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2019-12-02
Li, Congwu, Lin, Jingqiang, Cai, Quanwei, Luo, Bo.  2018.  Peapods: OS-Independent Memory Confidentiality for Cryptographic Engines. 2018 IEEE Intl Conf on Parallel Distributed Processing with Applications, Ubiquitous Computing Communications, Big Data Cloud Computing, Social Computing Networking, Sustainable Computing Communications (ISPA/IUCC/BDCloud/SocialCom/SustainCom). :862–869.
Cryptography is widely adopted in computer systems to protect the confidentiality of sensitive information. The security relies on the assumption that cryptography keys are never leaked, which may be broken by the memory disclosure attacks, e.g., the Heartbleed and coldboot attacks. Various schemes are proposed to defend against memory disclosure attacks, e.g., performing the cryptographic computations in registers, or adopting the hardware features (e.g., Intel TSX and Intel SGX) to ensure that the plaintext of the cryptography key never appears in memory. However, these schemes are still not widely deployed due to the following limitations: (a) Most of the schemes are deployed in the OS kernel and require the root (or administrator) privileges of the host; and (b) They require the programmers to integrate these protection schemes in the implementation of different cryptography algorithms on different platforms. In this paper, we propose a tool implemented in Clang/LLVM, named Peapods, which provides the user-mode protection for cryptographic keys in software engines. It introduces one qualifier and three intrinsics for the programmers to specify the sensitive variables and code fragments to be protected, making it easier to be deployed. Peapods adopts transactional memory to protect cryptographic keys, while it is OS-independent and does not require the cryptographic computation performed in the OS kernel. Peapods supports the automatic protection between transactions for better performance. We have implemented the prototype of Peapods. Evaluation results demonstrate that Peapods achieves the design goals with a modest overhead (less than 10%).
Torkura, Kennedy A., Sukmana, Muhammad I.H., Kayem, Anne V.D.M., Cheng, Feng, Meinel, Christoph.  2018.  A Cyber Risk Based Moving Target Defense Mechanism for Microservice Architectures. 2018 IEEE Intl Conf on Parallel Distributed Processing with Applications, Ubiquitous Computing Communications, Big Data Cloud Computing, Social Computing Networking, Sustainable Computing Communications (ISPA/IUCC/BDCloud/SocialCom/SustainCom). :932–939.
Microservice Architectures (MSA) structure applications as a collection of loosely coupled services that implement business capabilities. The key advantages of MSA include inherent support for continuous deployment of large complex applications, agility and enhanced productivity. However, studies indicate that most MSA are homogeneous, and introduce shared vulnerabilites, thus vulnerable to multi-step attacks, which are economics-of-scale incentives to attackers. In this paper, we address the issue of shared vulnerabilities in microservices with a novel solution based on the concept of Moving Target Defenses (MTD). Our mechanism works by performing risk analysis against microservices to detect and prioritize vulnerabilities. Thereafter, security risk-oriented software diversification is employed, guided by a defined diversification index. The diversification is performed at runtime, leveraging both model and template based automatic code generation techniques to automatically transform programming languages and container images of the microservices. Consequently, the microservices attack surfaces are altered thereby introducing uncertainty for attackers while reducing the attackability of the microservices. Our experiments demonstrate the efficiency of our solution, with an average success rate of over 70% attack surface randomization.
Protzenko, Jonathan, Beurdouche, Benjamin, Merigoux, Denis, Bhargavan, Karthikeyan.  2019.  Formally Verified Cryptographic Web Applications in WebAssembly. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :1256–1274.
After suffering decades of high-profile attacks, the need for formal verification of security-critical software has never been clearer. Verification-oriented programming languages like F* are now being used to build high-assurance cryptographic libraries and implementations of standard protocols like TLS. In this paper, we seek to apply these verification techniques to modern Web applications, like WhatsApp, that embed sophisticated custom cryptographic components. The problem is that these components are often implemented in JavaScript, a language that is both hostile to cryptographic code and hard to reason about. So we instead target WebAssembly, a new instruction set that is supported by all major JavaScript runtimes. We present a new toolchain that compiles Low*, a low-level subset of the F* programming language, into WebAssembly. Unlike other WebAssembly compilers like Emscripten, our compilation pipeline is focused on compactness and auditability: we formalize the full translation rules in the paper and implement it in a few thousand lines of OCaml. Using this toolchain, we present two case studies. First, we build WHACL*, a WebAssembly version of the existing, verified HACL* cryptographic library. Then, we present LibSignal*, a brand new, verified implementation of the Signal protocol in WebAssembly, that can be readily used by messaging applications like WhatsApp, Skype, and Signal.
Abate, Carmine, Blanco, Roberto, Garg, Deepak, Hritcu, Catalin, Patrignani, Marco, Thibault, Jérémy.  2019.  Journey Beyond Full Abstraction: Exploring Robust Property Preservation for Secure Compilation. 2019 IEEE 32nd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :256–25615.
