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2019-06-17
Miedl, Philipp, Thiele, Lothar.  2018.  The Security Risks of Power Measurements in Multicores. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. :1585-1592.
Two of the main goals of power management in modern multicore processors are reducing the average power dissipation and delivering the maximum performance up to the physical limits of the system, when demanded. To achieve these goals, hardware manufacturers and operating system providers include sophisticated power and performance management systems, which require detailed information about the current processor state. For example, Intel processors offer the possibility to measure the power dissipation of the processor. In this work, we are evaluating whether such power measurements can be used to establish a covert channel between two isolated applications on the same system; the power covert channel. We present a detailed theoretical and experimental evaluation of the power covert channel on two platforms based on Intel processors. Our theoretical analysis is based on detailed modelling and allows us to derive a channel capacity bound for each platform. Moreover, we conduct an extensive experimental study under controlled, yet realistic, conditions. Our study shows, that the platform dependent channel capacities are in the order of 2000 bps and that it is possible to achieve throughputs of up to 1000 bps with a bit error probability of less than 15%, using a simple implementation. This illustrates the potential of leaking sensitive information and breaking a systems security framework using a covert channel based on power measurements.
Borgolte, Kevin, Fiebig, Tobias, Hao, Shuang, Kruegel, Christopher, Vigna, Giovanni.  2018.  Cloud Strife: Mitigating the Security Risks of Domain-Validated Certificates. Proceedings of the Applied Networking Research Workshop. :4-4.
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), more generally the "cloud," changed the landscape of system operations on the Internet. Clouds' elasticity allow operators to rapidly allocate and use resources as needed, from virtual machines, to storage, to IP addresses, which is what made clouds popular. We show that the dynamic component paired with developments in trust-based ecosystems (e.g., TLS certificates) creates so far unknown attacks. We demonstrate that it is practical to allocate IP addresses to which stale DNS records point. Considering the ubiquity of domain validation in trust ecosystems, like TLS, an attacker can then obtain a valid and trusted certificate. The attacker can then impersonate the service, exploit residual trust for phishing, or might even distribute malicious code. Even worse, an aggressive attacker could succeed in less than 70 seconds, well below common time-to-live (TTL) for DNS. In turn, she could exploit normal service migrations to obtain a valid certificate, and, worse, she might not be bound by DNS records being (temporarily) stale. We introduce a new authentication method for trust-based domain validation, like IETF's automated certificate management environment (ACME), that mitigates staleness issues without incurring additional certificate requester effort by incorporating the existing trust of a name into the validation process. Based on previously published work [1]. [1] Kevin Borgolte, Tobias Fiebig, Shuang Hao, Christopher Kruegel, Giovanni Vigna. February 2018. Cloud Strife: Mitigating the Security Risks of Domain-Validated Certificates. In Proceedings of the 25th Network and Distributed Systems Security Symposium (NDSS '18). Internet Society (ISOC). DOI: 10.14722/ndss.2018.23327. URL: https://doi.org/10.14722/nd
Frey, Sylvain, Rashid, Awais, Anthonysamy, Pauline, Pinto-Albuquerque, Maria, Naqvi, Syed Asad.  2018.  The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: A Study of Security Decisions in a Cyber-Physical Systems Game. Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering. :496-496.
