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Amjath, M.I.M., Senthooran, V..  2020.  Secure Communication Using Steganography in IoT Environment. 2020 2nd International Conference on Advancements in Computing (ICAC). 1:114—119.
IoT is an emerging technology in modern world of communication. As the usage of IoT devices is increasing in day to day life, the secure data communication in IoT environment is the major challenge. Especially, small sized Single-Board Computers (SBCs) or Microcontrollers devices are widely used to transfer data with another in IoT. Due to the less processing power and storage capabilities, the data acquired from these devices must be transferred very securely in order to avoid some ethical issues. There are many cryptography approaches are applied to transfer data between IoT devices, but there are obvious chances to suspect encrypted messages by eavesdroppers. To add more secure data transfer, steganography mechanism is used to avoid the chances of suspicion as another layer of security. Based on the capabilities of IoT devices, low complexity images are used to hide the data with different hiding algorithms. In this research study, the secret data is encoded through QR code and embedded in low complexity cover images by applying image to image hiding fashion. The encoded image is sent to the receiving device via the network. The receiving device extracts the QR code from image using secret key then decoded the original data. The performance measure of the system is evaluated by the image quality parameters mainly Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Normalized Coefficient (NC) and Security with maintaining the quality of contemporary IoT system. Thus, the proposed method hides the precious information within an image using the properties of QR code and sending it without any suspicion to attacker and competes with the existing methods in terms of providing more secure communication between Microcontroller devices in IoT environment.
Osaretin, Charles Aimiuwu, Zamanlou, Mohammad, Iqbal, M. Tariq, Butt, Stephen.  2020.  Open Source IoT-Based SCADA System for Remote Oil Facilities Using Node-RED and Arduino Microcontrollers. 2020 11th IEEE Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON). :0571—0575.
An open source and low-cost Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System based on Node-RED and Arduino microcontrollers is presented in this paper. The system is designed for monitoring, supervision, and remotely controlling motors and sensors deployed for oil and gas facilities. The Internet of Things (IoT) based SCADA system consists of a host computer on which a server is deployed using the Node-RED programming tool and two terminal units connected to it: Arduino Uno and Arduino Mega. The Arduino Uno collects and communicates the data acquired from the temperature, flowrate, and water level sensors to the Node-Red on the computer through the serial port. It also uses a local liquid crystal display (LCD) to display the temperature. Node-RED on the computer retrieves the data from the voltage, current, rotary, accelerometer, and distance sensors through the Arduino Mega. Also, a web-based graphical user interface (GUI) is created using Node-RED and hosted on the local server for parsing the collected data. Finally, an HTTP basic access authentication is implemented using Nginx to control the clients' access from the Internet to the local server and to enhance its security and reliability.
Maunero, Nicoló, Prinetto, Paolo, Roascio, Gianluca, Varriale, Antonio.  2020.  A FPGA-based Control-Flow Integrity Solution for Securing Bare-Metal Embedded Systems. 2020 15th Design Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS). :1–10.
Memory corruption vulnerabilities, mainly present in C and C++ applications, may enable attackers to maliciously take control over the program running on a target machine by forcing it to execute an unintended sequence of instructions present in memory. This is the principle of modern Code-Reuse Attacks (CRAs) and of famous attack paradigms as Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) and Jump-Oriented Programming (JOP). Control-Flow Integrity (CFI) is a promising approach to protect against such runtime attacks. Recently, many CFI-based solutions have been proposed, resorting to both hardware and software implementations. However, many of these solutions are hardly applicable to microcontroller systems, often very resource-limited. The paper presents a generic, portable, and lightweight CFI solution for bare-metal embedded systems, i.e., systems that execute firmware directly from their Flash memory, without any Operating System. The proposed defense mixes software and hardware instrumentation and is based on monitoring the Control-Flow Graph (CFG) with an FPGA connected to the CPU. The solution, applicable in principle to any architecture which disposes of an FPGA, forces all control-flow transfers to be compliant with the CFG, and preserves the execution context from possible corruption when entering unpredictable code such as Interrupt Services Routines (ISR).
Kazemi, Z., Fazeli, M., Hély, D., Beroulle, V..  2020.  Hardware Security Vulnerability Assessment to Identify the Potential Risks in A Critical Embedded Application. 2020 IEEE 26th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :1—6.

