Visible to the public Biblio

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2020-12-21
Figueiredo, N. M., Rodríguez, M. C..  2020.  Trustworthiness in Sensor Networks A Reputation-Based Method for Weather Stations. 2020 International Conference on Omni-layer Intelligent Systems (COINS). :1–6.
Trustworthiness is a soft-security feature that evaluates the correct behavior of nodes in a network. More specifically, this feature tries to answer the following question: how much should we trust in a certain node? To determine the trustworthiness of a node, our approach focuses on two reputation indicators: the self-data trust, which evaluates the data generated by the node itself taking into account its historical data; and the peer-data trust, which utilizes the nearest nodes' data. In this paper, we show how these two indicators can be calculated using the Gaussian Overlap and Pearson correlation. This paper includes a validation of our trustworthiness approach using real data from unofficial and official weather stations in Portugal. This is a representative scenario of the current situation in many other areas, with different entities providing different kinds of data using autonomous sensors in a continuous way over the networks.
2020-11-30
Beran, P., Klöhn, M., Hohe, H..  2019.  Measurement Characteristics of Different Integrated Three-Dimensional Magnetic Field Sensors. IEEE Magnetics Letters. 10:1–5.
Datasheets of different commercially available integrated sensors for vector measurements of magnetic fields provide typical specifications, such as measurement range, sampling rate, resolution, and noise. Other characteristics of interest, such as linearity, cross-sensitivity, remanent magnetization, and drifts over temperature, are mostly missing. This letter presents testing results of those characteristics of integrated three-dimensional (3-D) sensors working with different sensor principles and technologies in a reproducible measuring process. The sensors are exposed to temperatures from -20 °C to 80 °C and are cycled in hysteresis loops in fields up to 2.5 mT. For applying high-accuracy magnetic fields, a calibrated 3-D Helmholtz coil setup is used. Commercially available integrated 3-D magnetic field sensors are put in operation on a printed circuit board using nonmagnetic passive components. All sensors are configured for best measurement accuracy according to their data-sheets. The results show that sensors based on anisotropic magnetoresistance have high accuracy and low offsets yet also a high degree of nonlinearity. Hall-based sensors show good linearity but also high cross-sensitivity. A magnetic remanence appears for Hall-based sensors with integrated magnetic concentrators as well as for sensors using anisotropic magnetoresistance. Nearly all sensors show remaining drifts over temperature regarding offset and sensitivity up to several percentages.
2020-08-28
Karaküçük, Ahmet, Dirik, A. Emir.  2019.  Source Device Attribution of Thermal Images Captured with Handheld IR Cameras. 2019 11th International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ELECO). :547—551.

Source camera attribution of digital images has been a hot research topic in digital forensics literature. However, the thermal cameras and the radiometric data they generate stood as a nascent topic, as such devices are expensive and tailored for specific use-cases - not adapted by the masses. This has changed dramatically, with the low-cost, pluggable thermal-camera add-ons to smartphones and similar low-cost pocket-size thermal cameras introduced to consumers recently, which enabled the use of thermal imaging devices for the masses. In this paper, we are going to investigate the use of an established source device attribution method on radiometric data produced with a consumer-level, low-cost handheld thermal camera. The results we represent in this paper are promising and show that it is quite possible to attribute thermal images with their source camera.

