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Shaout, A., Schmidt, N..  2020.  Keystroke Identifier Using Fuzzy Logic to Increase Password Security. 2020 21st International Arab Conference on Information Technology (ACIT). :1—8.

Cybersecurity is a major issue today. It is predicted that cybercrime will cost the world \$6 trillion annually by 2021. It is important to make logins secure as well as to make advances in security in order to catch cybercriminals. This paper will design and create a device that will use Fuzzy logic to identify a person by the rhythm and frequency of their typing. The device will take data from a user from a normal password entry session. This data will be used to make a Fuzzy system that will be able to identify the user by their typing speed. An application of this project could be used to make a more secure log-in system for a user. The log-in system would not only check that the correct password was entered but also that the rhythm of how the password was typed matched the user. Another application of this system could be used to help catch cybercriminals. A cybercriminal may have a certain rhythm at which they type at and this could be used like a fingerprint to help officials locate cybercriminals.

Tanana, D., Tanana, G..  2020.  Advanced Behavior-Based Technique for Cryptojacking Malware Detection. 2020 14th International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication Systems (ICSPCS). :1—4.
With rising value and popularity of cryptocurrencies, they inevitably attract cybercriminals seeking illicit profits within blockchain ecosystem. Two of the most popular methods are ransomware and cryptojacking. Ransomware, being the first and more obvious threat has been extensively studied in the past. Unlike that, scientists have often neglected cryptojacking, because it’s less obvious and less harmful than ransomware. In this paper, we’d like to propose enhanced detection program to combat cryptojacking, additionally briefly touching history of cryptojacking, also known as malicious mining and reviewing most notable previous attempts to detect and combat cryptojacking. The review would include out previous work on malicious mining detection and our current detection program is based on its previous iteration, which mostly used CPU usage heuristics to detect cryptojacking. However, we will include additional metrics for malicious mining detection, such as network usage and calls to cryptographic libraries, which result in a 93% detection rate against the selected number of cryptojacking samples, compared to 81% rate achieved in previous work. Finally, we’ll discuss generalization of proposed detection technique to include GPU cryptojackers.
Tanana, D..  2020.  Behavior-Based Detection of Cryptojacking Malware. 2020 Ural Symposium on Biomedical Engineering, Radioelectronics and Information Technology (USBEREIT). :0543—0545.
With rise of cryptocurrency popularity and value, more and more cybercriminals seek to profit using that new technology. Most common ways to obtain illegitimate profit using cryptocurrencies are ransomware and cryptojacking also known as malicious mining. And while ransomware is well-known and well-studied threat which is obvious by design, cryptojacking is often neglected because it's less harmful and much harder to detect. This article considers question of cryptojacking detection. Brief history and definition of cryptojacking are described as well as reasons for designing custom detection technique. We also propose complex detection technique based on CPU load by an application, which can be applied to both browser-based and executable-type cryptojacking samples. Prototype detection program based on our technique was designed using decision tree algorithm. The program was tested in a controlled virtual machine environment and achieved 82% success rate against selected number of cryptojacking samples. Finally, we'll discuss generalization of proposed technique for future work.
Zeid, R. B., Moubarak, J., Bassil, C..  2020.  Investigating The Darknet. 2020 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (IWCMC). :727—732.

Cybercrime is growing dramatically in the technological world nowadays. World Wide Web criminals exploit the personal information of internet users and use them to their advantage. Unethical users leverage the dark web to buy and sell illegal products or services and sometimes they manage to gain access to classified government information. A number of illegal activities that can be found in the dark web include selling or buying hacking tools, stolen data, digital fraud, terrorists activities, drugs, weapons, and more. The aim of this project is to collect evidence of any malicious activity in the dark web by using computer security mechanisms as traps called honeypots.

Al-Nemrat, Ameer.  2018.  Identity theft on e-government/e-governance digital forensics. 2018 International Symposium on Programming and Systems (ISPS). :1—1.