Internet of Things (IoT) is experiencing significant growth in the safety-critical applications which have caused new security challenges. These devices are becoming targets for different types of physical attacks, which are exacerbated by their diversity and accessibility. Therefore, there is a strict necessity to support embedded software developers to identify and remediate the vulnerabilities and create resilient applications against such attacks. In this paper, we propose a hardware security vulnerability assessment based on fault injection of an embedded application. In our security assessment, we apply a fault injection attack by using our clock glitch generator on a critical medical IoT device. Furthermore, we analyze the potential risks of ignoring these attacks in this embedded application. The results will inform the embedded software developers of various security risks and the required steps to improve the security of similar MCU-based applications. Our hardware security assessment approach is easy to apply and can lead to secure embedded IoT applications against fault attacks.

Bresch, C., Lysecky, R., Hély, D..  2020.  BackFlow: Backward Edge Control Flow Enforcement for Low End ARM Microcontrollers. 2020 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :1606–1609.
This paper presents BackFlow, a compiler-based toolchain that enforces indirect backward edge control flow integrity for low-end ARM Cortex-M microprocessors. BackFlow is implemented within the Clang/LLVM compiler and supports the ARM instruction set and its subset Thumb. The control flow integrity generated by the compiler relies on a bitmap, where each set bit indicates a valid pointer destination. The efficiency of the framework is benchmarked using an STM32 NUCLEO F446RE microcontroller. The obtained results show that the control flow integrity solution incurs an execution time overhead ranging from 1.5 to 4.5%.
Ferryansa, Budiono, A., Almaarif, A..  2020.  Analysis of USB Based Spying Method Using Arduino and Metasploit Framework in Windows Operating System. 2020 3rd International Conference on Computer and Informatics Engineering (IC2IE). :437—442.

The use of a very wide windows operating system is undeniably also followed by increasing attacks on the operating system. Universal Serial Bus (USB) is one of the mechanisms used by many people with plug and play functionality that is very easy to use, making data transfers fast and easy compared to other hardware. Some research shows that the Windows operating system has weaknesses so that it is often exploited by using various attacks and malware. There are various methods used to exploit the Windows operating system, one of them by using a USB device. By using a USB device, a criminal can plant a backdoor reverse shell to exploit the victim's computer just by connecting the USB device to the victim's computer without being noticed. This research was conducted by planting a reverse shell backdoor through a USB device to exploit the victim's device, especially the webcam and microphone device on the target computer. From 35 experiments that have been carried out, it was found that 83% of spying attacks using USB devices on the Windows operating system were successfully carried out.

Rizki, R. P., Hamidi, E. A. Z., Kamelia, L., Sururie, R. W..  2020.  Image Processing Technique for Smart Home Security Based On the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Methods. 2020 6th International Conference on Wireless and Telematics (ICWT). :1–4.
Smart home is one application of the pervasive computing branch of science. Three categories of smart homes, namely comfort, healthcare, and security. The security system is a part of smart home technology that is very important because the intensity of crime is increasing, especially in residential areas. The system will detect the face by the webcam camera if the user enters the correct password. Face recognition will be processed by the Raspberry pi 3 microcontroller with the Principal Component Analysis method using OpenCV and Python software which has outputs, namely actuators in the form of a solenoid lock door and buzzer. The test results show that the webcam can perform face detection when the password input is successful, then the buzzer actuator can turn on when the database does not match the data taken by the webcam or the test data and the solenoid door lock actuator can run if the database matches the test data taken by the sensor. webcam. The mean response time of face detection is 1.35 seconds.
Zondo, S., Ogudo, K., Umenne, P..  2020.  Design of a Smart Home System Using Bluetooth Protocol. 2020 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Computing and Data Communication Systems (icABCD). :1—5.
Home automation is an intelligent, functional as a unit system that facilitates home processes without unnecessarily complicating the user's life. Devices can be connected, which in turn connect and talk through a centralized control unit, which are accessible via mobile phones. These devices include lights, appliances, security systems, alarms and many other sensors and devices. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Bluetooth based smart home automation system which uses a Peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller (16F1937) as the main processer and the appliances are connected to the peripheral ports of the microcontroller via relays. The circuit in the project was designed in Diptrace software. The PCB layout design was completed. The fully functional smart home prototype was built and demonstrated to functional.
Staschulat, J., Lütkebohle, I., Lange, R..  2020.  The rclc Executor: Domain-specific deterministic scheduling mechanisms for ROS applications on microcontrollers: work-in-progress. 2020 International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT). :18—19.

