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2020-10-19
Sun, Pan Jun.  2019.  Privacy Protection and Data Security in Cloud Computing: A Survey, Challenges, and Solutions. IEEE Access. 7:147420–147452.
Privacy and security are the most important issues to the popularity of cloud computing service. In recent years, there are many research schemes of cloud computing privacy protection based on access control, attribute-based encryption (ABE), trust and reputation, but they are scattered and lack unified logic. In this paper, we systematically review and analyze relevant research achievements. First, we discuss the architecture, concepts and several shortcomings of cloud computing, and propose a framework of privacy protection; second, we discuss and analyze basic ABE, KP-ABE (key policy attribute-based encryption), CP-ABE (ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption), access structure, revocation mechanism, multi-authority, fine-grained, trace mechanism, proxy re-encryption (PRE), hierarchical encryption, searchable encryption (SE), trust, reputation, extension of tradition access control and hierarchical key; third, we propose the research challenge and future direction of the privacy protection in the cloud computing; finally, we point out corresponding privacy protection laws to make up for the technical deficiencies.
Xia, Qi, Sifah, Emmanuel Boateng, Obour Agyekum, Kwame Opuni-Boachie, Xia, Hu, Acheampong, Kingsley Nketia, Smahi, Abla, Gao, Jianbin, Du, Xiaojiang, Guizani, Mohsen.  2019.  Secured Fine-Grained Selective Access to Outsourced Cloud Data in IoT Environments. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:10749–10762.
With the vast increase in data transmission due to a large number of information collected by devices, data management, and security has been a challenge for organizations. Many data owners (DOs) outsource their data to cloud repositories due to several economic advantages cloud service providers present. However, DOs, after their data are outsourced, do not have complete control of the data, and therefore, external systems are incorporated to manage the data. Several kinds of research refer to the use of encryption techniques to prevent unauthorized access to data but prove to be deficient in providing suitable solutions to the problem. In this article, we propose a secure fine-grain access control system for outsourced data, which supports read and write operations to the data. We make use of an attribute-based encryption (ABE) scheme, which is regarded as a suitable scheme to achieve access control for security and privacy (confidentiality) of outsourced data. This article considers different categories of data users, and make provisions for distinct access roles and permissible actions on the outsourced data with dynamic and efficient policy updates to the corresponding ciphertext in cloud repositories. We adopt blockchain technologies to enhance traceability and visibility to enable control over outsourced data by a DO. The security analysis presented demonstrates that the security properties of the system are not compromised. Results based on extensive experiments illustrate the efficiency and scalability of our system.
Hong, Bo, Chen, Jie, Zhang, Kai, Qian, Haifeng.  2019.  Multi-Authority Non-Monotonic KP-ABE With Cryptographic Reverse Firewall. IEEE Access. 7:159002–159012.
The revelations of Snowden show that hardware and software of devices may corrupt users' machine to compromise the security in various ways. To address this concern, Mironov and Stephen-Davidowitz introduce the Cryptographic Reverse Firewall (CRF) concept that is able to resist the ex-filtration of secret information for some compromised machine (Eurocrypt 2015). There are some applications of CRF deployed in many cryptosystems, but less studied and deployed in Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) field, which attracts a wide range of attention and is employed in real-world scenarios (i.e., data sharing in cloud). In this work, we focus how to give a CRF security protection for a multi-authority ABE scheme and hence propose a multi-authority key-policy ABE scheme with CRF (acronym, MA-KP-ABE-CRF), which supports attribute distribution and non-monotonic access structure. To achieve this, beginning with revisiting a MA-KP-ABE with non-trivial combining non-monotonic formula, we then give the randomness of ciphertexts and secret keys with reverse firewall and give formal security analysis. Finally, we give a simulation on our MA-KP-ABE-CRF system based on Charm library whose the experimental results demonstrate practical efficiency.
2020-07-24
Chennam, KrishnaKeerthi, Muddana, Lakshmi.  2018.  Improving Privacy and Security with Fine Grained Access Control Policy using Two Stage Encryption with Partial Shuffling in Cloud. 2018 3rd IEEE International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics, Information Communication Technology (RTEICT). :686—690.