2020-07-06
Gries, Stefan, Ollesch, Julius, Gruhn, Volker.  2019.  Modeling Semantic Dependencies to Allow Flow Monitoring in Networks with Black-Box Nodes. 2019 IEEE/ACM 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Smart Cyber-Physical Systems (SEsCPS). :14–17.
Cyber-Physical Systems are distributed, heterogeneous systems that communicate and exchange data over networks. This creates semantic dependencies between the individual components. In the event of an error, it is difficult to identify the source of an occurring error that is spread due to those underlying dependencies. Tools such as the Information Flow Monitor solve this problem, but require compliance with a protocol. Nodes that do not adhere to this protocol prevent errors from being tracked. In this paper, we present a way to bridge these black-box nodes with a dependency model and to still be able to use them in monitoring tools.
2020-05-18
Zhong, Guo-qiang, Wang, Huai-yu, Zheng, Shuai, JIA, Bao-zhu.  2019.  Research on fusion diagnosis method of thermal fault of Marine diesel engine. 2019 Chinese Automation Congress (CAC). :5371–5375.
In order to avoid the situation that the diagnosis model based on single sensor data is easily disturbed by environmental noise and the diagnosis accuracy is low, an intelligent fault fusion diagnosis method for marine diesel engine is proposed. Firstly, the support vector machine which is optimized by genetic algorithm is used to learn the fault sample data from different sensors, then multiple fault diagnosis models and results can be got. After that, multiple groups of diagnosis results are taken as evidence bodies and fused by evidence theory to obtain more accurate diagnosis results. By analyzing the sample data obtained from the fault simulation experiment of marine diesel engine based on AVL BOOST software, the proposed method can improve the fault diagnosis accuracy of marine diesel engine and reduce the uncertainty value of diagnosis results.
2020-02-24
Song, Juncai, Zhao, Jiwen, Dong, Fei, Zhao, Jing, Xu, Liang, Wang, Lijun, Xie, Fang.  2019.  Demagnetization Modeling Research for Permanent Magnet in PMSLM Using Extreme Learning Machine. 2019 IEEE International Electric Machines Drives Conference (IEMDC). :1757–1761.
This paper investigates the temperature demagnetization modeling method for permanent magnets (PM) in permanent magnet synchronous linear motor (PMSLM). First, the PM characteristics are presented, and finite element analysis (FEA) is conducted to show the magnetic distribution under different temperatures. Second, demagnetization degrees and remanence of the five PMs' experiment sample are actually measured in stove at temperatures varying from room temperature to 300 °C, and to obtain the real data for next-step modeling. Third, machine learning algorithm called extreme learning machine (ELM) is introduced to map the nonlinear relationships between temperature and demagnetization characteristics of PM and build the demagnetization models. Finally, comparison experiments between linear modeling method, polynomial modeling method, and ELM can certify the effectiveness and advancement of this proposed method.
2020-02-17
Facon, Adrien, Guilley, Sylvain, Ngo, Xuan-Thuy, Perianin, Thomas.  2019.  Hardware-enabled AI for Embedded Security: A New Paradigm. 2019 3rd International Conference on Recent Advances in Signal Processing, Telecommunications Computing (SigTelCom). :80–84.

As chips become more and more connected, they are more exposed (both to network and to physical attacks). Therefore one shall ensure they enjoy a sufficient protection level. Security within chips is accordingly becoming a hot topic. Incident detection and reporting is one novel function expected from chips. In this talk, we explain why it is worthwhile to resort to Artificial Intelligence (AI) for security event handling. Drivers are the need to aggregate multiple and heterogeneous security sensors, the need to digest this information quickly to produce exploitable information, and so while maintaining a low false positive detection rate. Key features are adequate learning procedures and fast and secure classification accelerated by hardware. A challenge is to embed such security-oriented AI logic, while not compromising chip power budget and silicon area. This talk accounts for the opportunities permitted by the symbiotic encounter between chip security and AI.

2019-09-30
Elbidweihy, H., Arrott, A. S., Provenzano, V..  2018.  Modeling the Role of the Buildup of Magnetic Charges in Low Anisotropy Polycrystalline Materials. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 54:1–5.

A Stoner-Wohlfarth-type model is used to demonstrate the effect of the buildup of magnetic charges near the grain boundaries of low anisotropy polycrystalline materials, revealed by measuring the magnetization during positive-field warming after negative-field cooling. The remnant magnetization after negative-field cooling has two different contributions. The temperature-dependent component is modeled as an assembly of particles with thermal relaxation. The temperature-independent component is modeled as an assembly of particles overcoming variable phenomenological energy barriers corresponding to the change in susceptibility when the anisotropy constant changes its sign. The model is applicable to soft-magnetic materials where the buildup of the magnetic charges near the grain boundaries creates demagnetizing fields opposing, and comparable in magnitude to, the anisotropy field. The results of the model are in qualitative agreement with published data revealing the magneto-thermal characteristics of polycrystalline gadolinium.

