servers. 2021 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV). :524—531.
The emerging vehicular edge computing (VEC) technology has the potential to bring revolutionary development to vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). However, the edge computing servers (ECSs) are subjected to a variety of security threats. One of the most dangerous types of security attacks is the Sybil attack, which can create fabricated virtual vehicles (called Sybil vehicles) to significantly overload ECSs' limited computation resources and thus disrupt legitimate vehicles' edge computing applications. In this paper, we present a novel Sybil attack detection system on ECSs that is based on the design of a credibility enhanced temporal graph convolutional network. Our approach can identify the malicious vehicles in a dynamic traffic environment while preserving the legitimate vehicles' privacy, particularly their local position information. We evaluate our proposed approach in the SUMO simulator. The results demonstrate that our proposed detection system can accurately identify most Sybil vehicles while maintaining a low error rate.
Benadla, Sarra, Merad-Boudia, Omar Rafik.  2021.  The Impact of Sybil Attacks on Vehicular Fog Networks. 2021 International Conference on Recent Advances in Mathematics and Informatics (ICRAMI). :1—6.
The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is a network that considers vehicles as intelligent machines. They interact and communicate with each other to improve the performance and safety of traffic. IoV solves certain problems, but it has some issues such as response time, which prompted researchers to propose the integration of Fog Computing into vehicular networks. In Vehicular Fog Computing (VFC), the services are provided at the edge of the network to increase data rate and reduce response time. However, in order to satisfy network users, the security and privacy of sensitive data should be guaranteed. Using pseudonyms instead of real identities is one of the techniques considered to preserve the privacy of users, however, this can push malicious vehicles to exploit such a process and launch the Sybil attack by creating several pseudonyms in order to perform various malicious activities. In this paper, we describe the Sybil attack effects on VFC networks and compare them to those in conventional networks, as well as identify the various existing methods for detecting this attack and determine if they are applicable to VFC networks.
Shah, Priyanka, Kasbe, Tanmay.  2021.  Detecting Sybil Attack, Black Hole Attack and DoS Attack in VANET Using RSA Algorithm. 2021 Emerging Trends in Industry 4.0 (ETI 4.0). :1—7.
In present scenario features like low-cost, power-efficientand easy-to-implement Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN’s) has become one of growing prospects.though, its security issues have become a popular topic of research nowadays. Specific attacks often experience the security issues as they easily combined with other attacks to destroy the network. In this paper, we discuss about detecting the particular attacks like Sybil, Black-holeand Denial of Service (DoS) attacks on WSNs. These networks are more vulnerable to them. We attempt to investigate the security measures and the applicability of the AODV protocol to detect and manage specific types of network attacks in VANET.The RSA algorithm is proposed here, as it is capable of detecting sensor nodes ormessages transmitted from sensor nodes to the base station and prevents network from being attacked by the source node. It also improves the security mechanism of the AODV protocol. This simulation set up is performed using MATLAB simulation tool
Maria Stephen, Steffie, Jaekel, Arunita.  2021.  Blockchain Based Vehicle Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks. 2021 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Workshops (IV Workshops). :1–6.
Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is a pervasive network, where vehicles communicate with nearby vehicles and infrastructure nodes, such as Road-side unit (RSU). Information sharing among vehicles is an essential component of an intelligent transportation system (ITS), but security and privacy concerns must be taken into consideration. Security of the network can be improved by granting access only to authenticated vehicles and restricting or revoking access for vehicles involved in misbehavior. In this paper, we present a novel blockchain based approach to authenticate vehicles and notify other vehicles about any unauthorized messages in real time. This helps protect other vehicles in the network from making critical decisions based on false or inaccurate information. In the proposed architecture, vehicles communicate with each other using pseudonyms or pseudo IDs and the Blockchain is used to securely maintain the real identity of all vehicles, which can be linked to the pseudo IDs if needed. The goal is to protect privacy or individual vehicles, while still ensuring accountability in case of misbehavior. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated for different vehicle and attacker densities, and results demonstrate it has lower authentication delay and communication overhead compared to existing approaches.