In the context of the rapid technological progress, the cyber-threats become a serious challenge that requires immediate and continuous action. As cybercrime poses a permanent and increasing threat, governments, corporate and individual users of the cyber-space are constantly struggling to ensure an acceptable level of security over their assets. Maliciousness on the cyber-space spans identity theft, fraud, and system intrusions. This is due to the benefits of cyberspace-low entry barriers, user anonymity, and spatial and temporal separation between users, make it a fertile field for deception and fraud. Numerous, supervised and unsupervised, techniques have been proposed and used to identify fraudulent transactions and activities that deviate from regular patterns of behaviour. For instance, neural networks and genetic algorithms were used to detect credit card fraud in a dataset covering 13 months and 50 million credit card transactions. Unsupervised methods, such as clustering analysis, have been used to identify financial fraud or to filter fake online product reviews and ratings on e-commerce websites. Blockchain technology has demonstrated its feasibility and relevance in e-commerce. Its use is now being extended to new areas, related to electronic government. The technology appears to be the most appropriate in areas that require storage and processing of large amounts of protected data. The question is what can blockchain technology do and not do to fight malicious online activity?

Yeboah-Ofori, Abel, Islam, Shareeful, Brimicombe, Allan.  2019.  Detecting Cyber Supply Chain Attacks on Cyber Physical Systems Using Bayesian Belief Network. 2019 International Conference on Cyber Security and Internet of Things (ICSIoT). :37–42.

Identifying cyberattack vectors on cyber supply chains (CSC) in the event of cyberattacks are very important in mitigating cybercrimes effectively on Cyber Physical Systems CPS. However, in the cyber security domain, the invincibility nature of cybercrimes makes it difficult and challenging to predict the threat probability and impact of cyber attacks. Although cybercrime phenomenon, risks, and treats contain a lot of unpredictability's, uncertainties and fuzziness, cyberattack detection should be practical, methodical and reasonable to be implemented. We explore Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) as knowledge representation in artificial intelligence to be able to be formally applied probabilistic inference in the cyber security domain. The aim of this paper is to use Bayesian Belief Networks to detect cyberattacks on CSC in the CPS domain. We model cyberattacks using DAG method to determine the attack propagation. Further, we use a smart grid case study to demonstrate the applicability of attack and the cascading effects. The results show that BBN could be adapted to determine uncertainties in the event of cyberattacks in the CSC domain.

Bradley, Cerys, Stringhini, Gianluca.  2019.  A Qualitative Evaluation of Two Different Law Enforcement Approaches on Dark Net Markets. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :453—463.

This paper presents the results of a qualitative study on discussions about two major law enforcement interventions against Dark Net Market (DNM) users extracted from relevant Reddit forums. We assess the impact of Operation Hyperion and Operation Bayonet (combined with the closure of the site Hansa) by analyzing posts and comments made by users of two Reddit forums created for the discussion of Dark Net Markets. The operations are compared in terms of the size of the discussions, the consequences recorded, and the opinions shared by forum users. We find that Operation Bayonet generated a higher number of discussions on Reddit, and from the qualitative analysis of such discussions it appears that this operation also had a greater impact on the DNM ecosystem.

Chopade, Mrunali, Khan, Sana, Shaikh, Uzma, Pawar, Renuka.  2019.  Digital Forensics: Maintaining Chain of Custody Using Blockchain. 2019 Third International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :744—747.

The fundamental aim of digital forensics is to discover, investigate and protect an evidence, increasing cybercrime enforces digital forensics team to have more accurate evidence handling. This makes digital evidence as an important factor to link individual with criminal activity. In this procedure of forensics investigation, maintaining integrity of the evidence plays an important role. A chain of custody refers to a process of recording and preserving details of digital evidence from collection to presenting in court of law. It becomes a necessary objective to ensure that the evidence provided to the court remains original and authentic without tampering. Aim is to transfer these digital evidences securely using encryption techniques.

Balogun, A. M., Zuva, T..  2018.  Criminal Profiling in Digital Forensics: Assumptions, Challenges and Probable Solution. 2018 International Conference on Intelligent and Innovative Computing Applications (ICONIC). :1–7.