In a computer world, to identify anyone by doing a job or to authenticate by checking their identification and give access to computer. Access Control model comes in to picture when require to grant the permissions to individual and complete the duties. The access control models cannot give complete security when dealing with cloud computing area, where access control model failed to handle the attributes which are requisite to inhibit access based on time and location. When the data outsourced in the cloud, the information holders expect the security and confidentiality for their outsourced data. The data will be encrypted before outsourcing on cloud, still they want control on data in cloud server, where simple encryption is not a complete solution. To irradiate these issues, unlike access control models proposed Attribute Based Encryption standards (ABE). In ABE schemes there are different types like Key Policy-ABE (KP-ABE), Cipher Text-ABE (CP-ABE) and so on. The proposed method applied the access control policy of CP-ABE with Advanced Encryption Standard and used elliptic curve for key generation by using multi stage encryption which divides the users into two domains, public and private domains and shuffling the data base records to protect from inference attacks.

Shelke, Vishakha M., Kenny, John.  2018.  Data Security in cloud computing using Hierarchical CP-ABE scheme with scalability and flexibility. 2018 International Conference on Smart City and Emerging Technology (ICSCET). :1—5.

Cloud computing has a major role in the development of commercial systems. It enables companies like Microsoft, Amazon, IBM and Google to deliver their services on a large scale to its users. A cloud service provider manages cloud computing based services and applications. For any organization a cloud service provider (CSP) is an entity which works within it. So it suffers from vulnerabilities associated with organization, including internal and external attacks. So its challenge to organization to secure a cloud service provider while providing quality of service. Attribute based encryption can be used to provide data security with Key policy attribute based encryption (KP-ABE) or ciphertext policy attribute based encryption (CP-ABE). But these schemes has lack of scalability and flexibility. Hierarchical CP-ABE scheme is proposed here to provide fine grained access control. Data security is achieved using encryption, authentication and authorization mechanisms. Attribute key generation is proposed for implementing authorization of users. The proposed system is prevented by SQL Injection attack.

Tan, Syh-Yuan, Yeow, Kin-Woon, Hwang, Seong Oun.  2019.  Enhancement of a Lightweight Attribute-Based Encryption Scheme for the Internet of Things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal. 6:6384—6395.

In this paper, we present the enhancement of a lightweight key-policy attribute-based encryption (KP-ABE) scheme designed for the Internet of Things (IoT). The KP-ABE scheme was claimed to achieve ciphertext indistinguishability under chosen-plaintext attack in the selective-set model but we show that the KP-ABE scheme is insecure even in the weaker security notion, namely, one-way encryption under the same attack and model. In particular, we show that an attacker can decrypt a ciphertext which does not satisfy the policy imposed on his decryption key. Subsequently, we propose an efficient fix to the KP-ABE scheme as well as extending it to be a hierarchical KP-ABE (H-KP-ABE) scheme that can support role delegation in IoT applications. An example of applying our H-KP-ABE on an IoT-connected healthcare system is given to highlight the benefit of the delegation feature. Lastly, using the NIST curves secp192k1 and secp256k1, we benchmark the fixed (hierarchical) KP-ABE scheme on an Android phone and the result shows that the scheme is still the fastest in the literature.

Li, Qi, Ma, Jianfeng, Xiong, Jinbo, Zhang, Tao, Liu, Ximeng.  2013.  Fully Secure Decentralized Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption. 2013 5th International Conference on Intelligent Networking and Collaborative Systems. :220—225.

In previous multi-authority key-policy attribute-based Encryption (KP-ABE) schemes, either a super power central authority (CA) exists, or multiple attribute authorities (AAs) must collaborate in initializing the system. In addition, those schemes are proved security in the selective model. In this paper, we propose a new fully secure decentralized KP-ABE scheme, where no CA exists and there is no cooperation between any AAs. To become an AA, a participant needs to create and publish its public parameters. All the user's private keys will be linked with his unique global identifier (GID). The proposed scheme supports any monotonic access structure which can be expressed by a linear secret sharing scheme (LSSS). We prove the full security of our scheme in the standard model. Our scheme is also secure against at most F-1 AAs corruption, where F is the number of AAs in the system. The efficiency of our scheme is almost as well as that of the underlying fully secure single-authority KP-ABE system.