Mohammed, Khalid Ayoub, Abdelgader, Abdeldime M.S., Peng, Chen.  2021.  Design of a Fully Automated Adaptive Quantization Technique for Vehicular Communication System Security. 2020 International Conference on Computer, Control, Electrical, and Electronics Engineering (ICCCEEE). :1–6.
Recently, vehicular communications have been the focus of industry, research and development fields. There are many benefits of vehicular communications. It improves traffic management and put derivers in better control of their vehicles. Privacy and security protection are collective accountability in which all parties need to actively engage and collaborate to afford safe and secure communication environments. The primary objective of this paper is to exploit the RSS characteristic of physical layer, in order to generate a secret key that can securely be exchanged between legitimated communication vehicles. In this paper, secret key extraction from wireless channel will be the main focus of the countermeasures against VANET security attacks. The technique produces a high rate of bits stream while drop less amount of information. Information reconciliation is then used to remove dissimilarity of two initially extracted keys, to increase the uncertainty associated to the extracted bits. Five values are defined as quantization thresholds for the captured probes. These values are derived statistically, adaptively and randomly according to the readings obtained from the received signal strength.
Al-shareeda, Mahmood A., Alazzawi, Murtadha A., Anbar, Mohammed, Manickam, Selvakumar, Al-Ani, Ahmed K..  2021.  A Comprehensive Survey on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs). 2021 International Conference on Advanced Computer Applications (ACA). :156–160.
Vehicle Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) have recently become an active research area. This is because of its important applications in the transportation field in which vehicles have severe position during activities of daily living in persons. In this paper, the basic background of the VANET from the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs), VANET standard and VANET characteristics are discussed. Second, the architecture from components and communications of the system are presented. Then, the critical challenges and future perspectives in this field are comprehensively reviewed. This paper could serve as a guide and reference in the design and development of any new techniques for VANETs. Moreover, this paper may help researchers and developers in the selection of the main features of VANET for their goals in one single document.
Hamdi, Mustafa Maad, Yussen, Yuser Anas, Mustafa, Ahmed Shamil.  2021.  Integrity and Authentications for service security in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs): A Review. 2021 3rd International Congress on Human-Computer Interaction, Optimization and Robotic Applications (HORA). :1–7.
A main type of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) and essential infrastructure to provide a wide range of safety applications to passengers in vehicles (VANET) are established. VANETs are more popular today as they connect to a variety of invisible services. VANET protection is crucial as its potential use must not endanger the safety and privacy of its users. The safety of these VANETs is essential to safe and efficient safety systems and facilities and uncertainty continues and research in this field continues to grow rapidly. We will explain the characteristics and problems of VANETs in this paper. Also, all threats and attacks that affect integrity and authentication in VANETs will be defined. Description of researchers' work was consequently addressed as the table with the problems of the suggested method and objective.
Naqvi, Ila, Chaudhary, Alka, Rana, Ajay.  2021.  Intrusion Detection in VANETs. 2021 9th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :1–5.
Vehicular Ad hoc Networks commonly abbreviated as VANETs, are an important component of MANET. VANET refers to the group of vehicles that are interlinked to one another through wireless network. Along with technology, comes the threats. Like other wireless networks, VANETs also are vulnerable to various security threats. Security in VANETs is a major issue that attracted many researchers and academicians. One small security breach can cause a big damage in case of VANETs as in this case human lives are involved. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are employed in VANETs in order to detect and identify any malicious activity in the network. The IDS works by analysing the network and detecting any intrusions tried or made in the network so that proper steps could be taken timely to prevent damage from such activities. This paper reviews Intrusion Detection systems, classification of IDS based on various factors and then the architecture of IDS. We then reviewed some of the recent and important intrusion detection research works and then compared them with one another.
Rabari, Jeet, Kumar, Arun Raj P..  2021.  FIFA: Fighting against Interest Flooding Attack in NDN-based VANET. 2021 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :1539–1544.