2019-09-11
Duncan, A., Jiang, L., Swany, M..  2018.  Repurposing SoC Analog Circuitry for Additional COTS Hardware Security. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Hardware Oriented Security and Trust (HOST). :201–204.

This paper introduces a new methodology to generate additional hardware security in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) system-on-a-chip (SoC) integrated circuits (ICs) that have already been fabricated and packaged. On-chip analog hardware blocks such as analog to digital converters (ADCs), digital to analog converters (DACs) and comparators residing within an SoC are repurposed and connected to one another to generate unique physically unclonable function (PUF) responses. The PUF responses are digitized and processed on-chip to create keys for use in encryption and device authentication activities. Key generation and processing algorithms are presented that minimize the effects of voltage and temperature fluctuations to maximize the repeatability of a key within a device. Experimental results utilizing multiple on-chip analog blocks inside a common COTS microcontroller show reliable key generation with minimal overhead.

2019-05-01
Berjab, N., Le, H. H., Yu, C., Kuo, S., Yokota, H..  2018.  Hierarchical Abnormal-Node Detection Using Fuzzy Logic for ECA Rule-Based Wireless Sensor Networks. 2018 IEEE 23rd Pacific Rim International Symposium on Dependable Computing (PRDC). :289-298.

The Internet of things (IoT) is a distributed, networked system composed of many embedded sensor devices. Unfortunately, these devices are resource constrained and susceptible to malicious data-integrity attacks and failures, leading to unreliability and sometimes to major failure of parts of the entire system. Intrusion detection and failure handling are essential requirements for IoT security. Nevertheless, as far as we know, the area of data-integrity detection for IoT has yet to receive much attention. Most previous intrusion-detection methods proposed for IoT, particularly for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), focus only on specific types of network attacks. Moreover, these approaches usually rely on using precise values to specify abnormality thresholds. However, sensor readings are often imprecise and crisp threshold values are inappropriate. To guarantee a lightweight, dependable monitoring system, we propose a novel hierarchical framework for detecting abnormal nodes in WSNs. The proposed approach uses fuzzy logic in event-condition-action (ECA) rule-based WSNs to detect malicious nodes, while also considering failed nodes. The spatiotemporal semantics of heterogeneous sensor readings are considered in the decision process to distinguish malicious data from other anomalies. Following our experiments with the proposed framework, we stress the significance of considering the sensor correlations to achieve detection accuracy, which has been neglected in previous studies. Our experiments using real-world sensor data demonstrate that our approach can provide high detection accuracy with low false-alarm rates. We also show that our approach performs well when compared to two well-known classification algorithms.

2019-03-25
Pawlenka, T., Škuta, J..  2018.  Security system based on microcontrollers. 2018 19th International Carpathian Control Conference (ICCC). :344–347.
The article describes design and realization of security system based on single-chip microcontrollers. System includes sensor modules for unauthorized entrance detection based on magnetic contact, measuring carbon monoxide level, movement detection and measuring temperature and humidity. System also includes control unit, control panel and development board Arduino with ethernet interface connected for web server implementation.
2019-03-15
Cozzi, M., Galliere, J., Maurine, P..  2018.  Exploiting Phase Information in Thermal Scans for Stealthy Trojan Detection. 2018 21st Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD). :573-576.

Infrared thermography has been recognized for its ability to investigate integrated circuits in a non destructive way. Coupled to lock-in correlation it has proven efficient in detecting thermal hot spots. Most of the state of the Art measurement systems are based on amplitude analysis. In this paper we propose to investigate weak thermal hot spots using the phase of infrared signals. We demonstrate that phase analysis is a formidable alternative to amplitude to detect small heat signatures. Finally, we apply our measurement platform and its detection method to the identification of stealthy hardware Trojans.

2019-02-14
Schuette, J., Brost, G. S..  2018.  LUCON: Data Flow Control for Message-Based IoT Systems. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :289-299.

