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Al-Kateb, Mohammed, Eltabakh, Mohamed Y., Al-Omari, Awny, Brown, Paul G..  2022.  Analytics at Scale: Evolution at Infrastructure and Algorithmic Levels. 2022 IEEE 38th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE). :3217–3220.
Data Analytics is at the core of almost all modern ap-plications ranging from science and finance to healthcare and web applications. The evolution of data analytics over the last decade has been dramatic - new methods, new tools and new platforms - with no slowdown in sight. This rapid evolution has pushed the boundaries of data analytics along several axis including scalability especially with the rise of distributed infrastructures and the Big Data era, and interoperability with diverse data management systems such as relational databases, Hadoop and Spark. However, many analytic application developers struggle with the challenge of production deployment. Recent experience suggests that it is difficult to deliver modern data analytics with the level of reliability, security and manageability that has been a feature of traditional SQL DBMSs. In this tutorial, we discuss the advances and innovations introduced at both the infrastructure and algorithmic levels, directed at making analytic workloads scale, while paying close attention to the kind of quality of service guarantees different technology provide. We start with an overview of the classical centralized analytical techniques, describing the shift towards distributed analytics over non-SQL infrastructures. We contrast such approaches with systems that integrate analytic functionality inside, above or adjacent to SQL engines. We also explore how Cloud platforms' virtualization capabilities make it easier - and cheaper - for end users to apply these new analytic techniques to their data. Finally, we conclude with the learned lessons and a vision for the near future.
ISSN: 2375-026X
Dhasade, Akash, Dresevic, Nevena, Kermarrec, Anne-Marie, Pires, Rafael.  2022.  TEE-based decentralized recommender systems: The raw data sharing redemption. 2022 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS). :447–458.
Recommenders are central in many applications today. The most effective recommendation schemes, such as those based on collaborative filtering (CF), exploit similarities between user profiles to make recommendations, but potentially expose private data. Federated learning and decentralized learning systems address this by letting the data stay on user's machines to preserve privacy: each user performs the training on local data and only the model parameters are shared. However, sharing the model parameters across the network may still yield privacy breaches. In this paper, we present Rex, the first enclave-based decentralized CF recommender. Rex exploits Trusted execution environments (TEE), such as Intel software guard extensions (SGX), that provide shielded environments within the processor to improve convergence while preserving privacy. Firstly, Rex enables raw data sharing, which ultimately speeds up convergence and reduces the network load. Secondly, Rex fully preserves privacy. We analyze the impact of raw data sharing in both deep neural network (DNN) and matrix factorization (MF) recommenders and showcase the benefits of trusted environments in a full-fledged implementation of Rex. Our experimental results demonstrate that through raw data sharing, Rex significantly decreases the training time by 18.3 x and the network load by 2 orders of magnitude over standard decentralized approaches that share only parameters, while fully protecting privacy by leveraging trustworthy hardware enclaves with very little overhead.
ISSN: 1530-2075
Pham, Hong Thai, Nguyen, Khanh Nam, Phun, Vy Hoa, Dang, Tran Khanh.  2022.  Secure Recommender System based on Neural Collaborative Filtering and Federated Learning. 2022 International Conference on Advanced Computing and Analytics (ACOMPA). :1–11.
A recommender system aims to suggest the most relevant items to users based on their personal data. However, data privacy is a growing concern for anyone. Secure recommender system is a research direction to preserve user privacy while maintaining as high performance as possible. The most recent strategy is to use Federated Learning, a machine learning technique for privacy-preserving distributed training. In Federated Learning, a subset of users will be selected for training model using data at local systems, the server will securely aggregate the computing result from local models to generate a global model, finally that model will give recommendations to users. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to train Collaborative Filtering recommender system specialized for the ranking task in Federated Learning setting, where the goal is to protect user interaction information (i.e., implicit feedback). Specifically, with the help of the algorithm, the recommender system will be trained by Neural Collaborative Filtering, one of the state-of-the-art matrix factorization methods and Bayesian Personalized Ranking, the most common pairwise approach. In contrast to existing approaches which protect user privacy by requiring users to download/upload the information associated with all interactions that they can possibly interact with in order to perform training, the algorithm can protect user privacy at low communication cost, where users only need to obtain/transfer the information related to a small number of interactions per training iteration. Above all, through extensive experiments, the algorithm has demonstrated to utilize user data more efficient than the most recent research called FedeRank, while ensuring that user privacy is still preserved.