A vehicular Ad-hoc network (VANET) allows groups of autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles to share information and content with each other and infrastructure. Named Data Networking (NDN) is recently proposed as one of the future internet architectures, which allows communication in network-based upon content name. It has originated from Information-centric networking (ICN). NDN-based VANET uses NDN as an underlying communication paradigm. NDN-based VANET suffers from several security attacks, one such attack is the Interest Flooding Attack (IFA) that targets the core forwarding mechanism of NDN-based VANET. This paper focuses on the detection and mitigation of IFA in NDN-based VANET. We proposed a method FIFA to detect and mitigate IFA. Our proposed method is capable of detecting normal IFA as well as a low-rate IFA. Along with that FIFA also ensures non-repudiation in networks. We have compared our proposed method with the existing mechanism to detect and mitigate IFA named IFAMS. Experiment results show that our method detects and mitigates normal IFA and low-rate IFA in the network.
Agarwal, Piyush, Matta, Priya, Sharma, Sachin.  2021.  Comparative Study of Emerging Internet-of-Things in Traffic Management System. 2021 5th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :422–428.
In recent years, the Internet-of-Things (IoT)-based traffic management system (ITMS) has attracted the attention of researchers from different fields, such as the automotive industry, academia and traffic management, due to its ability to enhance road safety and improve traffic efficiency. ITMS uses the Vehicle Ad-hoc Network (VANET) to communicate messages about traffic conditions or the event on the route to ensure the safety of the commuter. ITMS uses wireless communication technology for communication between different devices. Wireless communication has challenges to privacy and security. Challenges such as confidentiality, authentication, integrity, non-repudiation, identity, trust are major concerns of either security or privacy or both. This paper discusses the features of the traffic system, the features of the traffic management system (TMS) and the features of IoT that can be used in TMS with its challenges. Further, this paper analyses the work done in the last few years with the future scope of IoT in the TMS.
Acharya, Abiral, Oluoch, Jared.  2021.  A Dual Approach for Preventing Blackhole Attacks in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks Using Statistical Techniques and Supervised Machine Learning. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology (EIT). :230–235.
Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have the potential to improve road safety and reduce traffic congestion by enhancing sharing of messages about road conditions. Communication in VANETs depends upon a Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) that checks for message confidentiality, integrity, and authentication. One challenge that the PKI infrastructure does not eliminate is the possibility of malicious vehicles mounting a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. We present a scheme that combines statistical modeling and machine learning techniques to detect and prevent blackhole attacks in a VANET environment.Simulation results demonstrate that on average, our model produces an Area Under The Curve (ROC) and Receiver Operating Characteristics (AUC) score of 96.78% which is much higher than a no skill ROC AUC score and only 3.22% away from an ideal ROC AUC score. Considering all the performance metrics, we show that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Gradient Boosting classifier are more accurate and perform consistently better under various circumstances. Both have an accuracy of over 98%, F1-scores of over 95%, and ROC AUC scores of over 97%. Our scheme is robust and accurate as evidenced by its ability to identify and prevent blackhole attacks. Moreover, the scheme is scalable in that addition of vehicles to the network does not compromise its accuracy and robustness.
Petrenkov, Denis, Agafonov, Anton.  2021.  Anomaly Detection in Vehicle Platoon with Third-Order Consensus Control. 2021 Ural Symposium on Biomedical Engineering, Radioelectronics and Information Technology (USBEREIT). :0463–0466.
The development of autonomous connected vehicles, in particular, moving as a platoon formation, has received great attention in recent years. The autonomous movement allows to increase the efficiency of the transportation infrastructure usage, reduce the fuel consumption, improve road safety, decrease traffic congestion, and others. To maintain an optimal spacing policy in a platoon formation, it is necessary to exchange information between vehicles. The Vehicular ad hoc Network (VANET) is the key component to establish wireless vehicle-to-vehicle communications. However, vehicular communications can be affected by different security threats. In this paper, we consider the third-order consensus approach as a control strategy for the vehicle platoon. We investigate several types of malicious attacks (spoofing, message falsification) and propose an anomaly detection algorithm that allows us to detect the malicious vehicle and enhance the security of the vehicle platoon. The experimental study of the proposed approach is conducted using Plexe, a vehicular network simulator that permits the realistic simulation of platooning systems.
