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Conference Paper
Saini, V.K., Kumar, V..  2014.  AHP, fuzzy sets and TOPSIS based reliable route selection for MANET. Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), 2014 International Conference on. :24-29.

Route selection is a very sensitive activity for mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) and ranking of multiple routes from source node to destination node can result in effective route selection and can provide many other benefits for better performance and security of MANET. This paper proposes an evaluation model based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP), fuzzy sets and technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to provide a useful solution for ranking of routes. The proposed model utilizes AHP to acquire criteria weights, fuzzy sets to describe vagueness with linguistic values and triangular fuzzy numbers, and TOPSIS to obtain the final ranking of routes. Final ranking of routes facilitates selection of best and most reliable route and provide alternative options for making a robust Mobile Ad-hoc network.

Jim, L. E., Gregory, M. A..  2018.  AIS Reputation Mechanism in MANET. 2018 28th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC). :1-6.

In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) the nodes act as a host as well as a router thereby forming a self-organizing network that does not rely upon fixed infrastructure, other than gateways to other networks. MANET provides a quick to deploy flexible networking capability with a dynamic topology due to node mobility. MANET nodes transmit, relay and receive traffic from neighbor nodes as the network topology changes. Security is important for MANET and trust computation is used to improve collaboration between nodes. MANET trust frameworks utilize real-time trust computations to maintain the trust state for nodes in the network. If the trust computation is not resilient against attack, the trust values computed could be unreliable. This paper proposes an Artificial Immune System based approach to compute trust and thereby provide a resilient reputation mechanism.

Kumari, Alpana, Krishnan, Shoba.  2019.  Analysis of Malicious Behavior of Blackhole and Rushing Attack in MANET. 2019 International Conference on Nascent Technologies in Engineering (ICNTE). :1–6.

Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) are the networks where network nodes uses wireless links to transfer information from one node to another without making use of existing infrastructure. There is no node in the network to control and coordinate establishment of connections between the network nodes. Hence the network nodes performs dual function of both node as well as router. Due to dynamically changing network scenarios, absence of centralization and lack of resources, MANETs have a threat of large number of security attacks. Hence security attacks need to be evaluated in order to find effective methods to avoid or remove them. In this paper malicious behavior of Blackhole attack and Rushing attack is studied and analyzed for QoS metrics.

Jain, Jay Kumar, Chauhan, Dipti.  2019.  Analytical Study on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks for IPV6. 2019 4th International Conference on Internet of Things: Smart Innovation and Usages (IoT-SIU). :1–6.
The ongoing progressions in wireless innovation have lead to the advancement of another remote framework called Mobile Ad hoc Networks. The Mobile Ad hoc Network is a self arranging system of wireless gadgets associated by wireless connections. The traditional protocol, for example, TCP/IP has restricted use in Mobile impromptu systems in light of the absence of portability and assets. This has lead to the improvement of many steering conventions, for example, proactive, receptive and half breed. One intriguing examination zone in MANET is steering. Steering in the MANETs is a testing assignment and has gotten a colossal measure of consideration from examines. An uncommon consideration is paid on to feature the combination of MANET with the critical highlights of IPv6, for example, coordinated security, start to finish correspondence. This has prompted advancement of various directing conventions for MANETs, and every creator of each developed convention contends that the technique proposed gives an improvement over various distinctive systems considered in the writing for a given system situation. In this way, it is very hard to figure out which conventions may perform best under various diverse system situations, for example, expanding hub thickness and traffic. In this paper, we give the ongoing expository investigation on MANETs for IPV6 systems.
Chowdhury, S. K., Sen, M..  2017.  Attacks and mitigation techniques on mobile ad hoc network \#x2014; A survey. 2017 International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICEI). :11–18.

A mobile ad hoc network is a type of ad hoc network in which node changes it locations and configures them. It uses wireless medium to communicate with other networks. It also does not possess centralized authority and each node has the ability to perform some tasks. Nodes in this type of network has a routing table depending on which it finds the optimal way to send packets in forward direction but link failure should be updated in node table to encompass that. In civilian environment like meeting rooms, cab networking etc, in military search and rescue operations it has huge application.

Noguchi, T., Yamamoto, T..  2017.  Black hole attack prevention method using dynamic threshold in mobile ad hoc networks. 2017 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems (FedCSIS). :797–802.

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that do not need to rely on a pre-existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Securing MANETs is a serious concern as current research on MANETs continues to progress. Each node in a MANET acts as a router, forwarding data packets for other nodes and exchanging routing information between nodes. It is this intrinsic nature that introduces the serious security issues to routing protocols. A black hole attack is one of the well-known security threats for MANETs. A black hole is a security attack in which a malicious node absorbs all data packets by sending fake routing information and drops them without forwarding them. In order to defend against a black hole attack, in this paper we propose a new threshold-based black hole attack prevention method. To investigate the performance of the proposed method, we compared it with existing methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods from the standpoints of black hole node detection rate, throughput, and packet delivery rate.

