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Anzer, Ayesha, Elhadef, Mourad.  2018.  A Multilayer Perceptron-Based Distributed Intrusion Detection System for Internet of Vehicles. 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC). :438—445.

Security of Internet of vehicles (IoV) is critical as it promises to provide with safer and secure driving. IoV relies on VANETs which is based on V2V (Vehicle to Vehicle) communication. The vehicles are integrated with various sensors and embedded systems allowing them to gather data related to the situation on the road. The collected data can be information associated with a car accident, the congested highway ahead, parked car, etc. This information exchanged with other neighboring vehicles on the road to promote safe driving. IoV networks are vulnerable to various security attacks. The V2V communication comprises specific vulnerabilities which can be manipulated by attackers to compromise the whole network. In this paper, we concentrate on intrusion detection in IoV and propose a multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network to detect intruders or attackers on an IoV network. Results are in the form of prediction, classification reports, and confusion matrix. A thorough simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the new MLP-based intrusion detection system.

Kim, Seungmin, Kim, Sangwoo, Nam, Ki-haeng, Kim, Seonuk, Kwon, Kook-huei.  2019.  Cyber Security Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant through Vital Digital Assets. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :224–226.
As nuclear power plant Instrumentation and Control(I&C) systems have turned into digital systems, the possibility of cyber-attacks has increased. To protect the nuclear power plant from cyber-attacks, digital assets are classified and managed as critical digital assets which have safety, security and emergency preparedness functions. However, critical digital assets represent 70-80% of total digital assets, and applying and managing the same security control is inefficient. Therefore, this paper presents the criteria for identifying digital assets that are classified as vital digital assets that can directly affect the serious accidents of nuclear power plants.
Brezhniev, Yevhen.  2019.  Multilevel Fuzzy Logic-Based Approach for Critical Energy Infrastructure’s Cyber Resilience Assessment. 2019 10th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). :213–217.
This paper presents approach for critical energy infrastructure's (CEI) cyber resilience assessment. The CEI is the vital physical system of systems, whose accidents and failures lead to damage of economy, environment, impact on health and lives of people. The analysis of cyber incidents with Ukrainian CEI confirms the importance of the task of increasing its cyber resilience to external hostile influences and keeping of the appropriate level of functionality, safety and reliability. This paper is devoted to development of approach for CEI's cyber resilience assessment considering the important capacities of its systems (adaptivity, restoration, absorbability, preventive) and interdependencies between them. This approach is based on application of multilevel fuzzy logic models (called as logic-linguistic models, LLM) taking into consideration the data available from expert's knowledge. The comparison between risk management and resilience assurance is performed. The new risk-oriented definition of resiliency is suggested.
jaidane, Emna, Hamdi, Mohamed, Aguili, Taoufik, Kim, Tai-hoon.  2019.  A new vehicular blackbox architecture based on searchable encryption. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :1073–1078.
Blackboxes are being increasingly used in the vehicular context to store and transmit information related to safety, security and many other applications. The plethora of sensors available at the different parts of the vehicle can provide enriched gathering of the data related to these applications. Nonetheless, to support multiple use cases, the blackbox must be accessible by various actors (e.g. vehicle owner, insurance company, law enforcement authorities). This raises significant challenges regarding the privacy of the data collected and stored in the blackbox. In fact, these data can often lead to tracing back accurate facts about the behaviour of the owner of the vehicle. To cope with this problem, we propose a new blackbox architecture supporting searchable encryption. This feature allows multiple users who are not able to decipher the content of the blackbox to validate properties such as path traceback and velocity. To illustrate the implementation of the proposed technique in practice, we discuss a case study related to post-accident processing by insurance companies.
Ayaida, Marwane, Messai, Nadhir, Wilhelm, Geoffrey, Najeh, Sameh.  2019.  A Novel Sybil Attack Detection Mechanism for C-ITS. 2019 15th International Wireless Communications Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC). :913–918.

Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) are expected to play an important role in our lives. They will improve the traffic safety and bring about a revolution on the driving experience. However, these benefits are counterbalanced by possible attacks that threaten not only the vehicle's security, but also passengers' lives. One of the most common attacks is the Sybil attack, which is even more dangerous than others because it could be the starting point of many other attacks in C-ITS. This paper proposes a distributed approach allowing the detection of Sybil attacks by using the traffic flow theory. The key idea here is that each vehicle will monitor its neighbourhood in order to detect an eventual Sybil attack. This is achieved by a comparison between the real accurate speed of the vehicle and the one estimated using the V2V communications with vehicles in the vicinity. The estimated speed is derived by using the traffic flow fundamental diagram of the road's portion where the vehicles are moving. This detection algorithm is validated through some extensive simulations conducted using the well-known NS3 network simulator with SUMO traffic simulator.

Sun, M., Li, M., Gerdes, R..  2018.  Truth-Aware Optimal Decision-Making Framework with Driver Preferences for V2V Communications. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1-9.

In Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications, malicious actors may spread false information to undermine the safety and efficiency of the vehicular traffic stream. Thus, vehicles must determine how to respond to the contents of messages which maybe false even though they are authenticated in the sense that receivers can verify contents were not tampered with and originated from a verifiable transmitter. Existing solutions to find appropriate actions are inadequate since they separately address trust and decision, require the honest majority (more honest ones than malicious), and do not incorporate driver preferences in the decision-making process. In this work, we propose a novel trust-aware decision-making framework without requiring an honest majority. It securely determines the likelihood of reported road events despite the presence of false data, and consequently provides the optimal decision for the vehicles. The basic idea of our framework is to leverage the implied effect of the road event to verify the consistency between each vehicle's reported data and actual behavior, and determine the data trustworthiness and event belief by integrating the Bayes' rule and Dempster Shafer Theory. The resulting belief serves as inputs to a utility maximization framework focusing on both safety and efficiency. This framework considers the two basic necessities of the Intelligent Transportation System and also incorporates drivers' preferences to decide the optimal action. Simulation results show the robustness of our framework under the multiple-vehicle attack, and different balances between safety and efficiency can be achieved via selecting appropriate human preference factors based on the driver's risk-taking willingness.

Amosov, O. S., Amosova, S. G., Muller, N. V..  2018.  Identification of Potential Risks to System Security Using Wavelet Analysis, the Time-and-Frequency Distribution Indicator of the Time Series and the Correlation Analysis of Wavelet-Spectra. 2018 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1-6.

To identify potential risks to the system security presented by time series it is offered to use wavelet analysis, the indicator of time-and-frequency distribution, the correlation analysis of wavelet-spectra for receiving rather complete range of data about the process studied. The indicator of time-and-frequency localization of time series was proposed allowing to estimate the speed of non-stationary changing. The complex approach is proposed to use the wavelet analysis, the time-and-frequency distribution of time series and the wavelet spectra correlation analysis; this approach contributes to obtaining complete information on the studied phenomenon both in numerical terms, and in the form of visualization for identifying and predicting potential system security threats.

Wang, G., Wang, B., Wang, T., Nika, A., Zheng, H., Zhao, B. Y..  2018.  Ghost Riders: Sybil Attacks on Crowdsourced Mobile Mapping Services. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking. 26:1123–1136.
Real-time crowdsourced maps, such as Waze provide timely updates on traffic, congestion, accidents, and points of interest. In this paper, we demonstrate how lack of strong location authentication allows creation of software-based Sybil devices that expose crowdsourced map systems to a variety of security and privacy attacks. Our experiments show that a single Sybil device with limited resources can cause havoc on Waze, reporting false congestion and accidents and automatically rerouting user traffic. More importantly, we describe techniques to generate Sybil devices at scale, creating armies of virtual vehicles capable of remotely tracking precise movements for large user populations while avoiding detection. To defend against Sybil devices, we propose a new approach based on co-location edges, authenticated records that attest to the one-time physical co-location of a pair of devices. Over time, co-location edges combine to form large proximity graphs that attest to physical interactions between devices, allowing scalable detection of virtual vehicles. We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach using large-scale simulations, and how they can be used to dramatically reduce the impact of the attacks. We have informed Waze/Google team of our research findings. Currently, we are in active collaboration with Waze team to improve the security and privacy of their system.
Wang, M., Qu, Z., He, X., Li, T., Jin, X., Gao, Z., Zhou, Z., Jiang, F., Li, J..  2017.  Real time fault monitoring and diagnosis method for power grid monitoring and its application. 2017 IEEE Conference on Energy Internet and Energy System Integration (EI2). :1–6.