Robots are networks of a variety of computing devices, such as powerful computing platforms but also tiny microcontrollers. The Robot Operating System (ROS) is the dominant framework for powerful computing devices. While ROS version 2 adds important features like quality of service and security, it cannot be directly applied to microcontrollers because of its large memory footprint. The micro-ROS project has ported the ROS 2 API to microcontrollers. However, the standard ROS 2 concepts are not enough for real-time performance: In the ROS 2 release “Foxy”, the standard ROS 2 Executor, which is the central component responsible for handling timers and incoming message data, is neither real-time capable nor deterministic. Domain-specific requirements of mobile robots, like sense-plan-act control loops, cannot be addressed with the standard ROS 2 Executor. In this paper, we present an advanced Executor for the ROS 2 C API which provides deterministic scheduling and supports domain-specific requirements. A proof-of-concept is demonstrated on a 32-bit microcontroller.

Gao, X., Fu, X..  2020.  Miniature Water Surface Garbage Cleaning Robot. 2020 International Conference on Computer Engineering and Application (ICCEA). :806—810.

In light of the problem for garbage cleaning in small water area, an intelligent miniature water surface garbage cleaning robot with unmanned driving and convenient operation is designed. Based on STC12C5A60S2 as the main controller in the design, power module, transmission module and cleaning module are controlled together to realize the function of cleaning and transporting garbage, intelligent remote control of miniature water surface garbage cleaning robot is realized by the WiFi module. Then the prototype is developed and tested, which will verify the rationality of the design. Compared with the traditional manual driving water surface cleaning devices, the designed robot realizes the intelligent control of unmanned driving, and achieves the purpose of saving human resources and reducing labor intensity, and the system operates security and stability, which has certain practical value.