Motivation: The security of any system is a direct consequence of stakeholders' decisions regarding security requirements. Such decisions are taken with varying degrees of expertise, and little is currently understood about how various demographics - security experts, general computer scientists, managers - approach security decisions and the strategies that underpin those decisions. What are the typical decision patterns, the consequences of such patterns and their impact on the security of the system in question? Nor is there any substantial understanding of how the strategies and decision patterns of these different groups contrast. Is security expertise necessarily an advantage when making security decisions in a given context? Answers to these questions are key to understanding the "how" and "why" behind security decision processes. The Game: In this talk1, we present a tabletop game: Decisions and Disruptions (D-D)2 that tasks a group of players with managing the security of a small utility company while facing a variety of threats. The game is kept short - 2 hours - and simple enough to be played without prior training. A cyber-physical infrastructure, depicted through a Lego\textregistered board, makes the game easy to understand and accessible to players from varying backgrounds and security expertise, without being too trivial a setting for security experts. Key insights: We played D-D with 43 players divided into homogeneous groups: 4 groups of security experts, 4 groups of nontechnical managers and 4 groups of general computer scientists. • Strategies: Security experts had a strong interest in advanced technological solutions and tended to neglect intelligence gathering, to their own detriment. Managers, too, were technology-driven and focused on data protection while neglecting human factors more than other groups. Computer scientists tended to balance human factors and intelligence gathering with technical solutions, and achieved the best results of the three demographics. • Decision Processes: Technical experience significantly changes the way players think. Teams with little technical experience had shallow, intuition-driven discussions with few concrete arguments. Technical teams, and the most experienced in particular, had much richer debates, driven by concrete scenarios, anecdotes from experience, and procedural thinking. Security experts showed a high confidence in their decisions - despite some of them having bad consequences - while the other groups tended to doubt their own skills - even when they were playing good games. • Patterns: A number of characteristic plays were identified, some good (balance between priorities, open-mindedness, and adapting strategies based on inputs that challenge one's pre-conceptions), some bad (excessive focus on particular issues, confidence in charismatic leaders), some ugly ("tunnel vision" syndrome by over-confident players). These patterns are documented in the full paper - showing the virtue of the positive ones, discouraging the negative ones, and inviting the readers to do their own introspection. Conclusion: Beyond the analysis of the security decisions of the three demographics, there is a definite educational and awareness-raising aspect to D-D (as noted consistently by players in all our subject groups). Game boxes will be brought to the conference for demonstration purposes, and the audience will be invited to experiment with D-D themselves, make their own decisions, and reflect on their own perception of security.
Sion, Laurens, Yskout, Koen, Van Landuyt, Dimitri, Joosen, Wouter.  2018.  Risk-Based Design Security Analysis. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Security Awareness from Design to Deployment. :11-18.
Implementing security by design in practice often involves the application of threat modeling to elicit security threats and to aid designers in focusing efforts on the most stringent problems first. Existing threat modeling methodologies are capable of generating lots of threats, yet they lack even basic support to triage these threats, except for relying on the expertise and manual assessment by the threat modeler. Since the essence of creating a secure design is to minimize associated risk (and countermeasure costs), risk analysis approaches offer a very compelling solution to this problem. By combining risk analysis and threat modeling, elicited threats in a design can be enriched with risk analysis information in order to provide support in triaging and prioritizing threats and focusing security efforts on the high-risk threats. It requires the following inputs: the asset values, the strengths of countermeasures, and an attacker model. In his paper, we provide an integrated threat elicitation and risk analysis approach, implemented in a threat modeling tool prototype, and evaluate it using a real-world application, namely the SecureDrop whistleblower submission system. We show that the security measures implemented in SecureDrop indeed correspond to the high-risk threats identified by our approach. Therefore, the risk-based security analysis provides useful guidance on focusing security efforts on the most important problems first.
Väisänen, Teemu, Noponen, Sami, Latvala, Outi-Marja, Kuusijärvi, Jarkko.  2018.  Combining Real-Time Risk Visualization and Anomaly Detection. Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Proceedings. :55:1-55:7.
Traditional risk management produces a rather static listing of weaknesses, probabilities and mitigations. Large share of cyber security risks realize through computer networks. These attacks or attack attempts produce events that are detected by various monitoring techniques such as Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). Often the link between detecting these potentially dangerous real-time events and risk management process is lacking, or completely missing. This paper presents means for transferring and visualizing the network events in the risk management instantly with a tool called Metrics Visualization System (MVS). The tool is used to dynamically visualize network security events of a Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) network running in Software Defined Networking (SDN) context as a case study. Visualizations are presented with a treelike graph, that gives a quick easily understandable overview of the cyber security situation. This paper also discusses what network security events are monitored and how they affect the more general risk levels. The major benefit of this approach is that the risk analyst is able to map the designed risk tree/security metrics into actual real-time events and view the system's security posture with the help of a runtime visualization view.
Marshall, Allen, Jahan, Sharmin, Gamble, Rose.  2018.  Toward Evaluating the Impact of Self-Adaptation on Security Control Certification. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Software Engineering for Adaptive and Self-Managing Systems. :149-160.