Today's emerging Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) scenarios are characterized by the exchange of data between services across enterprises. Traditional access and usage control mechanisms are only able to determine if data may be used by a subject, but lack an understanding of how it may be used. The ability to control the way how data is processed is however crucial for enterprises to guarantee (and provide evidence of) compliant processing of critical data, as well as for users who need to control if their private data may be analyzed or linked with additional information - a major concern in IoT applications processing personal information. In this paper, we introduce LUCON, a data-centric security policy framework for distributed systems that considers data flows by controlling how messages may be routed across services and how they are combined and processed. LUCON policies prevent information leaks, bind data usage to obligations, and enforce data flows across services. Policy enforcement is based on a dynamic taint analysis at runtime and an upfront static verification of message routes against policies. We discuss the semantics of these two complementing enforcement models and illustrate how LUCON policies are compiled from a simple policy language into a first-order logic representation. We demonstrate the practical application of LUCON in a real-world IoT middleware and discuss its integration into Apache Camel. Finally, we evaluate the runtime impact of LUCON and discuss performance and scalability aspects.

2018-12-03
Molka-Danielsen, J., Engelseth, P., Olešnaníková, V., Šarafín, P., Žalman, R..  2017.  Big Data Analytics for Air Quality Monitoring at a Logistics Shipping Base via Autonomous Wireless Sensor Network Technologies. 2017 5th International Conference on Enterprise Systems (ES). :38–45.
The indoor air quality in industrial workplace buildings, e.g. air temperature, humidity and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), play a critical role in the perceived levels of workers' comfort and in reported medical health. CO2 can act as an oxygen displacer, and in confined spaces humans can have, for example, reactions of dizziness, increased heart rate and blood pressure, headaches, and in more serious cases loss of consciousness. Specialized organizations can be brought in to monitor the work environment for limited periods. However, new low cost wireless sensor network (WSN) technologies offer potential for more continuous and autonomous assessment of industrial workplace air quality. Central to effective decision making is the data analytics approach and visualization of what is potentially, big data (BD) in monitoring the air quality in industrial workplaces. This paper presents a case study that monitors air quality that is collected with WSN technologies. We discuss the potential BD problems. The case trials are from two workshops that are part of a large on-shore logistics base a regional shipping industry in Norway. This small case study demonstrates a monitoring and visualization approach for facilitating BD in decision making for health and safety in the shipping industry. We also identify other potential applications of WSN technologies and visualization of BD in the workplace environments; for example, for monitoring of other substances for worker safety in high risk industries and for quality of goods in supply chain management.
2018-08-23
Nizamkari, N. S..  2017.  A graph-based trust-enhanced recommender system for service selection in IOT. 2017 International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC). :1–5.

In an Internet of Things (IOT) network, each node (device) provides and requires services and with the growth in IOT, the number of nodes providing the same service have also increased, thus creating a problem of selecting one reliable service from among many providers. In this paper, we propose a scalable graph-based collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm, improved using trust to solve service selection problem, which can scale to match the growth in IOT unlike a central recommender which fails. Using this recommender, a node can predict its ratings for the nodes that are providing the required service and then select the best rated service provider.

