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Shaobu Wang, Shuai Lu, Ning Zhou, Guang Lin, Elizondo, M., Pai, M.A..  2014.  Dynamic-Feature Extraction, Attribution, and Reconstruction (DEAR) Method for Power System Model Reduction. Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on. 29:2049-2059.

In interconnected power systems, dynamic model reduction can be applied to generators outside the area of interest (i.e., study area) to reduce the computational cost associated with transient stability studies. This paper presents a method of deriving the reduced dynamic model of the external area based on dynamic response measurements. The method consists of three steps, namely dynamic-feature extraction, attribution, and reconstruction (DEAR). In this method, a feature extraction technique, such as singular value decomposition (SVD), is applied to the measured generator dynamics after a disturbance. Characteristic generators are then identified in the feature attribution step for matching the extracted dynamic features with the highest similarity, forming a suboptimal “basis” of system dynamics. In the reconstruction step, generator state variables such as rotor angles and voltage magnitudes are approximated with a linear combination of the characteristic generators, resulting in a quasi-nonlinear reduced model of the original system. The network model is unchanged in the DEAR method. Tests on several IEEE standard systems show that the proposed method yields better reduction ratio and response errors than the traditional coherency based reduction methods.

Yan, Y., Bao, W., Zhang, H., Liu, B., Xin, L..  2015.  Study of the disturbance propagation in the discrete model of power networks. 2015 5th International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies (DRPT). :2436–2441.

The study of the characteristics of disturbance propagation in the interconnected power networks is of great importance to control the spreading of disturbance and improve the security level of power systems. In this paper, the characteristics of disturbance propagation in a one-dimensional chained power network are studied from the electromechanical wave point of view. The electromechanical wave equation is built based on the discrete inertia model of power networks. The wave transfer function which can describe the variations of amplitude and the phase is derived. Then, the propagation characteristics of different frequency disturbances are analyzed. The corner frequency of the discrete inertia model is proposed. Furthermore, the frequency dispersion and local oscillation are considered and their relationships with the corner frequency are revealed as well. Computer simulations for a 50 generators chained network are carried out to verify the propagation characteristics of disturbances with different frequencies.

Hossain, M. A., Merrill, H. M., Bodson, M..  2017.  Evaluation of metrics of susceptibility to cascading blackouts. 2017 IEEE Power and Energy Conference at Illinois (PECI). :1–5.
In this paper, we evaluate the usefulness of metrics that assess susceptibility to cascading blackouts. The metrics are computed using a matrix of Line Outage Distribution Factors (LODF, or DFAX matrix). The metrics are compared for several base cases with different load levels of the Western Interconnection (WI). A case corresponding to the September 8, 2011 pre-blackout state is used to compute these metrics and relate them to the origin of the cascading blackout. The correlation between the proposed metrics is determined to check redundancy. The analysis is also used to find vulnerable and critical hot spots in the power system.
Pournaras, E., Ballandies, M., Acharya, D., Thapa, M., Brandt, B..  2018.  Prototyping Self-Managed Interdependent Networks - Self-Healing Synergies against Cascading Failures. 2018 IEEE/ACM 13th International Symposium on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems (SEAMS). :119–129.
The interconnection of networks between several techno-socio-economic sectors such as energy, transport, and communication, questions the manageability and resilience of the digital society. System interdependencies alter the fundamental dynamics that govern isolated systems, which can unexpectedly trigger catastrophic instabilities such as cascading failures. This paper envisions a general-purpose, yet simple prototyping of self-management software systems that can turn system interdependencies from a cause of instability to an opportunity for higher resilience. Such prototyping proves to be challenging given the highly interdisciplinary scope of interdependent networks. Different system dynamics and organizational constraints such as the distributed nature of interdependent networks or the autonomy and authority of system operators over their controlled infrastructure perplex the design for a general prototyping approach, which earlier work has not yet addressed. This paper contributes such a modular design solution implemented as an open source software extension of SFINA, the Simulation Framework for Intelligent Network Adaptations. The applicability of the software artifact is demonstrated with the introduction of a novel self-healing mechanism for interdependent power networks, which optimizes power flow exchanges between a damaged and a healer network to mitigate power cascading failures. Results show a significant decrease in the damage spread by self-healing synergies, while the degree of interconnectivity between the power networks indicates a tradeoff between links survivability and load served. The contributions of this paper aspire to bring closer several research communities working on modeling and simulation of different domains with an economic and societal impact on the resilience of real-world interdependent networks.
Zhao, Min, Li, Shunxin, Xiao, Dong, Zhao, Guoliang, Li, Bo, Liu, Li, Chen, Xiangyu, Yang, Min.  2019.  Consumption Ability Estimation of Distribution System Interconnected with Microgrids. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Energy Internet (ICEI). :345–350.
With fast development of distributed generation, storages and control techniques, a growing number of microgrids are interconnected with distribution networks. Microgrid capacity that a local distribution system can afford, is important to distribution network planning and microgrids well-organized integration. Therefore, this paper focuses on estimating consumption ability of distribution system interconnected with microgrids. The method to judge rationality of microgrids access plan is put forward, and an index system covering operation security, power quality and energy management is proposed. Consumption ability estimation procedure based on rationality evaluation and interactions is built up then, and requirements on multi-scenario simulation are presented. Case study on a practical distribution system design with multi-microgrids guarantees the validity and reasonableness of the proposed method and process. The results also indicate construction and reinforcement directions for the distribution network.
Ding, Yueming, Li, Kuan, Meng, Zhaoxian.  2018.  CPS Optimal Control for Interconnected Power Grid Based on Model Predictive Control. 2018 2nd IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1—9.