Certifying security controls is required for information systems that are either federally maintained or maintained by a US government contractor. As described in the NIST SP800-53, certified and accredited information systems are deployed with an acceptable security threat risk. Self-adaptive information systems that allow functional and decision-making changes to be dynamically configured at runtime may violate security controls increasing the risk of security threat to the system. Methods are needed to formalize the process of certification for security controls by expressing and verifying the functional and non-functional requirements to determine what risks are introduced through self-adaptation. We formally express the existence and behavior requirements of the mechanisms needed to guarantee the security controls' effectiveness using audit controls on program example. To reason over the risk of security control compliance given runtime self-adaptations, we use the KIV theorem prover on the functional requirements, extracting the verification concerns and workflow associated with the proof process. We augment the MAPE-K control loop planner with knowledge of the mechanisms that satisfy the existence criteria expressed by the security controls. We compare self-adaptive plans to assess their risk of security control violation prior to plan deployment.
Goman, Maksim.  2018.  Towards Unambiguous IT Risk Definition. Proceedings of the Central European Cybersecurity Conference 2018. :15:1-15:6.
The paper addresses the fundamental methodological problem of risk analysis and control in information technology (IT) – the definition of risk as a subject of interest. Based on analysis of many risk concepts, we provide a consistent definition that describes the phenomenon. The proposed terminology is sound in terms of system analysis principles and applicable to practical use in risk assessment and control. Implication to risk assessment methods were summarized.
Yang, Lishan, Cherkasova, Ludmila, Badgujar, Rajeev, Blancaflor, Jack, Konde, Rahul, Mills, Jason, Smirni, Evgenia.  2018.  Evaluating Scalability and Performance of a Security Management Solution in Large Virtualized Environments. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM/SPEC International Conference on Performance Engineering. :168–175.
Virtualized infrastructure is a key capability of modern enterprise data centers and cloud computing, enabling a more agile and dynamic IT infrastructure with fast IT provisioning, simplified, automated management, and flexible resource allocation to handle a broad set of workloads. However, at the same time, virtualization introduces new challenges, since securing virtual servers is more difficult than physical machines. HyTrust Inc. has developed an innovative security solution, called HyTrust Cloud Control (HTCC), to mitigate risks associated with virtualization and cloud technologies. HTCC is a virtual appliance deployed as a transparent proxy in front of a VMware-based virtualized environment. Since HTCC serves as a gateway to a customer virtualized environment, it is important to carefully assess its performance and scalability as well as provide its accurate resource sizing. In this work, we introduce a novel approach for accomplishing this goal. First, we describe a special framework, based on a nested virtualization technique, which enables the creation and deployment of a large scale virtualized environment (with 30,000 VMs) using a limited number of physical servers (4 servers in our experiments). Second, we introduce a design and implementation of a novel, extensible benchmark, called HT-vmbench, that allows to mimic the session-based activities of different system administrators and users in virtualized environments. The benchmark is implemented using VMware Web Service SDK. By executing HT-vmbench in the emulated large-scale virtualized environments, we can support an efficient performance assessment of management and security solutions (such as HTCC), their overhead, and provide capacity planning rules and resource sizing recommendations.
Gu, R., Zhang, X., Yu, L., Zhang, J..  2018.  Enhancing Security and Scalability in Software Defined LTE Core Networks. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :837–842.
The rapid development of mobile networks has revolutionized the way of accessing the Internet. The exponential growth of mobile subscribers, devices and various applications frequently brings about excessive traffic in mobile networks. The demand for higher data rates, lower latency and seamless handover further drive the demand for the improved mobile network design. However, traditional methods can no longer offer cost-efficient solutions for better user quality of experience with fast time-to-market. Recent work adopts SDN in LTE core networks to meet the requirement. In these software defined LTE core networks, scalability and security become important design issues that must be considered seriously. In this paper, we propose a scalable channel security scheme for the software defined LTE core network. It applies the VxLAN for scalable tunnel establishment and MACsec for security enhancement. According to our evaluation, the proposed scheme not only enhances the security of the channel communication between different network components, but also improves the flexibility and scalability of the core network with little performance penalty. Moreover, it can also shed light on the design of the next generation cellular network.
Noroozi, Hamid, Khodaei, Mohammad, Papadimitratos, Panos.  2018.  VPKIaaS: A Highly-Available and Dynamically-Scalable Vehicular Public-Key Infrastructure. Proceedings of the 11th ACM Conference on Security & Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks. :302–304.