2018-05-16
Liao, J., Vallobra, P., Petit, D., Vemulkar, T., O'Brien, L., Malinowski, G., Hehn, M., Mangin, S., Cowburn, R..  2017.  All-optical switching behaviours in synthetic ferrimagnetic heterostructures with different ferromagnetic-layer Curie temperatures. 2017 IEEE International Magnetics Conference (INTERMAG). :1–1.
Summary form only given. All-optical switching (AOS) has been observed in ferromagnetic (FM) layers and synthetic ferrimagnetic heterostructures [1-4]. In this work, we use anomalous Hall effect (AHE) measurements to demonstrate controlled helicity-dependent switching in synthetic ferrimagnetic heterostructures. The two FM layers are engineered to have different Curie temperatures Tc1 (fixed) and Tc2 (variable). We show that irrespective of whether Tc2 is higher or lower than Tc1, the final magnetic configuration of the heterostructure is controlled by using the laser polarization to set the magnetic state of the FM layer with the highest Tc. All samples were grown on glass substrates at room temperature by DC magnetron sputtering. Two sets of samples were prepared. The first set are single FM layers with layer composition Ta (3 nm)/Pt (4 nm)/FM1(2)/Pt capping (4 nm), where FM1 = Co (0.6 nm) is a Co layer and FM2 = CoFeB (tCoFeB)/Pt(0.4 nm)/ CoFeB (tCoFeB) (0.2 ≤ tCoFeB ≤ 0.6 nm) is a composite CoFeB layer where both CoFeB layers are ferromagnetically coupled and act as a single layer. FM1 and FM2 were used to produce the second set of synthetic ferrimagnetic samples with layer structure Ta (3 nm)/Pt (4 nm)/FM1/Pt (0.4 nm)/Ru (0.9 nm)/Pt (0.4 nm)/FM2/Pt capping (4 nm). The Ru layer provides the antiferromagnetic RKKY interlayer exchange coupling between the adjacent FM1 and FM2 layers while the Pt layers on either side of the Ru layer can tune the strength of the coupling and stabilize their perpendicular anisotropy [5]. To study the AOS, we use a Ti: sapphire fs-laser with a wavelength of 800 nm and a pulse duration of 43 fs. A quarter-wave plate is used to create a circularly polarized [right(σ+) and left-handed (σ-)] beam. We first measured the magnetic properties of the FM1 and FM2 layers using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). All FM samples show full remanence in perpendicular hyst- resis loops at room temperature (not shown). The temperature-dependent magnetization scans (not shown) give a Curie temperature Tc1 of 524 K for FM1. For FM2, increasing tCoFeB increases its Curie temperatureTc2. At tCoFeB = 0.5 nm, Tc2 - Tc1. Hall crosses are patterned by optical lithography and ion milling. The width of the current carrying wire is - 5 um, giving a DC current density of - 6 x 109 A/m2 during the measurement. Figure 1(a) shows the resulting perpendicular Hall hysteresis loop of the synthetic ferrimagnetic sample with tCoFeB = 0.2 nm. At remanence, the stable magnetic configurations are the two antiparallel orientations of FM1 and FM2 [State I and II in Fig. 1(a)]. To study the AOS, we swept the laser beam with a power of 0.45 mW and a speed of 1 μm/sec across the Hall cross, and the corresponding Hall voltage was constantly monitored. In Fig. 1(b), we show the normalized Hall voltage, VHall, as a function of the laser beam position x for both beam polarizations σ+ and σ-. The initial magnetic configuration was State I. When the beam is at the center of the cross (position B), both beam polarizations give VHall - 0. As the beam leaves the cross (position C), the σbeam changes the magnetic configurations from State I to State II (FM1 magnetization pointing down), while the system reverts to State I using the σ+ beam. Changing the initial configuration from State I to State II results in the same final magnetic configurations, determined by the laser beam polarizations (not shown). Similar results (not shown) were obtained for samples with tCoFeB ≤ 0.4 nm. However, at tCoFeB = 0.6 nm, the σbeam results in the final magnetic configurations with FM2 magnetization pointing down (State I) and the σ+ beam results in the State II configuration, suggesting that the final state is determined by the beam polar
Hernández, S., Lu, P. L., Granz, S., Krivosik, P., Huang, P. W., Eppler, W., Rausch, T., Gage, E..  2017.  Using Ensemble Waveform Analysis to Compare Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording Characteristics of Modeled and Measured Signals. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 53:1–6.

Ensemble waveform analysis is used to calculate signal to noise ratio (SNR) and other recording characteristics from micromagnetically modeled heat assisted magnetic recording waveforms and waveforms measured at both drive and spin-stand level. Using windowing functions provides the breakdown between transition and remanence SNRs. In addition, channel bit density (CBD) can be extracted from the ensemble waveforms using the di-bit extraction method. Trends in both transition SNR, remanence SNR, and CBD as a function of ambient temperature at constant track width showed good agreement between model and measurement. Both model and drive-level measurement show degradation in SNR at higher ambient temperatures, which may be due to changes in the down-track profile at the track edges compared with track center. CBD as a function of cross-track position is also calculated for both modeling and spin-stand measurements. The CBD widening at high cross-track offset, which is observed at both measurement and model, was directly related to the radius of curvature of the written transitions observed in the model and the thermal profiles used.