Good programming languages provide helpful abstractions for writing secure code, but the security properties of the source language are generally not preserved when compiling a program and linking it with adversarial code in a low-level target language (e.g., a library or a legacy application). Linked target code that is compromised or malicious may, for instance, read and write the compiled program's data and code, jump to arbitrary memory locations, or smash the stack, blatantly violating any source-level abstraction. By contrast, a fully abstract compilation chain protects source-level abstractions all the way down, ensuring that linked adversarial target code cannot observe more about the compiled program than what some linked source code could about the source program. However, while research in this area has so far focused on preserving observational equivalence, as needed for achieving full abstraction, there is a much larger space of security properties one can choose to preserve against linked adversarial code. And the precise class of security properties one chooses crucially impacts not only the supported security goals and the strength of the attacker model, but also the kind of protections a secure compilation chain has to introduce. We are the first to thoroughly explore a large space of formal secure compilation criteria based on robust property preservation, i.e., the preservation of properties satisfied against arbitrary adversarial contexts. We study robustly preserving various classes of trace properties such as safety, of hyperproperties such as noninterference, and of relational hyperproperties such as trace equivalence. This leads to many new secure compilation criteria, some of which are easier to practically achieve and prove than full abstraction, and some of which provide strictly stronger security guarantees. For each of the studied criteria we propose an equivalent “property-free” characterization that clarifies which proof techniques apply. For relational properties and hyperproperties, which relate the behaviors of multiple programs, our formal definitions of the property classes themselves are novel. We order our criteria by their relative strength and show several collapses and separation results. Finally, we adapt existing proof techniques to show that even the strongest of our secure compilation criteria, the robust preservation of all relational hyperproperties, is achievable for a simple translation from a statically typed to a dynamically typed language.
Burow, Nathan, Zhang, Xinping, Payer, Mathias.  2019.  SoK: Shining Light on Shadow Stacks. 2019 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :985–999.
Control-Flow Hijacking attacks are the dominant attack vector against C/C++ programs. Control-Flow Integrity (CFI) solutions mitigate these attacks on the forward edge, i.e., indirect calls through function pointers and virtual calls. Protecting the backward edge is left to stack canaries, which are easily bypassed through information leaks. Shadow Stacks are a fully precise mechanism for protecting backwards edges, and should be deployed with CFI mitigations. We present a comprehensive analysis of all possible shadow stack mechanisms along three axes: performance, compatibility, and security. For performance comparisons we use SPEC CPU2006, while security and compatibility are qualitatively analyzed. Based on our study, we renew calls for a shadow stack design that leverages a dedicated register, resulting in low performance overhead, and minimal memory overhead, but sacrifices compatibility. We present case studies of our implementation of such a design, Shadesmar, on Phoronix and Apache to demonstrate the feasibility of dedicating a general purpose register to a security monitor on modern architectures, and Shadesmar's deployability. Our comprehensive analysis, including detailed case studies for our novel design, allows compiler designers and practitioners to select the correct shadow stack design for different usage scenarios. Shadow stacks belong to the class of defense mechanisms that require metadata about the program's state to enforce their defense policies. Protecting this metadata for deployed mitigations requires in-process isolation of a segment of the virtual address space. Prior work on defenses in this class has relied on information hiding to protect metadata. We show that stronger guarantees are possible by repurposing two new Intel x86 extensions for memory protection (MPX), and page table control (MPK). Building on our isolation efforts with MPX and MPK, we present the design requirements for a dedicated hardware mechanism to support intra-process memory isolation, and discuss how such a mechanism can empower the next wave of highly precise software security mitigations that rely on partially isolated information in a process.
Sengupta, Anirban, Kachave, Deepak.  2018.  Integrating Compiler Driven Transformation and Simulated Annealing Based Floorplan for Optimized Transient Fault Tolerant DSP Cores. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :17–20.
Reliability of electronic devices in sub-nanometer technology scale has become a major concern. However, demand for battery operated low power, high performance devices necessitates technology scaling. To meet these contradictory design goals optimization and reliability must be performed simultaneously. This paper proposes by integrating compiler driven transformation and simulated annealing based optimization process for generating optimized low cost transient fault tolerant DSP core. The case study on FIR filter shows improved performance (in terms of reduced area and delay) of proposed approach in comparison to state-of-art transient fault tolerant approach.