The central building block of secure and privacy-preserving Vehicular Communication (VC) systems is a Vehicular Public-Key Infrastructure (VPKI), which provides vehicles with multiple anonymized credentials, termed pseudonyms. These pseudonyms are used to ensure message authenticity and integrity while preserving vehicle (and thus passenger) privacy. In the light of emerging large-scale multi-domain VC environments, the efficiency of the VPKI and, more broadly, its scalability are paramount. In this extended abstract, we leverage the state-of-the-art VPKI system and enhance its functionality towards a highly-available and dynamically-scalable design; this ensures that the system remains operational in the presence of benign failures or any resource depletion attack, and that it dynamically scales out, or possibly scales in, according to the requests' arrival rate. Our full-blown implementation on the Google Cloud Platform shows that deploying a VPKI for a large-scale scenario can be cost-effective, while efficiently issuing pseudonyms for the requesters.
2019-05-20
Zhang, Xiaoqiang, Wang, Xuesong, Wang, Qingming.  2018.  Additive Spread Spectrum Image Hiding Algorithm Based on Host Signal. Proceedings of the 2018 7th {International Conference} on {Software} and {Computer Applications}. :164-168.
Image hiding is the important tools to protect the ownership rights of digital multimedia contents. To reduce the interference effect of the host signal in the popular Spread Spectrum (SS) image hiding algorithm, this paper proposes an Improved Additive Spread Spectrum (IASS) image hiding algorithm. The proposed IASS image hiding algorithm maintains the simple decoder of the Additive Spread Spectrum (ASS) image hiding algorithm. This paper makes the comparative experiments with the ASS image hiding algorithm and Correlation-and-bit-Aware Spread Spectrum (CASS) image hiding algorithm. For the noise-free scenario, the proposed IASS image hiding algorithm could yield error-free decoding performance in theory. For the noise scenario, the experimental results show that the proposed IASS image hiding algorithm could significantly reduce the host effect in data hiding and improve the watermark decoding performance remarkably.
Hu, W., Ardeshiricham, A., Gobulukoglu, M. S., Wang, X., Kastner, R..  2018.  Property Specific Information Flow Analysis for Hardware Security Verification. 2018 {IEEE}/{ACM International Conference} on {Computer}-{Aided Design} ({ICCAD}). :1-8.
Hardware information flow analysis detects security vulnerabilities resulting from unintended design flaws, timing channels, and hardware Trojans. These information flow models are typically generated in a general way, which includes a significant amount of redundancy that is irrelevant to the specified security properties. In this work, we propose a property specific approach for information flow security. We create information flow models tailored to the properties to be verified by performing a property specific search to identify security critical paths. This helps find suspicious signals that require closer inspection and quickly eliminates portions of the design that are free of security violations. Our property specific trimming technique reduces the complexity of the security model; this accelerates security verification and restricts potential security violations to a smaller region which helps quickly pinpoint hardware security vulnerabilities.
Goncharov, N. I., Goncharov, I. V., Parinov, P. A., Dushkin, A. V., Maximova, M. M..  2019.  Modeling of Information Processes for Modern Information System Security Assessment. 2019 {IEEE Conference} of {Russian Young Researchers} in {Electrical} and {Electronic Engineering} ({EIConRus}). :1758-1763.
A new approach of a formalism of hybrid automatons has been proposed for the analysis of conflict processes between the information system and the information's security malefactor. An example of probability-based assessment on malefactor's victory has been given and the possibility to abstract from a specific type of probability density function for the residence time of parties to the conflict in their possible states. A model of the distribution of destructive informational influences in the information system to connect the process of spread of destructive information processes and the process of changing subjects' states of the information system has been proposed. An example of the destructive information processes spread analysis has been given.
Sadkhan, S. B., Reda, D. M..  2018.  A Proposed Security Evaluator for Cryptosystem Based on Information Theory and Triangular Game. 2018 {International Conference} on {Advanced Science} and {Engineering} ({ICOASE}). :306-311.