Patra, M. K..  2017.  An architecture model for smart city using Cognitive Internet of Things (CIoT). 2017 Second International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT). :1–6.

In this paper, a distributed architecture for the implementation of smart city has been proposed to facilitate various smart features like solid waste management, efficient urban mobility and public transport, smart parking, robust IT connectivity, safety and security of citizens and a roadmap for achieving it. How massive volume of IoT data can be analyzed and a layered architecture of IoT is explained. Why data integration is important for analyzing and processing of data collected by the different smart devices like sensors, actuators and RFIDs is discussed. The wireless sensor network can be used to sense the data from various locations but there has to be more to it than stuffing sensors everywhere for everything. Why only the sensor is not sufficient for data collection and how human beings can be used to collect data is explained. There is some communication protocols between the volunteers engaged in collecting data to restrict the sharing of data and ensure that the target area is covered with minimum numbers of volunteers. Every volunteer should cover some predefined area to collect data. Then the proposed architecture model is having one central server to store all data in a centralized server. The data processing and the processing of query being made by the user is taking place in centralized server.

2018-04-11
Shen, G., Tang, Y., Li, S., Chen, J., Yang, B..  2017.  A General Framework of Hardware Trojan Detection: Two-Level Temperature Difference Based Thermal Map Analysis. 2017 11th IEEE International Conference on Anti-Counterfeiting, Security, and Identification (ASID). :172–178.

With the globalization of integrated circuit design and manufacturing, Hardware Trojan have posed serious threats to the security of commercial chips. In this paper, we propose the framework of two-level temperature difference based thermal map analysis detection method. In our proposed method, thermal maps of an operating chip during a period are captured, and they are differentiated with the thermal maps of a golden model. Then every pixel's differential temperature of differential thermal maps is extracted and compared with other pixel's. To mitigate the Gaussian white noise and to differentiate the information of Hardware Trojan from the information of normal circuits, Kalman filter algorithm is involved. In our experiment, FPGAs configured with equivalent circuits are utilized to simulate the real chips to validate our proposed approach. The experimental result reveals that our proposed framework can detect Hardware Trojan whose power proportion magnitude is 10''3.

2018-03-19
Pundir, N., Hazari, N. A., Amsaad, F., Niamat, M..  2017.  A Novel Hybrid Delay Based Physical Unclonable Function Immune to Machine Learning Attacks. 2017 IEEE National Aerospace and Electronics Conference (NAECON). :84–87.

In this paper, machine learning attacks are performed on a novel hybrid delay based Arbiter Ring Oscillator PUF (AROPUF). The AROPUF exhibits improved results when compared to traditional Arbiter Physical Unclonable Function (APUF). The challenge-response pairs (CRPs) from both PUFs are fed to the multilayered perceptron model (MLP) with one hidden layer. The results show that the CRPs generated from the proposed AROPUF has more training and prediction errors when compared to the APUF, thus making it more difficult for the adversary to predict the CRPs.

2018-02-27
Qiao, Z., Cheng, L., Zhang, S., Yang, L., Guo, C..  2017.  Detection of Composite Insulators Inner Defects Based on Flash Thermography. 2017 1st International Conference on Electrical Materials and Power Equipment (ICEMPE). :359–363.

Usually, the air gap will appear inside the composite insulators and it will lead to serious accident. In order to detect these internal defects in composite insulators operated in the transmission lines, a new non-destructive technique has been proposed. In the study, the mathematical analysis model of the composite insulators inner defects, which is about heat diffusion, has been build. The model helps to analyze the propagation process of heat loss and judge the structure and defects under the surface. Compared with traditional detection methods and other non-destructive techniques, the technique mentioned above has many advantages. In the study, air defects of composite insulators have been made artificially. Firstly, the artificially fabricated samples are tested by flash thermography, and this method shows a good performance to figure out the structure or defects under the surface. Compared the effect of different excitation between flash and hair drier, the artificially samples have a better performance after heating by flash. So the flash excitation is better. After testing by different pollution on the surface, it can be concluded that different pollution don't have much influence on figuring out the structure or defect under the surface, only have some influence on heat diffusion. Then the defective composite insulators from work site are detected and the image of defect is clear. This new active thermography system can be detected quickly, efficiently and accurately, ignoring the influence of different pollution and other environmental restrictions. So it will have a broad prospect of figuring out the defeats and structure in composite insulators even other styles of insulators.