Kelly, Daniel M., Wellons, Christopher C., Coffman, Joel, Gearhart, Andrew S..  2019.  Automatically Validating the Effectiveness of Software Diversity Schemes. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks – Supplemental Volume (DSN-S). :1–2.
Software diversity promises to invert the current balance of power in cybersecurity by preventing exploit reuse. Nevertheless, the comparative evaluation of diversity techniques has received scant attention. In ongoing work, we use the DARPA Cyber Grand Challenge (CGC) environment to assess the effectiveness of diversifying compilers in mitigating exploits. Our approach provides a quantitative comparison of diversity strategies and demonstrates wide variation in their effectiveness.
Besson, Frédéric, Dang, Alexandre, Jensen, Thomas.  2019.  Information-Flow Preservation in Compiler Optimisations. 2019 IEEE 32nd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :230–23012.
Correct compilers perform program transformations preserving input/output behaviours of programs. Yet, correctness does not prevent program optimisations from introducing information-flow leaks that would make the target program more vulnerable to side-channel attacks than the source program. To tackle this problem, we propose a notion of Information-Flow Preserving (IFP) program transformation which ensures that a target program is no more vulnerable to passive side-channel attacks than a source program. To protect against a wide range of attacks, we model an attacker who is granted arbitrary memory accesses for a pre-defined set of observation points. We propose a compositional proof principle for proving that a transformation is IFP. Using this principle, we show how a translation validation technique can be used to automatically verify and even close information-flow leaks introduced by standard compiler passes such as dead-store elimination and register allocation. The technique has been experimentally validated on the CompCert C compiler.
Yang, Shouguo, Shi, Zhiqiang, Zhang, Guodong, Li, Mingxuan, Ma, Yuan, Sun, Limin.  2019.  Understand Code Style: Efficient CNN-Based Compiler Optimization Recognition System. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1–6.
Compiler optimization level recognition can be applied to vulnerability discovery and binary analysis. Due to the exists of many different compilation optimization options, the difference in the contents of the binary file is very complicated. There are thousands of compiler optimization algorithms and multiple different processor architectures, so it is very difficult to manually analyze binary files and recognize its compiler optimization level with rules. This paper first proposes a CNN-based compiler optimization level recognition model: BinEye. The system extracts semantic and structural differences and automatically recognize the compiler optimization levels. The model is designed to be very suitable for binary file processing and is easy to understand. We built a dataset containing 80028 binary files for the model training and testing. Our proposed model achieves an accuracy of over 97%. At the same time, BinEye is a fully CNN-based system and it has a faster forward calculation speed, at least 8 times faster than the normal RNN-based model. Through our analysis of the model output, we successfully found the difference in assembly codes caused by the different compiler optimization level. This means that the model we proposed is interpretable. Based on our model, we propose a method to analyze the code differences caused by different compiler optimization levels, which has great guiding significance for analyzing closed source compilers and binary security analysis.
Simon, Laurent, Chisnall, David, Anderson, Ross.  2018.  What You Get is What You C: Controlling Side Effects in Mainstream C Compilers. 2018 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :1–15.
Security engineers have been fighting with C compilers for years. A careful programmer would test for null pointer dereferencing or division by zero; but the compiler would fail to understand, and optimize the test away. Modern compilers now have dedicated options to mitigate this. But when a programmer tries to control side effects of code, such as to make a cryptographic algorithm execute in constant time, the problem remains. Programmers devise complex tricks to obscure their intentions, but compiler writers find ever smarter ways to optimize code. A compiler upgrade can suddenly and without warning open a timing channel in previously secure code. This arms race is pointless and has to stop. We argue that we must stop fighting the compiler, and instead make it our ally. As a starting point, we analyze the ways in which compiler optimization breaks implicit properties of crypto code; and add guarantees for two of these properties in Clang/LLVM. Our work explores what is actually involved in controlling side effects on modern CPUs with a standard toolchain. Similar techniques can and should be applied to other security properties; achieving intentions by compiler commands or annotations makes them explicit, so we can reason about them. It is already understood that explicitness is essential for cryptographic protocol security and for compiler performance; it is essential for language security too. We therefore argue that this should be only the first step in a sustained engineering effort.
2019-11-26
Samaila, Musa G., Sequeiros, João B. F., Freire, Mário M., Inácio, Pedro R. M..  2018.  Security Threats and Possible Countermeasures in IoT Applications Covering Different Industry Domains. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. :16:1-16:9.