The purpose of this research is to propose a new mathematical model, designed to evaluate the security of cryptosystems. This model is a mixture of ideas from two basic mathematical theories, information theory and game theory. The role of information theory is assigning the model with security criteria of the cryptosystems. The role of game theory was to produce the value of the game which is representing the outcome of these criteria, which finally refers to cryptosystem's security. The proposed model support an accurate and mathematical way to evaluate the security of cryptosystems by unifying the criteria resulted from information theory and produce a unique reasonable value.
Cebe, Mumin, Kaplan, Berkay, Akkaya, Kemal.  2018.  A Network Coding Based Information Spreading Approach for Permissioned Blockchain in IoT Settings. Proceedings of the 15th {EAI International Conference} on {Mobile} and {Ubiquitous Systems}: {Computing}, {Networking} and {Services}. :470-475.
Permissioned Blockchain (PBC) has become a prevalent data structure to ensure that the records are immutable and secure. However, PBC still has significant challenges before it can be realized in different applications. One of such challenges is the overhead of the communication which is required to execute the Byzantine Agreement (BA) protocol that is needed for consensus building. As such, it may not be feasible to implement PBC for resource constrained environments such as Internet-of-Things (IoT). In this paper, we assess the communication overhead of running BA in an IoT environment that consists of wireless nodes (e.g., Raspberry PIs) with meshing capabilities. As the the packet loss ratio is significant and makes BA unfeasible to scale, we propose a network coding based approach that will reduce the packet overhead and minimize the consensus completion time of the BA. Specifically, various network coding approaches are designed as a replacement to TCP protocol which relies on unicasting and acknowledgements. The evaluation on a network of Raspberry PIs demonstrates that our approach can significantly improve scalability making BA feasible for medium size IoT networks.
Gschwandtner, Mathias, Demetz, Lukas, Gander, Matthias, Maier, Ronald.  2018.  Integrating Threat Intelligence to Enhance an Organization's Information Security Management. Proceedings of the 13th {International Conference} on {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security}. :37:1-37:8.
As security incidents might have disastrous consequences on an enterprise's information technology (IT), organizations need to secure their IT against threats. Threat intelligence (TI) promises to provide actionable information about current threats for information security management systems (ISMS). Common information range from malware characteristics to observed perpetrator origins that allow customizing security controls. The aim of this article is to assess the impact of utilizing public available threat feeds within the corporate process on an organization's security information level. We developed a framework to integrate TI for large corporations and evaluated said framework in cooperation with a global acting manufacturer and retailer. During the development of the TI framework, a specific provider of TI was analyzed and chosen for integration within the process of vulnerability management. The evaluation of this exemplary integration was assessed by members of the information security department at the cooperating enterprise. During our evaluation it was emphasized that a prioritization of management activities based on whether threats that have been observed in the wild are targeting them or similar companies. Furthermore, indicators of compromise (IoC) provided by the chosen TI source, can be automatically integrated utilizing a provided software development kit. Theoretical relevance is based on the contribution towards the verification of proposed benefits of TI integration, such as increasing the resilience of an enterprise network, within a real-world environment. Overall, practitioners suggest that TI integration should result in enhanced management of security budgets and more resilient enterprise networks.
Hanauer, Tanja, Hommel, Wolfgang, Metzger, Stefan, Pöhn, Daniela.  2018.  A Process Framework for Stakeholder-Specific Visualization of Security Metrics. Proceedings of the 13th {International Conference} on {Availability}, {Reliability} and {Security}. :28:1-28:10.
Awareness and knowledge management are key components to achieve a high level of information security in organizations. However, practical evidence suggests that there are significant discrepancies between the typical elements of security awareness campaigns, the decisions made and goals set by top-level management, and routine operations carried out by systems administration personnel. This paper presents Vis4Sec, a process framework for the generation and distribution of stakeholder-specific visualizations of security metrics, which assists in closing the gap between theoretical and practical information security by respecting the different points of view of the involved security report audiences. An implementation for patch management on Linux servers, deployed at a large data center, is used as a running example.
Alamélou, Quentin, Berthier, Paul-Edmond, Cachet, Chloé, Cauchie, Stéphane, Fuller, Benjamin, Gaborit, Philippe, Simhadri, Sailesh.  2018.  Pseudoentropic Isometries: A New Framework for Fuzzy Extractor Reusability. Proceedings of the 2018 on {Asia Conference} on {Computer} and {Communications Security}. :673-684.