Cybercrime has been regarded understandably as a consequent compromise that follows the advent and perceived success of the computer and internet technologies. Equally effecting the privacy, trust, finance and welfare of the wealthy and low-income individuals and organizations, this menace has shown no indication of slowing down. Reports across the world have consistently shown exponential increase in the numbers and costs of cyber-incidents, and more worriedly low conviction rates of cybercriminals, over the years. Stakeholders increasingly explore ways to keep up with containing cyber-incidents by devising tools and techniques to increase the overall efficiency of investigations, but the gap keeps getting wider. However, criminal profiling - an investigative technique that has been proven to provide accurate and valuable directions to traditional crime investigations - has not seen a widespread application, including a formal methodology, to cybercrime investigations due to difficulties in its seamless transference. This paper, in a bid to address this problem, seeks to preliminarily identify the exact benefits criminal profiling has brought to successful traditional crime investigations and the benefits it can translate to cybercrime investigations, identify the challenges posed by the cyber-scene to its implementation in cybercrime investigations, and proffer a practicable solution.

Kwon, K. Hazel, Priniski, J. Hunter, Sarkar, Soumajyoti, Shakarian, Jana, Shakarian, Paulo.  2017.  Crisis and Collective Problem Solving in Dark Web: An Exploration of a Black Hat Forum. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Social Media & Society. :45:1–45:5.

This paper explores the process of collective crisis problem-solving in the darkweb. We conducted a preliminary study on one of the Tor-based darkweb forums, during the shutdown of two marketplaces. Content analysis suggests that distrust permeated the forum during the marketplace shutdowns. We analyzed the debates concerned with suspicious claims and conspiracies. The results suggest that a black-market crisis potentially offers an opportunity for cyber-intelligence to disrupt the darkweb by engendering internal conflicts. At the same time, the study also shows that darkweb members were adept at reaching collective solutions by sharing new market information, more secure technologies, and alternative routes for economic activities.

Yin, H. Sun, Vatrapu, R..  2017.  A First Estimation of the Proportion of Cybercriminal Entities in the Bitcoin Ecosystem Using Supervised Machine Learning. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data). :3690–3699.

Bitcoin, a peer-to-peer payment system and digital currency, is often involved in illicit activities such as scamming, ransomware attacks, illegal goods trading, and thievery. At the time of writing, the Bitcoin ecosystem has not yet been mapped and as such there is no estimate of the share of illicit activities. This paper provides the first estimation of the portion of cyber-criminal entities in the Bitcoin ecosystem. Our dataset consists of 854 observations categorised into 12 classes (out of which 5 are cybercrime-related) and a total of 100,000 uncategorised observations. The dataset was obtained from the data provider who applied three types of clustering of Bitcoin transactions to categorise entities: co-spend, intelligence-based, and behaviour-based. Thirteen supervised learning classifiers were then tested, of which four prevailed with a cross-validation accuracy of 77.38%, 76.47%, 78.46%, 80.76% respectively. From the top four classifiers, Bagging and Gradient Boosting classifiers were selected based on their weighted average and per class precision on the cybercrime-related categories. Both models were used to classify 100,000 uncategorised entities, showing that the share of cybercrime-related is 29.81% according to Bagging, and 10.95% according to Gradient Boosting with number of entities as the metric. With regard to the number of addresses and current coins held by this type of entities, the results are: 5.79% and 10.02% according to Bagging; and 3.16% and 1.45% according to Gradient Boosting.

Liao, K., Zhao, Z., Doupe, A., Ahn, G. J..  2016.  Behind closed doors: measurement and analysis of CryptoLocker ransoms in Bitcoin. 2016 APWG Symposium on Electronic Crime Research (eCrime). :1–13.

Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptographic currency that has experienced proliferating popularity over the past few years, is the common denominator in a wide variety of cybercrime. We perform a measurement analysis of CryptoLocker, a family of ransomware that encrypts a victim's files until a ransom is paid, within the Bitcoin ecosystem from September 5, 2013 through January 31, 2014. Using information collected from online fora, such as reddit and BitcoinTalk, as an initial starting point, we generate a cluster of 968 Bitcoin addresses belonging to CryptoLocker. We provide a lower bound for CryptoLocker's economy in Bitcoin and identify 795 ransom payments totalling 1,128.40 BTC (\$310,472.38), but show that the proceeds could have been worth upwards of \$1.1 million at peak valuation. By analyzing ransom payment timestamps both longitudinally across CryptoLocker's operating period and transversely across times of day, we detect changes in distributions and form conjectures on CryptoLocker that corroborate information from previous efforts. Additionally, we construct a network topology to detail CryptoLocker's financial infrastructure and obtain auxiliary information on the CryptoLocker operation. Most notably, we find evidence that suggests connections to popular Bitcoin services, such as Bitcoin Fog and BTC-e, and subtle links to other cybercrimes surrounding Bitcoin, such as the Sheep Marketplace scam of 2013. We use our study to underscore the value of measurement analyses and threat intelligence in understanding the erratic cybercrime landscape.

Rechavi, A., Berenblum, T., Maimon, D., Sevilla, I. S..  2015.  Hackers topology matter geography: Mapping the dynamics of repeated system trespassing events networks. 2015 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM). :795–804.

This study focuses on the spatial context of hacking to networks of Honey-pots. We investigate the relationship between topological positions and geographic positions of victimized computers and system trespassers. We've deployed research Honeypots on the computer networks of two academic institutions, collected information on successful brute force attacks (BFA) and system trespassing events (sessions), and used Social Network Analysis (SNA) techniques, to depict and understand the correlation between spatial attributes (IP addresses) and hacking networks' topology. We mapped and explored hacking patterns and found that geography might set the behavior of the attackers as well as the topology of hacking networks. The contribution of this study stems from the fact that there are no prior studies of geographical influences on the topology of hacking networks and from the unique usage of SNA to investigate hacking activities. Looking ahead, our study can assist policymakers in forming effective policies in the field of cybercrime.

Ali, R., McAlaney, J., Faily, S., Phalp, K., Katos, V..  2015.  Mitigating Circumstances in Cybercrime: A Position Paper. 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology; Ubiquitous Computing and Communications; Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing; Pervasive Intelligence and Computing. :1972–1976.

This paper argues the need for considering mitigating circumstances in cybercrime. Mitigating circumstances are conditions which moderate the culpability of an offender of a committed offence. Our argument is based on several observations. The cyberspace introduces a new family of communication and interaction styles and designs which could facilitate, make available, deceive, and in some cases persuade, a user to commit an offence. User's lack of awareness could be a valid mitigation when using software features introduced without a proper management of change and enough precautionary mechanisms, e.g. warning messages. The cyber behaviour of users may not be necessarily a reflection of their real character and intention. Their irrational and unconscious actions may result from their immersed and prolonged presence in a particular cyber context. Hence, the consideration of the cyberspace design, the "cyber psychological" status of an offender and their inter-relation could form a new family of mitigating circumstances inherent and unique to cybercrime. This paper elaborates on this initial argument from different perspectives including software engineering, cyber psychology, digital forensics, social responsibility and law.

Masvosvere, D. J. E., Venter, H. S..  2015.  A model for the design of next generation e-supply chain digital forensic readiness tools. 2015 Information Security for South Africa (ISSA). :1–9.

The internet has had a major impact on how information is shared within supply chains, and in commerce in general. This has resulted in the establishment of information systems such as e-supply chains amongst others which integrate the internet and other information and communications technology (ICT) with traditional business processes for the swift transmission of information between trading partners. Many organisations have reaped the benefits of adopting the eSC model, but have also faced the challenges with which it comes. One such major challenge is information security. Digital forensic readiness is a relatively new exciting field which can prepare and prevent incidents from occurring within an eSC environment if implemented strategically. With the current state of cybercrime, tool developers are challenged with the task of developing cutting edge digital forensic readiness tools that can keep up with the current technological advancements, such as (eSCs), in the business world. Therefore, the problem addressed in this paper is that there are no DFR tools that are designed to support eSCs specifically. There are some general-purpose monitoring tools that have forensic readiness functionality, but currently there are no tools specifically designed to serve the eSC environment. Therefore, this paper discusses the limitations of current digital forensic readiness tools for the eSC environment and an architectural design for next-generation eSC DFR systems is proposed, along with the system requirements that such systems must satisfy. It is the view of the authors that the conclusions drawn from this paper can spearhead the development of cutting-edge next-generation digital forensic readiness tools, and bring attention to some of the shortcomings of current tools.