The world is witnessing the emerging role of Internet of Things (IoT) as a technology that is transforming different industries, global community and its economy. Currently a plethora of interconnected smart devices have been deployed for diverse pervasive applications and services, and billions more are expected to be connected to the Internet in the near future. The potential benefits of IoT include improved quality of life, convenience, enhanced energy efficiency, and more productivity. Alongside these potential benefits, however, come increased security risks and potential for abuse. Arguably, this is partly because many IoT start-ups and electronics hobbyists lack security expertise, and some established companies do not make security a priority in their designs, and hence they produce IoT devices that are often ill-equipped in terms of security. In this paper, we discuss different IoT application areas, and identify security threats in IoT architecture. We consider security requirements and present typical security threats for each of the application domains. Finally, we present several possible security countermeasures, and introduce the IoT Hardware Platform Security Advisor (IoT-HarPSecA) framework, which is still under development. IoT-HarPSecA is aimed at facilitating the design and prototyping of secure IoT devices.

Chollet, Stéphanie, Pion, Laurent, Barbot, Nicolas, Michel, Clément.  2018.  Secure IoT for a Pervasive Platform. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom Workshops). :113-118.

Nowadays, the proliferation of smart, communication-enable devices is opening up many new opportunities of pervasive applications. A major requirement of pervasive applications is to be secured. The complexity to secure pervasive systems is to address a end-to-end security level: from the device to the services according to the entire life cycle of devices, applications and platform. In this article, we propose a solution combining both hardware and software elements to secure communications between devices and pervasive platform based on certificates issued from a Public Key Infrastructure. Our solution is implemented and validated with a real device extended by a secure element and our own Public Key Infrastructure.

Pradhan, Srikanta, Tripathy, Somanath, Nandi, Sukumar.  2018.  Blockchain Based Security Framework for P2P Filesharing System. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS). :1-6.

Peer to Peer (P2P) is a dynamic and self-organized technology, popularly used in File sharing applications to achieve better performance and avoids single point of failure. The popularity of this network has attracted many attackers framing different attacks including Sybil attack, Routing Table Insertion attack (RTI) and Free Riding. Many mitigation methods are also proposed to defend or reduce the impact of such attacks. However, most of those approaches are protocol specific. In this work, we propose a Blockchain based security framework for P2P network to address such security issues. which can be tailored to any P2P file-sharing system.

Tapsell, James, Naeem Akram, Raja, Markantonakis, Konstantinos.  2018.  An Evaluation of the Security of the Bitcoin Peer-To-Peer Network. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :1057-1062.

Underpinning the operation of Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer (P2P) network [1] that facilitates the execution of transactions by end users, as well as the transaction confirmation process known as bitcoin mining. The security of this P2P network is vital for the currency to function and subversion of the underlying network can lead to attacks on bitcoin users including theft of bitcoins, manipulation of the mining process and denial of service (DoS). As part of this paper the network protocol and bitcoin core software are analysed, with three bitcoin message exchanges (the connection handshake, GETHEADERS/HEADERS and MEMPOOL/INV) found to be potentially vulnerable to spoofing and use in distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. Possible solutions to the identified weaknesses and vulnerabilities are evaluated, such as the introduction of random nonces into network messages exchanges.