Li, Sukun, Liu, Xiaoxing.  2022.  Toward a BCI-Based Personalized Recommender System Using Deep Learning. 2022 IEEE 8th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS). :180–185.
A recommender system is a filtering application based on personalized information from acquired big data to predict a user's preference. Traditional recommender systems primarily rely on keywords or scene patterns. Users' subjective emotion data are rarely utilized for preference prediction. Novel Brain Computer Interfaces hold incredible promise and potential for intelligent applications that rely on collected user data like a recommender system. This paper describes a deep learning method that uses Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) based neural measures to predict a user's preference on short music videos. Our models are employed on both population-wide and individualized preference predictions. The recognition method is based on dynamic histogram measurement and deep neural network for distinctive feature extraction and improved classification. Our models achieve 97.21%, 94.72%, 94.86%, and 96.34% classification accuracy on two-class, three-class, four-class, and nine-class individualized predictions. The findings provide evidence that a personalized recommender system on an implicit BCI has the potential to succeed.
Agarkhed, Jayashree, Pawar, Geetha.  2022.  Recommendation-based Security Model for Ubiquitous system using Deep learning Technique. 2022 6th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS). :1–6.
Ubiquitous environment embedded with artificial intelligent consist of heterogenous smart devices communicating each other in several context for the computation of requirements. In such environment the trust among the smart users have taken as the challenge to provide the secure environment during the communication in the ubiquitous region. To provide the secure trusted environment for the users of ubiquitous system proposed approach aims to extract behavior of smart invisible entities by retrieving their behavior of communication in the network and applying the recommendation-based filters using Deep learning (RBF-DL). The proposed model adopts deep learning-based classifier to classify the unfair recommendation with fair ones to have a trustworthy ubiquitous system. The capability of proposed model is analyzed and validated by considering different attacks and additional feature of instances in comparison with generic recommendation systems.
ISSN: 2768-5330
Hu, Wenxiu, Wei, Zhuangkun, Leeson, Mark, Xu, Tianhua.  2022.  Eavesdropping Against Bidirectional Physical Layer Secret Key Generation in Fiber Communications. 2022 IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC). :1–2.
Physical layer secret key exploits the random but reciprocal channel features between legitimate users to encrypt their data against fiber-tapping. We propose a novel tapping-based eavesdropper scheme, leveraging its tapped signals from legitimate users to reconstruct their common features and the secret key.
ISSN: 2575-274X
Zhao, Ran, Qin, Qi, Xu, Ningya, Nan, Guoshun, Cui, Qimei, Tao, Xiaofeng.  2022.  SemKey: Boosting Secret Key Generation for RIS-assisted Semantic Communication Systems. 2022 IEEE 96th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2022-Fall). :1–5.
Deep learning-based semantic communications (DLSC) significantly improve communication efficiency by only transmitting the meaning of the data rather than a raw message. Such a novel paradigm can brace the high-demand applications with massive data transmission and connectivities, such as automatic driving and internet-of-things. However, DLSC are also highly vulnerable to various attacks, such as eavesdropping, surveillance, and spoofing, due to the openness of wireless channels and the fragility of neural models. To tackle this problem, we present SemKey, a novel physical layer key generation (PKG) scheme that aims to secure the DLSC by exploring the underlying randomness of deep learning-based semantic communication systems. To boost the generation rate of the secret key, we introduce a reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) and tune its elements with the randomness of semantic drifts between a transmitter and a receiver. Precisely, we first extract the random features of the semantic communication system to form the randomly varying switch sequence of the RIS-assisted channel and then employ the parallel factor-based channel detection method to perform the channel detection under RIS assistance. Experimental results show that our proposed SemKey significantly improves the secret key generation rate, potentially paving the way for physical layer security for DLSC.