Saurabh, V. K., Sharma, R., Itare, R., Singh, U..  2017.  Cluster-based technique for detection and prevention of black-hole attack in MANETs. 2017 International conference of Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). 2:489–494.

Secure routing in the field of mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of the most flourishing areas of research. Devising a trustworthy security protocol for ad hoc routing is a challenging task due to the unique network characteristics such as lack of central authority, rapid node mobility, frequent topology changes, insecure operational environment, and confined availability of resources. Due to low configuration and quick deployment, MANETs are well-suited for emergency situations like natural disasters or military applications. Therefore, data transfer between two nodes should necessarily involve security. A black-hole attack in the mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is an offense occurring due to malicious nodes, which attract the data packets by incorrectly publicizing a fresh route to the destination. A clustering direction in AODV routing protocol for the detection and prevention of black-hole attack in MANET has been put forward. Every member of the unit will ping once to the cluster head, to detect the exclusive difference between the number of data packets received and forwarded by the particular node. If the fault is perceived, all the nodes will obscure the contagious nodes from the network. The reading of the system performance has been done in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR), end to end delay (ETD) throughput and Energy simulation inferences are recorded using ns2 simulator.

Sivanesh, S., Sarma Dhulipala, V.R..  2019.  Comparitive Analysis of Blackhole and Rushing Attack in MANET. 2019 TEQIP III Sponsored International Conference on Microwave Integrated Circuits, Photonics and Wireless Networks (IMICPW). :495—499.

For the past few decades, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have been a global trend in wireless networking technology. These kind of ad-hoc networks are infrastructure less, dynamic in topology and further doesn't have a centralized network administration which makes it easier for the intruders to launch several attacks on MANETs. In this paper, we have made a comparative analysis of the network layer attack by simulating rushing and black hole attack using NS-2 network simulator. For determining the most vulnerable attack we have considered packet delivery ratio, end to end delay and throughput as a evaluation metrices. Here, AODV routing protocol has been configured for data forwarding operations. From our Simulation result, it is evident that the black hole attack is more vulnerable when compared to the rushing attack.

Jim, Lincy Elizebeth, Chacko, Jim.  2019.  Decision Tree based AIS strategy for Intrusion Detection in MANET. TENCON 2019 - 2019 IEEE Region 10 Conference (TENCON). :1191–1195.
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless networks that are void of fixed infrastructure as the communication between nodes are dependent on the liaison of each node in the network. The efficacy of MANET in critical scenarios like battlefield communications, natural disaster require new security strategies and policies to guarantee the integrity of nodes in the network. Due to the inherent frailty of MANETs, new security measures need to be developed to defend them. Intrusion Detection strategy used in wired networks are unbefitting for wireless networks due to reasons not limited to resource constraints of participating nodes and nature of communication. Nodes in MANET utilize multi hop communication to forward packets and this result in consumption of resources like battery and memory. The intruder or cheat nodes decide to cooperate or non-cooperate with other nodes. The cheat nodes reduce the overall effectiveness of network communications such as reduced packet delivery ratio and sometimes increase the congestion of the network by forwarding the packet to wrong destination and causing packets to take more times to reach the appropriate final destination. In this paper a decision tree based artificial immune system (AIS) strategy is utilized to detect such cheat nodes thereby improving the efficiency of packet delivery.
Hmouda, E., Li, W..  2018.  Detection and Prevention of Attacks in MANETs by Improving the EAACK Protocol. SoutheastCon 2018. :1–7.

Mobile Ad Hoc Networks are dynamic in nature and have no rigid or reliable network infrastructure by their very definition. They are expected to be self-governed and have dynamic wireless links which are not entirely reliable in terms of connectivity and security. Several factors could cause their degradation, such as attacks by malicious and selfish nodes which result in data carrying packets being dropped which in turn could cause breaks in communication between nodes in the network. This paper aims to address the issue of remedy and mitigation of the damage caused by packet drops. We proposed an improvement on the EAACK protocol to reduce the network overhead packet delivery ratio by using hybrid cryptography techniques DES due to its higher efficiency in block encryption, and RSA due to its management in key cipher. Comparing to the existing approaches, our simulated results show that hybrid cryptography techniques provide higher malicious behavior detection rates, and improve the performance. This research can also lead to more future efforts in using hybrid encryption based authentication techniques for attack detection/prevention in MANETs.

Sangeetha, V., Kumar, S. S..  2018.  Detection of malicious node in mobile ad-hoc network. 2018 International Conference on Power, Signals, Control and Computation (EPSCICON). :1–3.