Wang, Pengfei, Wang, Fengyu, Lin, Fengbo, Cao, Zhenzhong.  2018.  Identifying Peer-to-Peer Botnets Through Periodicity Behavior Analysis. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :283-288.

Peer-to-Peer botnets have become one of the significant threat against network security due to their distributed properties. The decentralized nature makes their detection challenging. It is important to take measures to detect bots as soon as possible to minimize their harm. In this paper, we propose PeerGrep, a novel system capable of identifying P2P bots. PeerGrep starts from identifying hosts that are likely engaged in P2P communications, and then distinguishes P2P bots from P2P hosts by analyzing their active ratio, packet size and the periodicity of connection to destination IP addresses. The evaluation shows that PeerGrep can identify all P2P bots with quite low FPR even if the malicious P2P application and benign P2P application coexist within the same host or there is only one bot in the monitored network.

Acharjamayum, Irani, Patgiri, Ripon, Devi, Dhruwajita.  2018.  Blockchain: A Tale of Peer to Peer Security. 2018 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence (SSCI). :609-617.

The underlying or core technology of Bitcoin cryptocurrency has become a blessing for human being in this era. Everything is gradually changing to digitization in this today's epoch. Bitcoin creates virtual money using Blockchain that's become popular over the world. Blockchain is a shared public ledger, and it includes all transactions which are confirmed. It is almost impossible to crack the hidden information in the blocks of the Blockchain. However, there are certain security and technical challenges like scalability, privacy leakage, selfish mining, etc. which hampers the wide application of Blockchain. In this paper, we briefly discuss this emerging technology namely Blockchain. In addition, we extrapolate in-depth insight on Blockchain technology.

Rguibi, Mohamed Amine, Moussa, Najem.  2018.  Simulating Worm Propagation in Interconnected Peer-to-Peer Networks. 2018 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technologies and Networking (CommNet). :1-7.

Peer-to-peer computing (P2P) refers to the famous technology that provides peers an equal spontaneous collaboration in the network by using appropriate information and communication systems without the need for a central server coordination. Today, the interconnection of several P2P networks has become a genuine solution for increasing system reliability, fault tolerance and resource availability. However, the existence of security threats in such networks, allows us to investigate the safety of users from P2P threats by studying the effects of competition between these interconnected networks. In this paper, we present an e-epidemic model to characterize the worm propagation in an interconnected peer-to-peer network. Here, we address this issue by introducing a model of network competition where an unprotected network is willing to partially weaken its own safety in order to more severely damage a more protected network. The unprotected network can infect all peers in the competitive networks after their non react against the passive worm propagation. Our model also evaluated the effect of an immunization strategies adopted by the protected network to resist against attacking networks. The launch time of immunization strategies in the protected network, the number of peers synapse connected to the both networks, and other effective parameters have also been investigated in this paper.

Tenorio-Fornés, Antonio, Hassan, Samer, Pavón, Juan.  2018.  Open Peer-to-Peer Systems over Blockchain and IPFS: An Agent Oriented Framework. Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains for Distributed Systems. :19-24.

In recent years, the increasing concerns around the centralized cloud web services (e.g. privacy, governance, surveillance, security) have triggered the emergence of new distributed technologies, such as IPFS or the Blockchain. These innovations have tackled technical challenges that were unresolved until their appearance. Existing models of peer-to-peer systems need a revision to cover the spectrum of potential systems that can be now implemented as peer-to-peer systems. This work presents a framework to build these systems. It uses an agent-oriented approach in an open environment where agents have only partial information of the system data. The proposal covers data access, data discovery and data trust in peer-to-peer systems where different actors may interact. Moreover, the framework proposes a distributed architecture for these open systems, and provides guidelines to decide in which cases Blockchain technology may be required, or when other technologies may be sufficient.

Kim, Seoung Kyun, Ma, Zane, Murali, Siddharth, Mason, Joshua, Miller, Andrew, Bailey, Michael.  2018.  Measuring Ethereum Network Peers. Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference 2018. :91-104.