Fuzzy extractors (Dodiset al., Eurocrypt 2004) turn a noisy secret into a stable, uniformly distributed key. Reusable fuzzy extractors remain secure when multiple keys are produced from a single noisy secret (Boyen, CCS 2004). Boyen showed information-theoretically secure reusable fuzzy extractors are subject to strong limitations. Simoens et al. (IEEE S&P, 2009) then showed deployed constructions suffer severe security breaks when reused. Canetti et al. (Eurocrypt 2016) used computational security to sidestep this problem, building a computationally secure reusable fuzzy extractor that corrects a sublinear fraction of errors. We introduce a generic approach to constructing reusable fuzzy extractors. We define a new primitive called a reusable pseudoentropic isometry that projects an input metric space to an output metric space. This projection preserves distance and entropy even if the same input is mapped to multiple output metric spaces. A reusable pseudoentropy isometry yields a reusable fuzzy extractor by 1) randomizing the noisy secret using the isometry and 2) applying a traditional fuzzy extractor to derive a secret key. We propose reusable pseudoentropic isometries for the set difference and Hamming metrics. The set difference construction is built from composable digital lockers (Canetti and Dakdouk, Eurocrypt 2008). For the Hamming metric, we show that the second construction of Canetti et al.(Eurocrypt 2016) can be seen as an instantiation of our framework. In both cases, the pseudoentropic isometry's reusability requires noisy secrets distributions to have entropy in each symbol of the alphabet. Our constructions yield the first reusable fuzzy extractors that correct a constant fraction of errors. We also implement our set difference solution and describe two use cases.
2019-05-09
Kravchik, Moshe, Shabtai, Asaf.  2018.  Detecting Cyber Attacks in Industrial Control Systems Using Convolutional Neural Networks. Proceedings of the 2018 Workshop on Cyber-Physical Systems Security and PrivaCy. :72-83.
This paper presents a study on detecting cyber attacks on industrial control systems (ICS) using convolutional neural networks. The study was performed on a Secure Water Treatment testbed (SWaT) dataset, which represents a scaled-down version of a real-world industrial water treatment plant. We suggest a method for anomaly detection based on measuring the statistical deviation of the predicted value from the observed value. We applied the proposed method by using a variety of deep neural network architectures including different variants of convolutional and recurrent networks. The test dataset included 36 different cyber attacks. The proposed method successfully detected 31 attacks with three false positives thus improving on previous research based on this dataset. The results of the study show that 1D convolutional networks can be successfully used for anomaly detection in industrial control systems and outperform recurrent networks in this setting. The findings also suggest that 1D convolutional networks are effective at time series prediction tasks which are traditionally considered to be best solved using recurrent neural networks. This observation is a promising one, as 1D convolutional neural networks are simpler, smaller, and faster than the recurrent neural networks.
Sokolov, A. N., Barinov, A. E., Antyasov, I. S., Skurlaev, S. V., Ufimtcev, M. S., Luzhnov, V. S..  2018.  Hardware-Based Memory Acquisition Procedure for Digital Investigations of Security Incidents in Industrial Control Systems. 2018 Global Smart Industry Conference (GloSIC). :1-7.
The safety of industrial control systems (ICS) depends not only on comprehensive solutions for protecting information, but also on the timing and closure of vulnerabilities in the software of the ICS. The investigation of security incidents in the ICS is often greatly complicated by the fact that malicious software functions only within the computer's volatile memory. Obtaining the contents of the volatile memory of an attacked computer is difficult to perform with a guaranteed reliability, since the data collection procedure must be based on a reliable code (the operating system or applications running in its environment). The paper proposes a new instrumental method for obtaining the contents of volatile memory, general rules for implementing the means of collecting information stored in memory. Unlike software methods, the proposed method has two advantages: firstly, there is no problem in terms of reading the parts of memory, blocked by the operating system, and secondly, the resulting contents are not compromised by such malicious software. The proposed method is relevant for investigating security incidents of ICS and can be used in continuous monitoring systems for the security of ICS.
Zhang, Z., Chang, C., Lv, Z., Han, P., Wang, Y..  2018.  A Control Flow Anomaly Detection Algorithm for Industrial Control Systems. 2018 1st International Conference on Data Intelligence and Security (ICDIS). :286-293.