Yu, C. L., Han, Z. Gang, Xiao, W. H., Tong, M. Song.  2020.  A Support Vector Machine Algorithm for PIR Special Processor. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics (ICCEM). :279–280.
With the continuous improvement of people's safety awareness, infrared products as human motion detection technology have been widely used in the field of security. In order to better apply infrared products to life, improving the performance of infrared products and reducing the cost of products has become the main goal. According to the signal collected by Pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor, this paper establishes a database model. According to the data collected, Kalman filter is used to preprocess the data. The validity of the data after preprocessing is judged by the algorithm. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the model can reach 97% by using a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm incorporated with Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). According to the above algorithm flow, a real-time intellectual property (IP) core is designed by using hardware description language, after establishing the data processing algorithm. The interface design, timing design and function design of the IP core are designed. The IP core can be connected to the microcontroller unit (MCU) as an independent peripheral to form a PIR special processor, which can detect the distance of 15 m in real time.
Wang, X., Li, J..  2018.  Design of Intelligent Home Security Monitoring System Based on Android. 2018 2nd IEEE Advanced Information Management,Communicates,Electronic and Automation Control Conference (IMCEC). :2621–2624.
In view of the problem that the health status and safety monitoring of the traditional intelligent home are mainly dependent on the manual inspection, this paper introduces the intelligent home-based remote monitoring system by introducing the Internet-based Internet of Things technology into the intelligent home condition monitoring and safety assessment. The system's Android remote operation based on the MVP model to develop applications, the use of neural networks to deal with users daily use of operational data to establish the network data model, combined with S3C2440A microcontrollers in the gateway to the embedded Linux to facilitate different intelligent home drivers development. Finally, the power line communication network is used to connect the intelligent electrical appliances to the gateway. By calculating the success rate of the routing nodes, the success rate of the network nodes of 15 intelligent devices is 98.33%. The system can intelligent home many electrical appliances at the same time monitoring, to solve the system data and network congestion caused by the problem can not he security monitoring.
Thangarajan, Ashok Samraj, Ammar, Mahmoud, Crispo, Bruno, Hughes, Danny.  2019.  Towards Bridging the Gap between Modern and Legacy Automotive ECUs: A Software-Based Security Framework for Legacy ECUs. 2019 IEEE 2nd Connected and Automated Vehicles Symposium (CAVS). :1–5.
Modern automotive architectures are complex and often comprise of hundreds of electronic control units (ECUs). These ECUs provide diverse services including infotainment, telematics, diagnostics, advanced driving assistance, and many others. The availability of such services is mainly attained by the increasing connectivity with the external world, thus expanding the attack surface. In recent years, automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and ECU suppliers have become cautious of cyber attacks and have begun fortifying the most vulnerable systems, with hardware-based security modules that enable sandboxing, secure boot, secure software updates and end-to-end message authentication. Nevertheless, insecure legacy ECUs are still in-use in modern vehicles due to price and design complexity issues. Legacy ECUs depend on simple microcontrollers, that lack any kind of hardware-based security. This makes it essential to bridge the gap between modern and legacy ECUs through software-based security by which cyber attacks can be mitigated, thus enhancing the security of vehicles. This paper provides one more step towards highly secure vehicles by introducing a lightweight software- based security framework which provides legacy ECUs with software-based virtualization and protection features along with custom security services. We discuss the motivation for pure software-based approaches, explore the various requirements and advantages obtained, and give an initial insight of the design rationale. Furthermore, we provide a proof of concept implementation and evaluation with a demonstrative use case illustrating the importance of such framework in delivering new diagnostics security services to legacy ECUs.
Ishak, Muhammad Yusry Bin, Ahmad, Samsiah Binti, Zulkifli, Zalikha.  2019.  Iot Based Bluetooth Smart Radar Door System Via Mobile Apps. 2019 1st International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Data Sciences (AiDAS). :142—145.
{In the last few decades, Internet of things (IOT) is one of the key elements in industrial revolution 4.0 that used mart phones as one of the best technological advances' intelligent device. It allows us to have power over devices without people intervention, either remote or voice control. Therefore, the “Smart Radar Door “system uses a microcontroller and mobile Bluetooth module as an automation of smart door lock system. It is describing the improvement of a security system integrated with an Android mobile phone that uses Bluetooth as a wireless connection protocol and processing software as a tool in order to detect any object near to the door. The mob ile device is required a password as authentication method by using microcontroller to control lock and unlock door remotely. The Bluetooth protocol was chosen as a method of communication between microcontroller and mobile devices which integrated with many Android devices in secured protocol}.
De Oliveira Nunes, Ivan, ElDefrawy, Karim, Rattanavipanon, Norrathep, Tsudik, Gene.  2019.  PURE: Using Verified Remote Attestation to Obtain Proofs of Update, Reset and Erasure in low-End Embedded Systems. 2019 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD). :1–8.
Remote Attestation ( RA) is a security service that enables a trusted verifier ( Vrf) to measure current memory state of an untrusted remote prover ( Prv). If correctly implemented, RA allows Vrf to remotely detect if Prv's memory reflects a compromised state. However, RA by itself offers no means of remedying the situation once P rv is determined to be compromised. In this work we show how a secure RA architecture can be extended to enable important and useful security services for low-end embedded devices. In particular, we extend the formally verified RA architecture, VRASED, to implement provably secure software update, erasure, and system-wide resets. When (serially) composed, these features guarantee to Vrf that a remote Prv has been updated to a functional and malware-free state, and was properly initialized after such process. These services are provably secure against an adversary (represented by malware) that compromises Prv and exerts full control of its software state. Our results demonstrate that such services incur minimal additional overhead (0.4% extra hardware footprint, and 100-s milliseconds to generate combined proofs of update, erasure, and reset), making them practical even for the lowest-end embedded devices, e.g., those based on MSP430 or AVR ATMega micro-controller units (MCUs). All changes introduced by our new services to VRASED trusted components are also formally verified.
Tina, Sonam, Harshit, Singla, Muskan.  2019.  Smart Lightning and Security System. 2019 4th International Conference on Internet of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages (IoT-SIU). :1—6.

As Electric Power is one of the major concerns, so the concept of the automatic lighting and security system saves the electrical energy. By using the automatic lightning, the consumption of electrical power can be minimized to a greater extent and for that sensors and microcontrollers can be designed in such a manner such that lights get ON/OFF based on motion in a room. The various sensors used for sensing the motion in an area are PIR motion sensor, IR Motion Sensor. An IR sensor senses the heat of an object and detects its motion within some range as it emits infrared radiations and this complete process can be controlled by microcontroller. Along with that security system can be applied in this concept by programming the microcontroller in such a way that if there is some movement in an area then lights must get ON/OFF automatically or any alarm must start. This chapter proposes the framework for the smart lightning with security systems in a building so that electrical power can be utilized efficiently and secures the building.