ISSN: 2577-2465
He, Ze, Li, Shaoqing.  2022.  A Design of Key Generation Unit Based on SRAM PUF. 2022 2nd International Conference on Frontiers of Electronics, Information and Computation Technologies (ICFEICT). :136–140.
In the era of big data, information security is faced with many threats, among which memory data security of intelligent devices is an important link. Attackers can read the memory of specific devices, and then steal secrets, alter data, affect the operation of intelligent devices, and bring security threats. Data security is usually protected by encryption algorithm for device ciphertext conversion, so the safe generation and use of key becomes particularly important. In this paper, based on the advantages of SRAM PUF, such as real-time generation, power failure and disappearance, safety and reliability, a key generation unit is designed and implemented. BCH code is used as the error correction algorithm to generate 128-bit stable key, which provides a guarantee for the safe storage of intelligent devices.
Chen, Xinghua, Huang, Lixian, Zheng, Dan, Chen, Jinchang, Li, Xinchao.  2022.  Research and Application of Communication Security in Security and Stability Control System of Power Grid. 2022 7th Asia Conference on Power and Electrical Engineering (ACPEE). :1215–1221.
Plaintext transmission is the major way of communication in the existing security and stability control (SSC) system of power grid. Such type of communication is easy to be invaded, camouflaged and hijacked by a third party, leading to a serious threat to the safe and stable operation of power system. Focusing on the communication security in SSC system, the authors use asymmetric encryption algorithm to encrypt communication messages, to generate random numbers through random noise of electrical quantities, and then use them to generate key pairs needed for encryption, at the same time put forward a set of key management mechanism for engineering application. In addition, the field engineering test is performed to verify that the proposed encryption method and management mechanism can effectively improve the communication in SSC system while ensuring the high-speed and reliable communication.
Woo, Jongchan, Wasiq Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Ibrahim, Mohamed I., Han, Ruonan, Chandrakasan, Anantha P., Yazicigil, Rabia Tugce.  2022.  Physical-Layer Security for THz Communications via Orbital Angular Momentum Waves. 2022 IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems (SiPS). :1–6.
This paper presents a physically-secure wireless communication system utilizing orbital angular momentum (OAM) waves at 0.31THz. A trustworthy key distribution mechanism for symmetric key cryptography is proposed by exploiting random hopping among the orthogonal OAM-wave modes and phases. Keccak-f[400] based pseudorandom number generator provides randomness to phase distribution of OAM-wave modes for additional security. We assess the security vulnerabilities of using OAM modulation in a THz communication system under various physical-layer threat models as well as analyze the effectiveness of these threat models for varying attacker complexity levels under different conditions.
ISSN: 2374-7390
Ayoub, Harith Ghanim.  2022.  Dynamic Iris-Based Key Generation Scheme during Iris Authentication Process. 2022 8th International Conference on Contemporary Information Technology and Mathematics (ICCITM). :364–368.
The robustness of the encryption systems in all of their types depends on the key generation. Thus, an encryption system can be said robust if the generated key(s) are very complex and random which prevent attackers or other analytical tools to break the encryption system. This paper proposed an enhanced key generation based on iris image as biometric, to be implemented dynamically in both of authentication process and data encryption. The captured iris image during the authentication process will be stored in a cloud server to be used in the next login to decrypt data. While in the current login, the previously stored iris image in the cloud server would be used to decrypt data in the current session. The results showed that the generated key meets the required randomness for several NIST tests that is reasonable for one use. The strength of the proposed approach produced unrepeated keys for encryption and each key will be used once. The weakness of the produced key may be enhanced to become more random.