The CPS standard can be more objective to evaluate the effect of control behavior in each control area on the interconnected power grid. The CPS standard is derived from statistical methods emphasizing the long-term control performance of AGC, which is beneficial to the frequency control of the power grid by mutual support between the various power grids in the case of an accident. Moreover, CPS standard reduces the wear of the equipment caused by the frequent adjustment of the AGC unit. The key is to adjust the AGC control strategy to meet the performance of CPS standard. This paper proposed a dynamic optimal CPS control methodology for interconnected power systems based on model predictive control which can achieve optimal control under the premise of meeting the CPS standard. The effectiveness of the control strategy is verified by simulation examples.

Carvalho, Martha R, Bezerra, Bernardo, Dall'Orto, Celso, Carlos, Luiz, Rosenblatt, Jose, Veiga, Mario.  2018.  Methodology for determining the energy deficit penalty function for hydrothermal dispatch. 2018 Simposio Brasileiro de Sistemas Eletricos (SBSE). :1—6.
The penalization of the objective function due to energy deficits is a key element for determining the operational policy of hydroelectric reservoirs. Its definition impacts not only operations, but also system expansion. Brazil historically defined these penalties with basis on a proxy of the economic deficit cost, a value in \$/MWh obtained with aid of the Input-Output Matrix. We propose an approach where these penalties are obtained in order to minimize the operation cost and cost of rationing of the system, considering a criterion of security of supply. A case study with data from the Brazilian System illustrates its application.
Lu, X., Guan, Z., Zhou, X., Du, X., Wu, L., Guizani, M..  2019.  A Secure and Efficient Renewable Energy Trading Scheme Based on Blockchain in Smart Grid. 2019 IEEE 21st International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications; IEEE 17th International Conference on Smart City; IEEE 5th International Conference on Data Science and Systems (HPCC/SmartCity/DSS). :1839—1844.
Nowadays, with the diversification and decentralization of energy systems, the energy Internet makes it possible to interconnect distributed energy sources and consumers. In the energy trading market, the traditional centralized model relies entirely on trusted third parties. However, as the number of entities involved in the transactions grows and the forms of transactions diversify, the centralized model gradually exposes problems such as insufficient scalability, High energy consumption, and low processing efficiency. To address these challenges, we propose a secure and efficient energy renewable trading scheme based on blockchain. In our scheme, the electricity market trading model is divided into two levels, which can not only protect the privacy, but also achieve a green computing. In addition, in order to adapt to the relatively weak computing power of the underlying equipment in smart grid, we design a credibility-based equity proof mechanism to greatly improve the system availability. Compared with other similar distributed energy trading schemes, we prove the advantages of our scheme in terms of high operational efficiency and low computational overhead through experimental evaluations. Additionally, we conduct a detailed security analysis to demonstrate that our solution meets the security requirements.
Han, Y., Zhang, W., Wei, J., Liu, X., Ye, S..  2019.  The Study and Application of Security Control Plan Incorporating Frequency Stability (SCPIFS) in CPS-Featured Interconnected Asynchronous Grids. 2019 IEEE Innovative Smart Grid Technologies - Asia (ISGT Asia). :349—354.

The CPS-featured modern asynchronous grids interconnected with HVDC tie-lines facing the hazards from bulk power imbalance shock. With the aid of cyber layer, the SCPIFS incorporates the frequency stability constrains is put forwarded. When there is bulk power imbalance caused by HVDC tie-lines block incident or unplanned loads increasing, the proposed SCPIFS ensures the safety and frequency stability of both grids at two terminals of the HVDC tie-line, also keeps the grids operate economically. To keep frequency stability, the controllable variables in security control strategy include loads, generators outputs and the power transferred in HVDC tie-lines. McCormick envelope method and ADMM are introduced to solve the proposed SCPIFS optimization model. Case studies of two-area benchmark system verify the safety and economical benefits of the SCPFS. HVDC tie-line transferred power can take the advantage of low cost generator resource of both sides utmost and avoid the load shedding via tuning the power transferred through the operating tie-lines, thus the operation of both connected asynchronous grids is within the limit of frequency stability domain.