In Energy Internet mode, a large number of alarm information is generated when equipment exception and multiple faults in large power grid, which seriously affects the information collection, fault analysis and delays the accident treatment for the monitors. To this point, this paper proposed a method for power grid monitoring to monitor and diagnose fault in real time, constructed the equipment fault logical model based on five section alarm information, built the standard fault information set, realized fault information optimization, fault equipment location, fault type diagnosis, false-report message and missing-report message analysis using matching algorithm. The validity and practicality of the proposed method by an actual case was verified, which can shorten the time of obtaining and analyzing fault information, accelerate the progress of accident treatment, ensure the safe and stable operation of power grid.

Chowdhury, M., Gawande, A., Wang, L..  2017.  Secure Information Sharing among Autonomous Vehicles in NDN. 2017 IEEE/ACM Second International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation (IoTDI). :15–26.

Autonomous vehicles must communicate with each other effectively and securely to make robust decisions. However, today's Internet falls short in supporting efficient data delivery and strong data security, especially in a mobile ad-hoc environment. Named Data Networking (NDN), a new data-centric Internet architecture, provides a better foundation for secure data sharing among autonomous vehicles. We examine two potential threats, false data dissemination and vehicle tracking, in an NDN-based autonomous vehicular network. To detect false data, we propose a four-level hierarchical trust model and the associated naming scheme for vehicular data authentication. Moreover, we address vehicle tracking concerns using a pseudonym scheme to anonymize vehicle names and certificate issuing proxies to further protect vehicle identity. Finally, we implemented and evaluated our AutoNDN application on Raspberry Pi-based mini cars in a wireless environment.

Hardy, T.L..  2014.  Resilience: A holistic safety approach. Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), 2014 Annual. :1-6.

Decreasing the potential for catastrophic consequences poses a significant challenge for high-risk industries. Organizations are under many different pressures, and they are continuously trying to adapt to changing conditions and recover from disturbances and stresses that can arise from both normal operations and unexpected events. Reducing risks in complex systems therefore requires that organizations develop and enhance traits that increase resilience. Resilience provides a holistic approach to safety, emphasizing the creation of organizations and systems that are proactive, interactive, reactive, and adaptive. This approach relies on disciplines such as system safety and emergency management, but also requires that organizations develop indicators and ways of knowing when an emergency is imminent. A resilient organization must be adaptive, using hands-on activities and lessons learned efforts to better prepare it to respond to future disruptions. It is evident from the discussions of each of the traits of resilience, including their limitations, that there are no easy answers to reducing safety risks in complex systems. However, efforts to strengthen resilience may help organizations better address the challenges associated with the ever-increasing complexities of their systems.

Hyejung Moon, Hyun Suk Cho, Seo Hwa Jeong, Jangho Park.  2014.  Policy Design Based on Risk at Big Data Era: Case Study of Privacy Invasion in South Korea. Big Data (BigData Congress), 2014 IEEE International Congress on. :756-759.

This paper has conducted analyzing the accident case of data spill to study policy issues for ICT security from a social science perspective focusing on risk. The results from case analysis are as follows. First, ICT risk can be categorized 'severe, strong, intensive and individual' from the level of both probability and impact. Second, strategy of risk management can be designated 'avoid, transfer, mitigate, accept' by understanding their own culture type of relative group such as 'hierarchy, egalitarianism, fatalism and individualism'. Third, personal data has contained characteristics of big data such like 'volume, velocity, variety' for each risk situation. Therefore, government needs to establish a standing organization responsible for ICT risk policy and management in a new big data era. And the policy for ICT risk management needs to balance in considering 'technology, norms, laws, and market' in big data era.