Podeti, Raveendra, Sreeharirao, Patri, Pullakandam, Muralidhar.  2022.  The chaotic-based challenge feed mechanism for Arbiter Physical Unclonable Functions (APUFs) with enhanced reliability in IoT security. 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES). :118–123.
Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are the secured hardware primitives to authenticate Integrated Circuits (ICs) from various unauthorized attacks. The secured key generation mechanism through PUFs is based on random Process Variations (PVs) inherited by the CMOS transistors. In this paper, we proposed a chaotic-based challenge generation mechanism to feed the arbiter PUFs. The chaotic property is introduced to increase the non-linearity in the arbitration mechanism thereby the uncertainty of the keys is attained. The chaotic sequences are easy to generate, difficult to intercept, and have the additional advantage of being in a large number Challenge-Response Pair (CRP) generation. The proposed design has a significant advantage in key generation with improved uniqueness and diffuseness of 47.33%, and 50.02% respectively. Moreover, the enhancement in the reliability of 96.14% and 95.13% range from −40C to 125C with 10% fluctuations in supply voltage states that it has prominent security assistance to the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled devices against malicious attacks.
Alam, Md Shah, Hossain, Sarkar Marshia, Oluoch, Jared, Kim, Junghwan.  2022.  A Novel Secure Physical Layer Key Generation Method in Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs). 2022 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–6.
A novel secure physical layer key generation method for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) against an attacker is proposed under fading and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). In the proposed method, a random sequence key is added to the demodulated sequence to generate a unique pre-shared key (PSK) to enhance security. Extensive computer simulation results proved that an attacker cannot extract the same legitimate PSK generated by the received vehicle even if identical fading and AWGN parameters are used both for the legitimate vehicle and attacker.
Irtija, Nafis, Tsiropoulou, Eirini Eleni, Minwalla, Cyrus, Plusquellic, Jim.  2022.  True Random Number Generation with the Shift-register Reconvergent-Fanout (SiRF) PUF. 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :101–104.
True Random Number Generator (TRNG) is an important hardware security primitive for system security. TRNGs are capable of providing random bits for initialization vectors in encryption engines, for padding and nonces in authentication protocols and for seeds to pseudo random number generators (PRNG). A TRNG needs to meet the same statistical quality standards as a physical unclonable function (PUF) with regard to randomness and uniqueness, and therefore one can envision a unified architecture for both functions. In this paper, we investigate a FPGA implementation of a TRNG using the Shift-register Reconvergent-Fanout (SiRF) PUF. The SiRF PUF measures path delays as a source of entropy within a engineered logic gate netlist. The delays are measured at high precision using a time-to-digital converter, and then processed into a random bitstring using a series of linear-time mathematical operations. The SiRF PUF algorithm that is used for key generation is reused for the TRNG, with simplifications that improve the bit generation rate of the algorithm. This enables the TRNG to leverage both fixed PUF-based entropy and random noise sources, and makes the TRNG resilient to temperature-voltage attacks. TRNG bitstrings generated from a programmable logic implementation of the SiRF PUF-TRNG on a set of FPGAs are evaluated using statistical testing tools.
Beasley, Zachariah, Friedman, Alon, Pieg, Les, Rosen, Paul.  2020.  Leveraging Peer Feedback to Improve Visualization Education. 2020 IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium (PacificVis). :146–155.
Peer review is a widely utilized pedagogical feedback mechanism for engaging students, which has been shown to improve educational outcomes. However, we find limited discussion and empirical measurement of peer review in visualization coursework. In addition to engagement, peer review provides direct and diverse feedback and reinforces recently-learned course concepts through critical evaluation of others’ work. In this paper, we discuss the construction and application of peer review in a computer science visualization course, including: projects that reuse code and visualizations in a feedback-guided, continual improvement process and a peer review rubric to reinforce key course concepts. To measure the effectiveness of the approach, we evaluate student projects, peer review text, and a post-course questionnaire from 3 semesters of mixed undergraduate and graduate courses. The results indicate that course concepts are reinforced with peer review—82% reported learning more because of peer review, and 75% of students recommended continuing it. Finally, we provide a road-map for adapting peer review to other visualization courses to produce more highly engaged students.