Huo, Weiqian, Pei, Jisheng, Zhang, Ke, Ye, Xiaojun.  2014.  KP-ABE with Attribute Extension: Towards Functional Encryption Schemes Integration. 2014 Sixth International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Programming. :230—237.

To allow fine-grained access control of sensitive data, researchers have proposed various types of functional encryption schemes, such as identity-based encryption, searchable encryption and attribute-based encryption. We observe that it is difficult to define some complex access policies in certain application scenarios by using these schemes individually. In this paper, we attempt to address this problem by proposing a functional encryption approach named Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption with Attribute Extension (KP-ABE-AE). In this approach, we utilize extended attributes to integrate various encryption schemes that support different access policies under a common top-level KP-ABE scheme, thus expanding the scope of access policies that can be defined. Theoretical analysis and experimental studies are conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed KP-ABE-AE. We also present an optimization for a special application of KP-ABE-AE where IPE schemes are integrated with a KP-ABE scheme. The optimization results in an integrated scheme with better efficiency when compared to the existing encryption schemes that support the same scope of access policies.

Wang, Jinmiao, Lang, Bo.  2016.  An efficient KP-ABE scheme for content protection in Information-Centric Networking. 2016 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication (ISCC). :830—837.

Media streaming has largely dominated the Internet traffic and the trend will keep increasing in the next years. To efficiently distribute the media content, Information-Centric Networking (ICN) has attracted many researchers. Since end users usually obtain content from indeterminate caches in ICN, the publisher cannot reinforce data security and access control depending on the caches. Hence, the ability of self-contained protection is important for the cached contents. Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is considered the preferred solution to achieve this goal. However, the existing ABE schemes usually have problems regarding efficiency. The exponentiation in key generation and pairing operation in decryption respectively increases linearly with the number of attributes involved, which make it costly. In this paper, we propose an efficient key-policy ABE with fast key generation and decryption (FKP-ABE). In the key generation, we get rid of exponentiation and only require multiplications/divisions for each attribute in the access policy. And in the decryption, we reduce the pairing operations to a constant number, no matter how many attributes are used. The efficiency analysis indicates that our scheme has better performance than the existing KP-ABE schemes. Finally, we present an implementation framework that incorporates the proposed FKP-ABE with the ICN architecture.

Touati, Lyes, Challal, Yacine.  2016.  Collaborative KP-ABE for cloud-based Internet of Things applications. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—7.

KP-ABE mechanism emerges as one of the most suitable security scheme for asymmetric encryption. It has been widely used to implement access control solutions. However, due to its expensive overhead, it is difficult to consider this cryptographic scheme in resource-limited networks, such as the IoT. As the cloud has become a key infrastructural support for IoT applications, it is interesting to exploit cloud resources to perform heavy operations. In this paper, a collaborative variant of KP-ABE named C-KP-ABE for cloud-based IoT applications is proposed. Our proposal is based on the use of computing power and storage capacities of cloud servers and trusted assistant nodes to run heavy operations. A performance analysis is conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

Touati, Lyes.  2017.  Grouping-Proofs Based Access Control Using KP-ABE for IoT Applications. 2017 IEEE Trustcom/BigDataSE/ICESS. :301—308.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a new paradigm in which every-day objects are interconnected between each other and to the Internet. This paradigm is receiving much attention of the scientific community and it is applied in many fields. In some applications, it is useful to prove that a number of objects are simultaneously present in a group. For example, an individual might want to authorize NFC payment with his mobile only if k of his devices are present to ensure that he is the right person. This principle is known as Grouping-Proofs. However, existing Grouping-Proofs schemes are mostly designed for RFID systems and don't fulfill the IoT characteristics. In this paper, we propose a Threshold Grouping-Proofs for IoT applications. Our scheme uses the Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE) protocol to encrypt a message so that it can be decrypted only if at least k objects are simultaneously present in the same location. A security analysis and performance evaluation is conducted to show the effectiveness of our proposal solution.