2018-02-06
Salman, O., Kayssi, A., Chehab, A., Elhajj, I..  2017.  Multi-Level Security for the 5G/IoT Ubiquitous Network. 2017 Second International Conference on Fog and Mobile Edge Computing (FMEC). :188–193.

5G, the fifth generation of mobile communication networks, is considered as one of the main IoT enablers. Connecting billions of things, 5G/IoT will be dealing with trillions of GBytes of data. Securing such large amounts of data is a very challenging task. Collected data varies from simple temperature measurements to more critical transaction data. Thus, applying uniform security measures is a waste of resources (processing, memory, and network bandwidth). Alternatively, a multi-level security model needs to be applied according to the varying requirements. In this paper, we present a multi-level security scheme (BLP) applied originally in the information security domain. We review its application in the network domain, and propose a modified version of BLP for the 5G/IoT case. The proposed model is proven to be secure and compliant with the model rules.

2018-02-02
Paul-Pena, D., Krishnamurthy, P., Karri, R., Khorrami, F..  2017.  Process-aware side channel monitoring for embedded control system security. 2017 IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC). :1–6.

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are interconnections of heterogeneous hardware and software components (e.g., sensors, actuators, physical systems/processes, computational nodes and controllers, and communication subsystems). Increasing network connectivity of CPS computational nodes facilitates maintenance and on-demand reprogrammability and reduces operator workload. However, such increasing connectivity also raises the potential for cyber-attacks that attempt unauthorized modifications of run-time parameters or control logic in the computational nodes to hamper process stability or performance. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of real-time monitoring using digital and analog side channels. While analog side channels might not typically provide sufficient granularity to observe each iteration of a periodic loop in the code in the CPS device, the temporal averaging inherent to side channel sensory modalities enables observation of persistent changes to the contents of a computational loop through their resulting effect on the level of activity of the device. Changes to code can be detected by observing readings from side channel sensors over a period of time. Experimental studies are performed on an ARM-based single board computer.

2018-01-10
Ahmed, C. M., Mathur, A. P..  2017.  Hardware Identification via Sensor Fingerprinting in a Cyber Physical System. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :517–524.

A lot of research in security of cyber physical systems focus on threat models where an attacker can spoof sensor readings by compromising the communication channel. A little focus is given to attacks on physical components. In this paper a method to detect potential attacks on physical components in a Cyber Physical System (CPS) is proposed. Physical attacks are detected through a comparison of noise pattern from sensor measurements to a reference noise pattern. If an adversary has physically modified or replaced a sensor, the proposed method issues an alert indicating that a sensor is probably compromised or is defective. A reference noise pattern is established from the sensor data using a deterministic model. This pattern is referred to as a fingerprint of the corresponding sensor. The fingerprint so derived is used as a reference to identify measured data during the operation of a CPS. Extensive experimentation with ultrasonic level sensors in a realistic water treatment testbed point to the effectiveness of the proposed fingerprinting method in detecting physical attacks.

2017-12-20
Sándor, H., Genge, B., Szántó, Z..  2017.  Sensor data validation and abnormal behavior detection in the Internet of Things. 2017 16th RoEduNet Conference: Networking in Education and Research (RoEduNet). :1–5.
Internet of Things (IoT) and its various application domains are radically changing the lives of people, providing smart services which will ultimately constitute integral components of the living environment. The services of IoT operate based on the data flows collected from the different sensors and actuators. In this respect, the correctness and security of the sensor data transported over the IoT system is a crucial factor in ensuring the correct functioning of the IoT services. In this work, we present a method that can detect abnormal sensor events based on “apriori” knowledge of the behavior of the monitored process. The main advantage of the proposed methodology is that it builds on well-established theoretical works, while delivering a practical technique with low computational requirements. As a result, the developed technique can be hosted on various components of an IoT system. The developed approach is evaluated through real-world use-cases.