ISSN: 2165-8773
Le, Trung-Nghia, Akihiro, Sugimoto, Ono, Shintaro, Kawasaki, Hiroshi.  2020.  Toward Interactive Self-Annotation For Video Object Bounding Box: Recurrent Self-Learning And Hierarchical Annotation Based Framework. 2020 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV). :3220–3229.
Amount and variety of training data drastically affect the performance of CNNs. Thus, annotation methods are becoming more and more critical to collect data efficiently. In this paper, we propose a simple yet efficient Interactive Self-Annotation framework to cut down both time and human labor cost for video object bounding box annotation. Our method is based on recurrent self-supervised learning and consists of two processes: automatic process and interactive process, where the automatic process aims to build a supported detector to speed up the interactive process. In the Automatic Recurrent Annotation, we let an off-the-shelf detector watch unlabeled videos repeatedly to reinforce itself automatically. At each iteration, we utilize the trained model from the previous iteration to generate better pseudo ground-truth bounding boxes than those at the previous iteration, recurrently improving self-supervised training the detector. In the Interactive Recurrent Annotation, we tackle the human-in-the-loop annotation scenario where the detector receives feedback from the human annotator. To this end, we propose a novel Hierarchical Correction module, where the annotated frame-distance binarizedly decreases at each time step, to utilize the strength of CNN for neighbor frames. Experimental results on various video datasets demonstrate the advantages of the proposed framework in generating high-quality annotations while reducing annotation time and human labor costs.
ISSN: 2642-9381
Mallik, Abhidipta, Kapila, Vikram.  2020.  Interactive Learning of Mobile Robots Kinematics Using ARCore. 2020 5th International Conference on Robotics and Automation Engineering (ICRAE). :1–6.
Recent years have witnessed several educational innovations to provide effective and engaging classroom instruction with the integration of immersive interactions based on augmented reality and virtual reality (AR/VR). This paper outlines the development of an ARCore-based application (app) that can impart interactive experiences for hands-on learning in engineering laboratories. The ARCore technology enables a smartphone to sense its environment and detect horizontal and vertical surfaces, thus allowing the smartphone to estimate any position in its workspace. In this mobile app, with touch-based interaction and AR feedback, the user can interact with a wheeled mobile robot and reinforce the concepts of kinematics for a differential drive mobile robot. The user experience is evaluated and system performance is validated through a user study with participants. The assessment shows that the proposed AR interface for interacting with the experimental setup is intuitive, easy to use, exciting, and recommendable.
Jiang, Linlang, Zhou, Jingbo, Xu, Tong, Li, Yanyan, Chen, Hao, Dou, Dejing.  2022.  Time-aware Neural Trip Planning Reinforced by Human Mobility. 2022 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN). :1–8.
Trip planning, which targets at planning a trip consisting of several ordered Points of Interest (POIs) under user-provided constraints, has long been treated as an important application for location-based services. The goal of trip planning is to maximize the chance that the users will follow the planned trip while it is difficult to directly quantify and optimize the chance. Conventional methods either leverage statistical analysis to rank POIs to form a trip or generate trips following pre-defined objectives based on constraint programming to bypass such a problem. However, these methods may fail to reflect the complex latent patterns hidden in the human mobility data. On the other hand, though there are a few deep learning-based trip recommendation methods, these methods still cannot handle the time budget constraint so far. To this end, we propose a TIme-aware Neural Trip Planning (TINT) framework to tackle the above challenges. First of all, we devise a novel attention-based encoder-decoder trip generator that can learn the correlations among POIs and generate trips under given constraints. Then, we propose a specially-designed reinforcement learning (RL) paradigm to directly optimize the objective to obtain an optimal trip generator. For this purpose, we introduce a discriminator, which distinguishes the generated trips from real-life trips taken by users, to provide reward signals to optimize the generator. Subsequently, to ensure the feedback from the discriminator is always instructive, we integrate an adversarial learning strategy into the RL paradigm to update the trip generator and the discriminator alternately. Moreover, we devise a novel pre-training schema to speed up the convergence for an efficient training process. Extensive experiments on four real-world datasets validate the effectiveness and efficiency of our framework, which shows that TINT could remarkably outperform the state-of-the-art baselines within short response time.