Hasan, Md. Mahmudul, Jahan, Mosarrat, Kabir, Shaily, Wagner, Christian.  2021.  A Fuzzy Logic-Based Trust Estimation in Edge-Enabled Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE). :1–8.
Trust estimation of vehicles is vital for the correct functioning of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) as it enhances their security by identifying reliable vehicles. However, accurate trust estimation still remains distant as existing works do not consider all malicious features of vehicles, such as dropping or delaying packets, altering content, and injecting false information. Moreover, data consistency of messages is not guaranteed here as they pass through multiple paths and can easily be altered by malicious relay vehicles. This leads to difficulty in measuring the effect of content tampering in trust calculation. Further, unreliable wireless communication of VANETs and unpredictable vehicle behavior may introduce uncertainty in the trust estimation and hence its accuracy. In this view, we put forward three trust factors - captured by fuzzy sets to adequately model malicious properties of a vehicle and apply a fuzzy logic-based algorithm to estimate its trust. We also introduce a parameter to evaluate the impact of content modification in trust calculation. Experimental results reveal that the proposed scheme detects malicious vehicles with high precision and recall and makes decisions with higher accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art.
Twardokus, Geoff, Rahbari, Hanif.  2021.  Evaluating V2V Security on an SDR Testbed. IEEE INFOCOM 2021 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS). :1–3.
We showcase the capabilities of V2Verifier, a new open-source software-defined radio (SDR) testbed for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications security, to expose the strengths and vulnerabilities of current V2V security systems based on the IEEE 1609.2 standard. V2Verifier supports both major V2V technologies and facilitates a broad range of experimentation with upper- and lower-layer attacks using a combination of SDRs and commercial V2V on-board units (OBUs). We demonstrate two separate attacks (jamming and replay) against Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) and Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) technologies, experimentally quantifying the threat posed by these types of attacks. We also use V2Verifier's open-source implementation to show how the 1609.2 standard can effectively mitigate certain types of attacks (e.g., message replay), facilitating further research into the security of V2V.
Hu, Xiaoming, Tan, Wenan, Ma, Chuang.  2020.  Comment and Improvement on Two Aggregate Signature Schemes for Smart Grid and VANET in the Learning of Network Security. 2020 International Conference on Information Science and Education (ICISE-IE). :338–341.
Smart substation and Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) are two important applications of aggregate signature scheme. Due to the large number of data collection equipment in substation, it needs security authentication and integrity protection to transmit data. Similarly, in VANET, due to limited resources, it has the needs of privacy protection and improving computing efficiency. Aggregate signature scheme can satisfy the above these needs and realize one-time verification of signature for multi-terminal data collection which can improve the performance. Aggregate signature scheme is an important technology to solve network security problem. Recently, many aggregate signature schemes are proposed which can be applied in smart grid or VANET. In this paper, we present two security analyses on two aggregate signature schemes proposed recently. By analysis, it shows that the two aggregate signature schemes do not satisfy the security property of unforgeability. A malicious user can forge a signature on any message. We also present some improved methods to solve these security problems with better performance. From security analysis to improvement of aggregate signature scheme, it is very suitable to be an instance to exhibit the students on designing of security aggregate signature scheme for network security education or course.
Ilavendhan, A., Saruladha, K..  2020.  Comparative Analysis of Various Approaches for DoS Attack Detection in VANETs. 2020 International Conference on Electronics and Sustainable Communication Systems (ICESC). :821–825.