Kao, D. Y., Wu, G. J..  2015.  A Digital Triage Forensics framework of Window malware forensic toolkit: Based on ISO}/IEC 27037:2012. 2015 International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (ICCST). :217–222.

The rise of malware attack and data leakage is putting the Internet at a higher risk. Digital forensic examiners responsible for cyber security incident need to continually update their processes, knowledge and tools due to changing technology. These attack activities can be investigated by means of Digital Triage Forensics (DTF) methodologies. DTF is a procedural model for the crime scene investigation of digital forensic applications. It takes place as a way of gathering quick intelligence, and presents methods of conducting pre/post-blast investigations. A DTF framework of Window malware forensic toolkit is further proposed. It is also based on ISO/IEC 27037: 2012 - guidelines for specific activities in the handling of digital evidence. The argument is made for a careful use of digital forensic investigations to improve the overall quality of expert examiners. This solution may improve the speed and quality of pre/post-blast investigations. By considering how triage solutions are being implemented into digital investigations, this study presents a critical analysis of malware forensics. The analysis serves as feedback for integrating digital forensic considerations, and specifies directions for further standardization efforts.

S. Zafar, M. B. Tiwana.  2015.  "Discarded hard disks ??? A treasure trove for cybercriminals: A case study of recovered sensitive data from a discarded hard disk" 2015 First International Conference on Anti-Cybercrime (ICACC). :1-6.

The modern malware poses serious security threats because of its evolved capability of using staged and persistent attack while remaining undetected over a long period of time to perform a number of malicious activities. The challenge for malicious actors is to gain initial control of the victim's machine by bypassing all the security controls. The most favored bait often used by attackers is to deceive users through a trusting or interesting email containing a malicious attachment or a malicious link. To make the email credible and interesting the cybercriminals often perform reconnaissance activities to find background information on the potential target. To this end, the value of information found on the discarded or stolen storage devices is often underestimated or ignored. In this paper, we present the partial results of analysis of one such hard disk that was purchased from the open market. The data found on the disk contained highly sensitive personal and organizational data. The results from the case study will be useful in not only understanding the involved risk but also creating awareness of related threats.

Harsch, A., Idler, S., Thurner, S..  2014.  Assuming a State of Compromise: A Best Practise Approach for SMEs on Incident Response Management. IT Security Incident Management IT Forensics (IMF), 2014 Eighth International Conference on. :76-84.

Up-to-date studies and surveys regarding IT security show, that companies of every size and branch nowadays are faced with the growing risk of cyber crime. Many tools, standards and best practices are in place to support enterprise IT security experts in dealing with the upcoming risks, whereas meanwhile especially small and medium sized enterprises(SMEs) feel helpless struggling with the growing threats. This article describes an approach, how SMEs can attain high quality assurance whether they are a victim of cyber crime, what kind of damage resulted from a certain attack and in what way remediation can be done. The focus on all steps of the analysis lies in the economic feasibility and the typical environment of SMEs.

Wenqun Xiu, Xiaoming Li.  2014.  The design of cybercrime spatial analysis system. Information Science and Technology (ICIST), 2014 4th IEEE International Conference on. :132-135.

Artificial monitoring is no longer able to match the rapid growth of cybercrime, it is in great need to develop a new spatial analysis technology which allows emergency events to get rapidly and accurately locked in real environment, furthermore, to establish correlative analysis model for cybercrime prevention strategy. On the other hand, Geography information system has been changed virtually in data structure, coordinate system and analysis model due to the “uncertainty and hyper-dimension” characteristics of network object and behavior. In this paper, the spatial rules of typical cybercrime are explored on base of GIS with Internet searching and IP tracking technology: (1) Setup spatial database through IP searching based on criminal evidence. (2)Extend GIS data-structure and spatial models, add network dimension and virtual attribution to realize dynamic connection between cyber and real space. (3)Design cybercrime monitoring and prevention system to discover the cyberspace logics based on spatial analysis.