ISSN: 2161-4407
Mainampati, Manasa, Chandrasekaran, Balasubramaniyan.  2021.  Implementation of Human in The Loop on the TurtleBot using Reinforced Learning methods and Robot Operating System (ROS). 2021 IEEE 12th Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON). :0448–0452.
In this paper, an implementation of a human in the loop (HITL) technique for robot navigation in an indoor environment is described. The HITL technique is integrated into the reinforcement learning algorithms for mobile robot navigation. Reinforcement algorithms, specifically Q-learning and SARSA, are used combined with HITL since these algorithms are good in exploration and navigation. Turtlebot3 has been used as the robot for validating the algorithms by implementing the system using Robot Operating System and Gazebo. The robot-assisted with human feedback was found to be better in navigation task execution when compared to standard algorithms without using human in the loop. This is a work in progress and the next step of this research is exploring other reinforced learning methods and implementing them on a physical robot.
ISSN: 2644-3163
Grebenyuk, Konstantin A..  2021.  Motivation Generator: An Empirical Model of Intrinsic Motivation for Learning. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Engineering, Technology & Education (TALE). :1001–1005.
In present research, an empirical model for building and maintaining students' intrinsic motivation to learn is proposed. Unlike many other models of motivation, this model is not based on psychological theories but is derived directly from empirical observations made by experienced learners and educators. Thanks to empirical nature of the proposed model, its application to educational practice may be more straightforward in comparison with assumptions-based motivation theories. Interestingly, the structure of the proposed model resembles to some extent the structure of the oscillator circuit containing an amplifier and a positive feedback loop.
ISSN: 2470-6698
Deng, Weiyang, Sargent, Barbara, Bradley, Nina S., Klein, Lauren, Rosales, Marcelo, Pulido, José Carlos, Matarić, Maja J, Smith, Beth A..  2021.  Using Socially Assistive Robot Feedback to Reinforce Infant Leg Movement Acceleration. 2021 30th IEEE International Conference on Robot & Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN). :749–756.
Learning movement control is a fundamental process integral to infant development. However, it is still unclear how infants learn to control leg movement. This work explores the potential of using socially assistive robots to provide real-time adaptive reinforcement learning for infants. Ten 6 to 8-month old typically-developing infants participated in a study where a robot provided reinforcement when the infant’s right leg acceleration fell within the range of 9 to 20 m/s2. If infants increased the proportion of leg accelerations in this band, they were categorized as "performers". Six of the ten participating infants were categorized as performers; the performer subgroup increased the magnitude of acceleration, proportion of target acceleration for right leg, and ratio of right/left leg acceleration peaks within the target acceleration band and their right legs increased movement intensity from the baseline to the contingency session. The results showed infants specifically adjusted their right leg acceleration in response to a robot- provided reward. Further study is needed to understand how to improve human-robot interaction policies for personalized interventions for young infants.
ISSN: 1944-9437
Gori, Monica, Volpe, Gualtiero, Cappagli, Giulia, Volta, Erica, Cuturi, Luigi F..  2021.  Embodied multisensory training for learning in primary school children. 2021 {IEEE} {International} {Conference} on {Development} and {Learning} ({ICDL}). :1–7.