VANET plays a vital role to optimize the journey between source and destination in the growth of smart cities worldwide. The crucial information shared between vehicles is concerned primarily with safety. VANET is a MANET sub-class network that provides a free movement and communication between the RSU and vehicles. The self organized with high mobility in VANET makes any vehicle can transmit malicious messages to some other vehicle in the network. In the defense horizon of VANETs this is a matter of concern. It is the duty of RSU to ensure the safe transmission of sensitive information across the Network to each node. For this, network access exists as the key safety prerequisite, and several risks or attacks can be experienced. The VANETs is vulnerable to a range of security attacks including masquerading, selfish node attack, Sybil attack etc. One of the main threats to network access is this Denial of Service attack. The most important research in the literature on the prevention of Denial of Service Attack in VANETs was explored in this paper. The limitations of each reviewed paper are also presented and Game theory based security model is defined in this paper.
Ali, Ikram, Lawrence, Tandoh, Omala, Anyembe Andrew, Li, Fagen.  2020.  An Efficient Hybrid Signcryption Scheme With Conditional Privacy-Preservation for Heterogeneous Vehicular Communication in VANETs. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 69:11266–11280.
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) ensure improvement in road safety and traffic management by allowing the vehicles and infrastructure that are connected to them to exchange safety messages. Due to the open wireless communication channels, security and privacy issues are a major concern in VANETs. A typical attack consists of a malicious third party intercepting, modifying and retransmitting messages. Heterogeneous vehicular communication in VANETs occurs when vehicles (only) or vehicles and other infrastructure communicate using different cryptographic techniques. To address the security and privacy issues in heterogeneous vehicular communication, some heterogeneous signcryption schemes have been proposed. These schemes simultaneously satisfy the confidentiality, authentication, integrity and non-repudiation security requirements. They however fail to properly address the efficiency with respect to the computational cost involved in unsigncrypting ciphertexts, which is often affected by the speeds at which vehicles travel in VANETs. In this paper, we propose an efficient conditional privacy-preserving hybrid signcryption (CPP-HSC) scheme that uses bilinear pairing to satisfy the security requirements of heterogeneous vehicular communication in a single logical step. Our scheme ensures the transmission of a message from a vehicle with a background of an identity-based cryptosystem (IBC) to a receiver with a background of a public-key infrastructure (PKI). Furthermore, it supports a batch unsigncryption method, which allows the receiver to speed up the process by processing multiple messages simultaneously. The security of our CPP-HSC scheme ensures the indistinguishability against adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA2) under the intractability assumption of q-bilinear Diffie-Hellman inversion (q-BDHI) problem and the existential unforgeability against adaptive chosen message attack (EUF-CMA) under the intractability assumption of q-strong Diffie-Hellman (q-SDH) problem in the random oracle model (ROM). The performance analysis indicates that our scheme has an improvement over the existing related schemes with respect to the computational cost without an increase in the communication cost.
R, Naveen, Chaitanya, N.S.V, M, Nikhil Srinivas, Vineeth, Nandhini.  2020.  Implementation of a Methodology for Detection and Prevention of Security Attacks in Vehicular Adhoc Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference for Innovation in Technology (INOCON). :1–6.
In the current generation, road accidents and security problems increase dramatically worldwide in our day to day life. In order to overcome this, Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANETs) is considered as a key element of future Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). With the advancement in vehicular communications, the attacks have also increased, and such architecture is still exposed to many weaknesses which led to numerous security threats that must be addressed before VANET technology is practically and safely adopted. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack, replay attacks and Sybil attacks are the significant security threats that affect the communication and privacy in VANET. An algorithm to detect and prevent various kinds of security attacks in VANET communication has been designed and proposed in this work. An analysis has also been done by applying four protocols on an existing scenario of real traffic simulator using OpenStreetMap and the best suitable protocol has been selected for further application. The evaluation has been done using SUMO, NS3 and Java simulation environment. Simulation results and extensive performance analysis shows that our proposed Algorithm performs well in detecting and preventing the attacks in VANET communication.
Sunny, Jerin, Sankaran, Sriram, Saraswat, Vishal.  2020.  A Hybrid Approach for Fast Anomaly Detection in Controller Area Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1–6.