Ethereum, the second-largest cryptocurrency valued at a peak of \$138 billion in 2018, is a decentralized, Turing-complete computing platform. Although the stability and security of Ethereum—and blockchain systems in general—have been widely-studied, most analysis has focused on application level features of these systems such as cryptographic mining challenges, smart contract semantics, or block mining operators. Little attention has been paid to the underlying peer-to-peer (P2P) networks that are responsible for information propagation and that enable blockchain consensus. In this work, we develop NodeFinder to measure this previously opaque network at scale and illuminate the properties of its nodes. We analyze the Ethereum network from two vantage points: a three-month long view of nodes on the P2P network, and a single day snapshot of the Ethereum Mainnet peers. We uncover a noisy DEVp2p ecosystem in which fewer than half of all nodes contribute to the Ethereum Mainnet. Through a comparison with other previously studied P2P networks including BitTorrent, Gnutella, and Bitcoin, we find that Ethereum differs in both network size and geographical distribution.

Schmidt, Mark, Pfeiffer, Tom, Grill, Christin, Huber, Robert, Jirauschek, Christian.  2019.  Coexistence of Intensity Pattern Types in Broadband Fourier Domain Mode Locked (FDML) Lasers. 2019 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC). :1-1.
Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) lasers, in which the sweep period of the swept bandpass filter is synchronized with the roundtrip time of the optical field, are broadband and rapidly tunable fiber ring laser systems, which offer rich dynamics. A detailed understanding is important from a fundamental point of view, and also required in order to improve current FDML lasers which have not reached their coherence limit yet. Here, we study the formation of localized patterns in the intensity trace of FDML laser systems based on a master equation approach [1] derived from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for polarization maintaining setups, which shows excellent agreement with experimental data. A variety of localized patterns and chaotic or bistable operation modes were previously discovered in [2–4] by investigating primarily quasi-static regimes within a narrow sweep bandwidth where a delay differential equation model was used. In particular, the formation of so-called holes which are characterized by a dip in the intensity trace and a rapid phase jump are described. Such holes have tentatively been associated with Nozaki-Bekki holes which are solutions to the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. In Fig. 1 (b) to (d) small sections of a numerical solution of our master equation are presented for a partially dispersion compensated polarization maintaining FDML laser setup. Within our approach, we are able to study the full sweep dynamics over a broad sweep range of more than 100 nm. This allows us to identify different co-existing intensity patterns within a single sweep. In general, high frequency distortions in the intensity trace of FDML lasers [5] are mainly caused by synchronization mismatches caused by the fiber dispersion or a detuning of the roundtrip time of the optical field to the sweep period of the swept bandpass filter. This timing errors lead to rich and complex dynamics over many roundtrips and are a major source of noise, greatly affecting imaging and sensing applications. For example, the imaging quality in optical coherence tomography where FDML lasers are superior sources is significantly reduced [5].
Khan, JavedAkhtar.  2019.  2019 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). 2019 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :619-623.
This paper proposes the implementation of progressive authentication service in smart android mobile phone. In this digital era, massive amount of work can be done in the digital form using the smart devices like smart phone , laptop, Tablets, etc. The number of smartphone users approx. reach to 299.24 million, as per the recent survey report [1] in 2019 this count will reach 2.7 billion and after 3 years, this count will increase up to 442.5 million. This article includes a cluster based progressive smart lock with a dependent combination that is short and more secure in nature. Android provides smart lock facilities with the combination of 9 dot, 6dot, 5dot, 4dot and 1-9 number. By using this mobile phone user will be able to generate pattern lock or number password for authentication. This is a single authentication system, this research paper includes a more secured multiple cluster based pattern match system.
Stein, Michael, Frömmgen, Alexander, Kluge, Roland, Wang, Lin, Wilberg, Augustin, Koldehofe, Boris, Mühlhäuser, Max.  2018.  Scaling Topology Pattern Matching: A Distributed Approach. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :996-1005.