Recent scientific results show that audio feedback associated with body movements can be fundamental during the development to learn new spatial concepts [1], [2]. Within the weDraw project [3], [4], we have investigated how this link can be useful to learn mathematical concepts. Here we present a study investigating how mathematical skills changes after multisensory training based on human-computer interaction (RobotAngle and BodyFraction activities). We show that embodied angle and fractions exploration associated with audio and visual feedback can be used in typical children to improve cognition of spatial mathematical concepts. We finally present the exploitation of our results: an online, optimized version of one of the tested activity to be used at school. The training result suggests that audio and visual feedback associated with body movements is informative for spatial learning and reinforces the idea that spatial representation development is based on sensory-motor interactions.
Mhaouch, Ayoub, Elhamzi, Wajdi, Abdelali, Abdessalem Ben, Atri, Mohamed.  2022.  Efficient Serial Architecture for PRESENT Block Cipher. 2022 IEEE 9th International Conference on Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications (SETIT). :45–49.
In recent years, the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) has increased rapidly in different areas. Due to many IoT applications, many limitations have emerged such as power consumption and limited resources. The security of connected devices is becoming more and more a primary need for the reliability of systems. Among other things, power consumption remains an essential constraint with a major impact on the quality of the encryption system. For these, several lightweight cryptography algorithms were proposed and developed. The PRESENT algorithm is one of the lightweight block cipher algorithms that has been proposed for a highly restrictive application. In this paper, we have proposed an efficient hardware serial architecture that uses 16 bits for data path encryption. It uses fewer FPGA resources and achieves higher throughput compared to other existing hardware applications.
Bharathi, C, Annapurna, K Y, Koppad, Deepali, Sudeendra Kumar, K.  2022.  An Analysis of Stream and Block Ciphers for Scan Encryption. 2022 2nd International Conference on Power Electronics & IoT Applications in Renewable Energy and its Control (PARC). :1–5.
Scan-based test methodology is one of the most popular test techniques in VLSI circuits. This methodology increases the testability which in turn improves the fault coverage. For this purpose, the technique uses a chain of scan cells. This becomes a source of attack for an attacker who can observe / control the internal states and use the information for malicious purposes. Hence, security becomes the main concern in the Integrated Circuit (IC) domain since scan chains are the main reason for leakage of confidential information during testing phase. These leakages will help attackers in reverse engineering. Measures against such attacks have to be taken by encrypting the data which flows through the scan chains. Lightweight ciphers can be used for scan chain encryption. In this work, encryption of scan data is done for ISCAS-89 benchmarks and the performance and security properties are evaluated. Lightweight stream and block ciphers are used to perform scan encryption. A comparative analysis between the two techniques is performed in par with the functions related to design cost and security properties.
Hkiri, Amal, Karmani, Mouna, Machhout, Mohsen.  2022.  Implementation and Performance Analysis of Lightweight Block Ciphers for IoT applications using the Contiki Operating system. 2022 IEEE 9th International Conference on Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications (SETIT). :50–54.
Recent years have witnessed impressive advances in technology which led to the rapid growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) using numerous low-powered devices with a huge number of actuators and sensors. These devices gather and exchange data over the internet and generate enormous amounts of data needed to be secured. Although traditional cryptography provides an efficient means of addressing device and communication confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity issues, it may not be appropriate for very resource-constrained systems, particularly for end-nodes such as a simply connected sensor. Thus, there is an ascent need to use lightweight cryptography (LWC) providing the needed level of security with less complexity, area and energy overhead. In this paper, four lightweight cryptographic algorithms called PRESENT, LED, Piccolo, and SPARX were implemented over a Contiki-based IoT operating system, dedicated for IoT platforms, and assessed regarding RAM and ROM usage, power and energy consumption, and CPU cycles number. The Cooja network simulator is used in this study to determine the best lightweight algorithms to use in IoT applications utilizing wireless sensor networks technology.