Castiglione, Arcangelo, Palmieri, Francesco, Colace, Francesco, Lombardi, Marco, Santaniello, Domenico.  2019.  Lightweight Ciphers in Automotive Networks: A Preliminary Approach. 2019 4th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety (ICSRS). :142–147.
Nowadays, the growing need to connect modern vehicles through computer networks leads to increased risks of cyberattacks. The internal network, which governs the several electronic components of a vehicle, is becoming increasingly overexposed to external attacks. The Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol, used to interconnect those devices is the key point of the internal network of modern vehicles. Therefore, securing such protocol is crucial to ensure a safe driving experience. However, the CAN is a standard that has undergone little changes since it was introduced in 1983. More precisely, in an attempt to reduce latency, the transfer of information remains unencrypted, which today represents a weak point in the protocol. Hence, the need to protect communications, without introducing low-level alterations, while preserving the performance characteristics of the protocol. In this work, we investigate the possibility of using symmetric encryption algorithms for securing messages exchanged by CAN protocol. In particular, we evaluate the using of lightweight ciphers to secure CAN-level communication. Such ciphers represent a reliable solution on hardware-constrained devices, such as microcontrollers.
Niedermaier, Matthias, Fischer, Florian, Merli, Dominik, Sigl, Georg.  2019.  Network Scanning and Mapping for IIoT Edge Node Device Security. 2019 International Conference on Applied Electronics (AE). :1—6.

The amount of connected devices in the industrial environment is growing continuously, due to the ongoing demands of new features like predictive maintenance. New business models require more data, collected by IIoT edge node sensors based on inexpensive and low performance Microcontroller Units (MCUs). A negative side effect of this rise of interconnections is the increased attack surface, enabled by a larger network with more network services. Attaching badly documented and cheap devices to industrial networks often without permission of the administrator even further increases the security risk. A decent method to monitor the network and detect “unwanted” devices is network scanning. Typically, this scanning procedure is executed by a computer or server in each sub-network. In this paper, we introduce network scanning and mapping as a building block to scan directly from the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) edge node devices. This module scans the network in a pseudo-random periodic manner to discover devices and detect changes in the network structure. Furthermore, we validate our approach in an industrial testbed to show the feasibility of this approach.

Bundalo, Zlatko, Veljko, Momčilo, Bundalo, Dušanka, Kuzmić, Goran, Sajić, Mirko, Ramakić, Adnan.  2019.  Energy Efficient Embedded Systems for LED Lighting Control in Traffic. 2019 8th Mediterranean Conference on Embedded Computing (MECO). :1–4.
The paper considers, proposes and describes possibilities and ways for application, design and implementation of energy efficient microprocessor based embedded systems for LED lighting control in the traffic. Using LED lighting technology and appropriate designed embedded systems it is possible to implement very efficient and smart systems for very wide range of applications in the traffic. This type of systems can be widely used in many places in the traffic where there is needed quality lighting and low energy consumption. Application of such systems enables to increase energy consumption efficiency, quality of lighting and security of traffic and to decrease total costs for the lighting. Way of design and use of such digital embedded system to effectively increase functionality and efficiency of lighting in the traffic is proposed and described. It is also proposed and described one practically designed and implemented simple and universal embedded system for LED lighting control for many applications in the traffic.
Salehi, Majid, Hughes, Danny, Crispo, Bruno.  2019.  MicroGuard: Securing Bare-Metal Microcontrollers against Code-Reuse Attacks. 2019 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1–8.
Bare-metal microcontrollers are a family of Internet of Things (IoT) devices which are increasingly deployed in critical industrial environments. Similar to other IoT devices, bare-metal microcontrollers are vulnerable to memory corruption and code-reuse attacks. We propose MicroGuard, a novel mitigation method based on component-level sandboxing and automated code randomization to securely encapsulate application components in isolated environments. We implemented MicroGuard and evaluated its efficacy and efficiency with a real-world benchmark against different types of attacks. As our evaluation shows, MicroGuard provides better security than ACES, current state-of-the-art protection framework for bare-metal microcontrollers, with a comparable performance overhead.
Tenentes, Vasileios, Das, Shidhartha, Rossi, Daniele, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M..  2019.  Run-time Detection and Mitigation of Power-Noise Viruses. 2019 IEEE 25th International Symposium on On-Line Testing and Robust System Design (IOLTS). :275–280.
Power-noise viruses can be used as denial-of-service attacks by causing voltage emergencies in multi-core microprocessors that may lead to data corruptions and system crashes. In this paper, we present a run-time system for detecting and mitigating power-noise viruses. We present voltage noise data from a power-noise virus and benchmarks collected from an Arm multi-core processor, and we observe that the frequency of voltage emergencies is dramatically increasing during the execution of power-noise attacks. Based on this observation, we propose a regression model that allows for a run-time estimation of the severity of voltage emergencies by monitoring the frequency of voltage emergencies and the operating frequency of the microprocessor. For mitigating the problem, during the execution of critical tasks that require protection, we propose a system which periodically evaluates the severity of voltage emergencies and adapts its operating frequency in order to honour a predefined severity constraint. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed run-time system.
Duncan, A., Jiang, L., Swany, M..  2018.  Repurposing SoC Analog Circuitry for Additional COTS Hardware Security. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :201–204.