Graph pattern matching in network topologies is a building block of many distributed algorithms. Based on a limited local view of the topology, pattern-based algorithms substantiate the decision-making of each device on the occurrence of graph patterns in its surrounding topology. Existing pattern-based algorithms require that each device has a sufficiently large local view to match patterns without support of other devices. In practical environments, the local view is often restricted to one hop. Thus, algorithms matching non-trivial patterns are locked out from such environments today. This paper presents the first algorithm for distributed topology pattern matching, enabling pattern matching beyond the local view. Outgoing from initiating devices, our pattern matcher delegates the matching procedure to further devices in the network. Exploring major contextual parameters of our algorithm, we show that the optimal local view size depends on scenario-specific conditions. Our pattern matcher provides the flexibility for adaptations of the local view size at runtime. Making use of this flexibility, we optimize the execution of an established pattern-based algorithm and evaluate our pattern matcher in two topology control case studies for the Internet of Things. By scaling the view size of each device in a distributed way, our adaptive approach achieves significant communication cost savings in face of dynamic conditions.
Chen, Qiu-Liang, Bai, Jia-Ju, Jiang, Zu-Ming, Lawall, Julia, Hu, Shi-Min.  2019.  Detecting Data Races Caused by Inconsistent Lock Protection in Device Drivers. 2019 IEEE 26th International Conference on Software Analysis, Evolution and Reengineering (SANER). :366-376.
Data races are often hard to detect in device drivers, due to the non-determinism of concurrent execution. According to our study of Linux driver patches that fix data races, more than 38% of patches involve a pattern that we call inconsistent lock protection. Specifically, if a variable is accessed within two concurrently executed functions, the sets of locks held around each access are disjoint, at least one of the locksets is non-empty, and at least one of the involved accesses is a write, then a data race may occur.In this paper, we present a runtime analysis approach, named DILP, to detect data races caused by inconsistent lock protection in device drivers. By monitoring driver execution, DILP collects the information about runtime variable accesses and executed functions. Then after driver execution, DILP analyzes the collected information to detect and report data races caused by inconsistent lock protection. We evaluate DILP on 12 device drivers in Linux 4.16.9, and find 25 real data races.
Ku, Yeeun, Park, Leo Hyun, Shin, Sooyeon, Kwon, Taekyoung.  2018.  A Guided Approach to Behavioral Authentication. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :2237-2239.
User's behavioral biometrics are promising as authentication factors in particular if accuracy is sufficiently guaranteed. They can be used to augment security in combination with other authentication factors. A gesture-based pattern lock system is a good example of such multi-factor authentication, using touch dynamics in a smartphone. However, touch dynamics can be significantly affected by a shape of gestures with regard to the performance and accuracy, and our concern is that user-chosen patterns are likely far from producing such a good shape of gestures. In this poster, we raise this problem and show our experimental study conducted in this regard. We investigate if there is a reproducible correlation between shape and accuracy and if we can derive effective attribute values for user guidance, based on the gesture-based pattern lock system. In more general, we discuss a guided approach to behavioral authentication.
Zhou, Man, Wang, Qian, Yang, Jingxiao, Li, Qi, Xiao, Feng, Wang, Zhibo, Chen, Xiaofeng.  2018.  PatternListener: Cracking Android Pattern Lock Using Acoustic Signals. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security. :1775-1787.
Pattern lock has been widely used for authentication to protect user privacy on mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and tablets). Several attacks have been constructed to crack the lock. However, these approaches require the attackers to be either physically close to the target device or able to manipulate the network facilities (e.g., wifi hotspots) used by the victims. Therefore, the effectiveness of the attacks is highly sensitive to the setting of the environment where the users use the mobile devices. Also, these attacks are not scalable since they cannot easily infer patterns of a large number of users. Motivated by an observation that fingertip motions on the screen of a mobile device can be captured by analyzing surrounding acoustic signals on it, we propose PatternListener, a novel acoustic attack that cracks pattern lock by leveraging and analyzing imperceptible acoustic signals reflected by the fingertip. It leverages speakers and microphones of the victim's device to play imperceptible audio and record the acoustic signals reflected from the fingertip. In particular, it infers each unlock pattern by analyzing individual lines that are the trajectories of the fingertip and composed of the pattern. We propose several algorithms to construct signal segments for each line and infer possible candidates of each individual line according to the signal segments. Finally, we produce a tree to map all line candidates into grid patterns and thereby obtain the candidates of the entire unlock pattern. We implement a PatternListener prototype by using off-the-shelf smartphones and thoroughly evaluate it using 130 unique patterns. The real experimental results demonstrate that PatternListener can successfully exploit over 90% patterns in five attempts.