Selar, G Dheeraj, Apoorva, P.  2017.  Comparative study on KP-ABE and CP-ABE algorithm for secure data retrieval in military network. 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control (I2C2). :1—4.

In many hostile military environments for instance war zone, unfriendly nature, etc., the systems perform on the specially promoted mode and nature which they tolerate the defined system network architecture. Preparation of Disruption-Tolerant systems (DTN) enhances the network between the remote devices which provided to the soldiers in the war zone, this situation conveys the reliable data transmission under scanner. Cipher text approach are based on the attribute based encryption which mainly acts on the attributes or role of the users, which is a successful cryptographic strategy to maintain the control issues and also allow reliable data transfer. Specially, the systems are not centralized and have more data constrained issues in the systems, implementing the Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (CP-ABE) was an important issue, where this strategy provides the new security and data protection approach with the help of the Key Revocation, Key Escrows and collaboration of the certain attributes with help of main Key Authorities. This paper mainly concentrates on the reliable data retrieval system with the help of CP-ABE for the Disruption-Tolerant Networks where multiple key authorities deal with respective attributes safely and securely. We performed comparison analysis on existing schemes with the recommended system components which are configured in the respective decentralized tolerant military system for reliable data retrieval.

Si, Xiaolin, Wang, Pengpian, Zhang, Liwu.  2013.  KP-ABE Based Verifiable Cloud Access Control Scheme. 2013 12th IEEE International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications. :34—41.

With the rapid development of mobile internet, mobile devices are requiring more complex authorization policy to ensure an secure access control on mobile data. However mobiles have limited resources (computing, storage, etc.) and are not suitable to execute complex operations. Cloud computing is an increasingly popular paradigm for accessing powerful computing resources. Intuitively we can solve that problem by moving the complex access control process to the cloud and implement a fine-grained access control relying on the powerful cloud. However the cloud computation may not be trusted, a crucial problem is how to verify the correctness of such computations. In this paper, we proposed a public verifiable cloud access control scheme based on Parno's public verifiable computation protocol. For the first time, we proposed the conception and concrete construction of verifiable cloud access control. Specifically, we firstly design a user private key revocable Key Policy Attribute Based Encryption (KP-ABE) scheme with non-monotonic access structure, which can be combined with the XACML policy perfectly. Secondly we convert the XACML policy into the access structure of KP-ABE. Finally we construct a security provable public verifiable cloud access control scheme based on the KP-ABE scheme we designed.

Zhang, Leyou, Liang, Pengfei, Mu, Yi.  2018.  Improving Privacy-Preserving and Security for Decentralized Key-Policy Attributed-Based Encryption. IEEE Access. 6:12736—12745.
Decentralized attribute-based encryption (ABE) is an efficient and flexible multi-authority attribute-based encryption system, since it does not requires the central authority and does not need to cooperate among the authorities for creating public parameters. Unfortunately, recent works show that the reality of the privacy preserving and security in almost well-known decentralized key policy ABE (KP-ABE) schemes are doubtful. How to construct a decentralized KP-ABE with the privacy-preserving and user collusion avoidance is still a challenging problem. Most recently, Y. Rahulamathavam et al. proposed a decentralized KP ABE scheme to try avoiding user collusion and preserving the user's privacy. However, we exploit the vulnerability of their scheme in this paper at first and present a collusion attack on their decentralized KP-ABE scheme. The attack shows the user collusion cannot be avoided. Subsequently, a new privacy-preserving decentralized KP-ABE is proposed. The proposed scheme avoids the linear attacks at present and achieves the user collusion avoidance. We also show that the security of the proposed scheme is reduced to decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption. Finally, numerical experiments demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed scheme.