Recent advancements in the field of in-vehicle network and wireless communication, has been steadily progressing. Also, the advent of technologies such as Vehicular Adhoc Networks (VANET) and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), has transformed modern automobiles into a sophisticated cyber-physical system rather than just a isolated mechanical device. Modern automobiles rely on many electronic control units communicating over the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. Although protecting the car's external interfaces is an vital part of preventing attacks, detecting malicious activity on the CAN bus is an effective second line of defense against attacks. This paper proposes a hybrid anomaly detection system for CAN bus based on patterns of recurring messages and time interval of messages. The proposed method does not require modifications in CAN bus. The proposed system is evaluated on real CAN bus traffic with simulated attack scenarios. Results obtained show that our proposed system achieved a good detection rate with fast response times.
Billah, Mohammad Masum, Khan, Niaz Ahmed, Ullah, Mohammad Woli, Shahriar, Faisal, Rashid, Syed Zahidur, Ahmed, Md Razu.  2020.  Developing a Secured and Reliable Vehicular Communication System and Its Performance Evaluation. 2020 IEEE Region 10 Symposium (TENSYMP). :60–65.
The Ad-hoc Vehicular networks (VANET) was developed through the implementation of the concepts of ad-hoc mobile networks(MANET), which is swiftly maturing, promising, emerging wireless communication technology nowadays. Vehicular communication enables us to communicate with other vehicles and Roadside Infrastructure Units (RSU) to share information pertaining to the safety system, traffic analysis, Authentication, privacy, etc. As VANETs operate in an open wireless connectivity system, it increases permeable of variant type's security issues. Security concerns, however, which are either generally seen in ad-hoc networks or utterly unique to VANET, present significant challenges. Access Control List (ACL) can be an efficient feature to solve such security issues by permitting statements to access registered specific IP addresses in the network and deny statement unregistered IP addresses in the system. To establish such secured VANETs, the License number of the vehicle will be the Identity Number, which will be assigned via a DNS server by the Traffic Certification Authority (TCA). TCA allows registered vehicles to access the nearest two or more regions. For special vehicles, public access should be restricted by configuring ACL on a specific IP. Smart-card given by TCA can be used to authenticate a subscriber by checking previous records during entry to a new network area. After in-depth analysis of Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Packet Loss Ratio (PLR), Average Delay, and Handover Delay, this research offers more secure and reliable communication in VANETs.
Mustafa, Ahmed Shamil, Hamdi, Mustafa Maad, Mahdi, Hussain Falih, Abood, Mohammed Salah.  2020.  VANET: Towards Security Issues Review. 2020 IEEE 5th International Symposium on Telecommunication Technologies (ISTT). :151–156.
The Ad-hoc vehicle networks (VANETs) recently stressed communications and networking technologies. VANETs vary from MANETs in tasks, obstacles, system architecture and operation. Smart vehicles and RSUs communicate through unsafe wireless media. By nature, they are vulnerable to threats that can lead to life-threatening circumstances. Due to potentially bad impacts, security measures are needed to recognize these VANET assaults. In this review paper of VANET security, the new VANET approaches are summarized by addressing security complexities. Second, we're reviewing these possible threats and literature recognition mechanisms. Finally, the attacks and their effects are identified and clarified and the responses addressed together.
Mershad, Khaleel, Said, Bilal.  2020.  A Blockchain Model for Secure Communications in Internet of Vehicles. 2020 IEEE/ACS 17th International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications (AICCSA). :1—6.
The wide expansion of the Internet of Things is pushing the growth of vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). Secure data communication is vital to the success and stability of the IoV and should be integrated into its various operations and aspects. In this paper, we present a framework for secure IoV communications by utilizing the High Performance Blockchain Consensus (HPBC) algorithm. Based on a previously published communication model for VANETs that uses an efficient routing protocol for transmitting packets between vehicles, we describe in this paper how to integrate a blockchain model on top of the IoV communications system. We illustrate the method that we used to implement HPBC within the IoV nodes. In order to prove the efficiency of the proposed model, we carry out extensive simulations that test the proposed model and study its overhead on the IoV network. The simulation results demonstrated the good performance of the HPBC algorithm when implemented within the IoV environment.