Industrial control systems are the fundamental infrastructures of a country. Since the intrusion attack methods for industrial control systems have become complex and concealed, the traditional protection methods, such as vulnerability database, virus database and rule matching cannot cope with the attacks hidden inside the terminals of industrial control systems. In this work, we propose a control flow anomaly detection algorithm based on the control flow of the business programs. First, a basic group partition method based on key paths is proposed to reduce the performance burden caused by tabbed-assert control flow analysis method through expanding basic research units. Second, the algorithm phases of standard path set acquisition and path matching are introduced. By judging whether the current control flow path is deviating from the standard set or not, the abnormal operating conditions of industrial control can be detected. Finally, the effectiveness of a control flow anomaly detection (checking) algorithm based on Path Matching (CFCPM) is demonstrated by anomaly detection ability analysis and experiments.
Ivanov, A. V., Sklyarov, V. A..  2018.  The Urgency of the Threats of Attacks on Interfaces and Field-Layer Protocols in Industrial Control Systems. 2018 XIV International Scientific-Technical Conference on Actual Problems of Electronics Instrument Engineering (APEIE). :162-165.
The paper is devoted to analysis of condition of executing devices and sensors of Industrial Control Systems information security. The work contains structures of industrial control systems divided into groups depending on system's layer. The article contains the analysis of analog interfaces work and work features of data transmission protocols in industrial control system field layer. Questions about relevance of industrial control systems information security, both from the point of view of the information security occurring incidents, and from the point of view of regulators' reaction in the form of normative legal acts, are described. During the analysis of the information security systems of industrial control systems a possibility of leakage through technical channels of information leakage at the field layer was found. Potential vectors of the attacks on devices of field layer and data transmission network of an industrial control system are outlined in the article. The relevance analysis of the threats connected with the attacks at the field layer of an industrial control system is carried out, feature of this layer and attractiveness of this kind of attacks is observed.
Hata, K., Sasaki, T., Mochizuki, A., Sawada, K., Shin, S., Hosokawa, S..  2018.  Collaborative Model-Based Fallback Control for Secured Networked Control Systems. IECON 2018 - 44th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society. :5963-5970.
The authors have proposed the Fallback Control System (FCS) as a countermeasure after cyber-attacks happen in Industrial Control Systems (ICSs). For increased robustness against cyber-attacks, introducing multiple countermeasures is desirable. Then, an appropriate collaboration is essential. This paper introduces two FCSs in ICS: field network signal is driven FCS and analog signal driven FCS. This paper also implements a collaborative FCS by a collaboration function of the two FCSs. The collaboration function is that the analog signal driven FCS estimates the state of the other FCS. The collaborative FCS decides the countermeasure based on the result of the estimation after cyber-attacks happen. Finally, we show practical experiment results to analyze the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Li, Y., Liu, X., Tian, H., Luo, C..  2018.  Research of Industrial Control System Device Firmware Vulnerability Mining Technology Based on Taint Analysis. 2018 IEEE 9th International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Science (ICSESS). :607-610.
Aiming at the problem that there is little research on firmware vulnerability mining and the traditional method of vulnerability mining based on fuzzing test is inefficient, this paper proposed a new method of mining vulnerabilities in industrial control system firmware. Based on taint analysis technology, this method can construct test cases specifically for the variables that may trigger vulnerabilities, thus reducing the number of invalid test cases and improving the test efficiency. Experiment result shows that this method can reduce about 23 % of test cases and can effectively improve test efficiency.
Shrestha, Roshan, Mehrpouyan, Hoda, Xu, Dianxiang.  2018.  Model Checking of Security Properties in Industrial Control Systems (ICS). Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy. :164-166.
With the increasing inter-connection of operation technology to the IT network, the security threat to the Industrial Control System (ICS) is increasing daily. Therefore, it is critical to utilize formal verification technique such as model checking to mathematically prove the correctness of security and safety requirements in the controller logic before it is deployed on the field. However, model checking requires considerable effort for regular ICS users and control technician to verify properties. This paper, provides a simpler approach to the model checking of temperature process control system by first starting with the control module design without formal verification. Second, identifying possible vulnerabilities in such design. Third, verifying the safety and security properties with a formal method.