This paper introduces a new methodology to generate additional hardware security in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) system-on-a-chip (SoC) integrated circuits (ICs) that have already been fabricated and packaged. On-chip analog hardware blocks such as analog to digital converters (ADCs), digital to analog converters (DACs) and comparators residing within an SoC are repurposed and connected to one another to generate unique physically unclonable function (PUF) responses. The PUF responses are digitized and processed on-chip to create keys for use in encryption and device authentication activities. Key generation and processing algorithms are presented that minimize the effects of voltage and temperature fluctuations to maximize the repeatability of a key within a device. Experimental results utilizing multiple on-chip analog blocks inside a common COTS microcontroller show reliable key generation with minimal overhead.

Sowah, R., Ofoli, A., Koumadi, K., Osae, G., Nortey, G., Bempong, A. M., Agyarkwa, B., Apeadu, K. O..  2018.  Design and Implementation of a Fire Detection andControl System with Enhanced Security and Safety for Automobiles Using Neuro-Fuzzy Logic. 2018 IEEE 7th International Conference on Adaptive Science Technology (ICAST). :1-8.

Automobiles provide comfort and mobility to owners. While they make life more meaningful they also pose challenges and risks in their safety and security mechanisms. Some modern automobiles are equipped with anti-theft systems and enhanced safety measures to safeguard its drivers. But at times, these mechanisms for safety and secured operation of automobiles are insufficient due to various mechanisms used by intruders and car thieves to defeat them. Drunk drivers cause accidents on our roads and thus the need to safeguard the driver when he is intoxicated and render the car to be incapable of being driven. These issues merit an integrated approach to safety and security of automobiles. In the light of these challenges, an integrated microcontroller-based hardware and software system for safety and security of automobiles to be fixed into existing vehicle architecture, was designed, developed and deployed. The system submodules are: (1) Two-step ignition for automobiles, namely: (a) biometric ignition and (b) alcohol detection with engine control, (2) Global Positioning System (GPS) based vehicle tracking and (3) Multisensor-based fire detection using neuro-fuzzy logic. All submodules of the system were implemented using one microcontroller, the Arduino Mega 2560, as the central control unit. The microcontroller was programmed using C++11. The developed system performed quite well with the tests performed on it. Given the right conditions, the alcohol detection subsystem operated with a 92% efficiency. The biometric ignition subsystem operated with about 80% efficiency. The fire detection subsystem operated with a 95% efficiency in locations registered with the neuro-fuzzy system. The vehicle tracking subsystem operated with an efficiency of 90%.

Pawlenka, T., Škuta, J..  2018.  Security system based on microcontrollers. 2018 19th International Carpathian Control Conference (ICCC). :344–347.
The article describes design and realization of security system based on single-chip microcontrollers. System includes sensor modules for unauthorized entrance detection based on magnetic contact, measuring carbon monoxide level, movement detection and measuring temperature and humidity. System also includes control unit, control panel and development board Arduino with ethernet interface connected for web server implementation.
Desnitsky, V. A., Kotenko, I. V..  2018.  Security event analysis in XBee-based wireless mesh networks. 2018 IEEE Conference of Russian Young Researchers in Electrical and Electronic Engineering (EIConRus). :42–44.
In modern cyber-physical systems and wireless sensor networks the complexity of crisis management processes is caused by a variety of software/hardware assets and communication protocols, the necessity of their collaborative function, possible inconsistency of data flows between particular devices and increased requirements to cyber-physical security. A crisis management oriented model of a communicational mobile network is constructed. A general architecture of network nodes by the use of XBee circuits, Arduino microcontrollers and connecting equipment are developed. An analysis of possible cyber-physical security events on the base of existing intruder models is performed. A series of experiments on modeling attacks on network nodes is conducted. Possible ways for attack revelations by means of components for security event collection and data correlation is discussed.