In recent years, the area of Mobile Ad-hoc Net-work(MANET) has received considerable attention among the research community owing to the advantages in its networking features as well as solving the unsolved issues in it. One field which needs more security is the mobile ad hoc network. Mobile Ad-hoc Network is a temporary network composed of mobile nodes, connected by wireless links, without fixed infrastructure. Network security plays a crucial role in this MANET and the traditional way of protecting the networks through firewalls and encryption software is no longer effective and sufficient. In order to provide additional security to the MANET, intrusion detection mechanisms should be added. In this paper, selective acknowledgment is used for detecting malicious nodes in the Mobile ad-hoc network is proposed. In this paper we propose a novel mechanism called selective acknowledgment for solving problems that airse with Adaptive ACKnowledgment (AACK). This mechanism is an enhancement to the AACK scheme where its Packet delivery ration and detection overhead is reduced. NS2 is used to simulate and evaluate the proposed scheme and compare it against the AACK. The obtained results show that the selective acknowledgment scheme outperforms AACK in terms of network packet delivery ratio and routing overhead.

Bhunia, S., Sengupta, S..  2017.  Distributed adaptive beam nulling to mitigate jamming in 3D UAV mesh networks. 2017 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :120–125.

With the advancement of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), 3D wireless mesh networks will play a crucial role in next generation mission critical wireless networks. Along with providing coverage over difficult terrain, it provides better spectral utilization through 3D spatial reuse. However, being a wireless network, 3D meshes are vulnerable to jamming/disruptive attacks. A jammer can disrupt the communication, as well as control of the network by intelligently causing interference to a set of nodes. This paper presents a distributed mechanism of avoiding jamming attacks by means of 3D spatial filtering where adaptive beam nulling is used to keep the jammer in null region in order to bypass jamming. Kalman filter based tracking mechanism is used to estimate the most likely trajectory of the jammer from noisy observation of the jammer's position. A beam null border is determined by calculating confidence region of jammer's current and next position estimates. An optimization goal is presented to calculate optimal beam null that minimizes the number of deactivated links while maximizing the higher value of confidence for keeping the jammer inside the null. The survivability of a 3D mesh network with a mobile jammer is studied through simulation that validates an 96.65% reduction in the number of jammed nodes.

Vaseer, G., Ghai, G., Ghai, D..  2018.  Distributed Trust-Based Multiple Attack Prevention for Secure MANETs. 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES) (Formerly iNiS). :108–113.

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring, dynamic networks in which nodes are free to move. These nodes are susceptible to various malicious attacks. In this paper, we propose a distributed trust-based security scheme to prevent multiple attacks such as Probe, Denial-of-Service (DoS), Vampire, User-to-Root (U2R) occurring simultaneously. We report above 95% accuracy in data transmission and reception by applying the proposed scheme. The simulation has been carried out using network simulator ns-2 in a AODV routing protocol environment. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work reporting a distributed trust-based prevention scheme for preventing multiple attacks. We also check the scalability of the technique using variable node densities in the network.

Sterbenz, James P.G..  2016.  Drones in the Smart City and IoT: Protocols, Resilience, Benefits, and Risks. Proceedings of the 2Nd Workshop on Micro Aerial Vehicle Networks, Systems, and Applications for Civilian Use. :3–3.

Drones have quickly become ubiquitous for both recreational and serious use. As is frequently the case with new technology in general, their rapid adoption already far exceeds our legal, policy, and social ability to cope with such issues as privacy and interference with well-established commercial and military air space. While the FAA has issued rulings, they will almost certainly be challenged in court as disputes arise, for example, when property owners shoot drones down. It is clear that drones will provide a critical role in smart cities and be connected to, if not directly a part of the IoT (Internet of Things). Drones will provide an essential role in providing network relay connectivity and situational awareness, particularly in disaster assessment and recovery scenarios. As is typical for new network technologies, the deployment of the drone hardware far exceeds our research in protocols – extending our previous understanding of MANETs (mobile ad hoc networks) and DTNs (disruption tolerant networks) – and more importantly, management, control, resilience, security, and privacy concerns. This keynote address will discuss these challenges and consider future research directions.

Mudgal, Richa, Gupta, Rohit.  2016.  An Efficient Approach for Wormhole Detection in MANET. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies. :29:1–29:6.

A MANET is a collection of self-configured node connected with wireless links. Each node of a mobile ad hoc network acts as a router and finds out a suitable route to forward a packet from source to destination. This network is applicable in areas where establishment of infrastructure is not possible, such as in the military environment. Along with the military environment MANET is also used in civilian environment such as sports stadiums, meeting room. The routing functionality of each node is cause of many security threats on routing. In this paper addressed the problem of identifying and isolating wormhole attack that refuse to forward packets in wireless mobile ad hoc network. The impact of this attack has been shown to be detrimental to network performance, lowering the packet delivery ratio and dramatically increasing the end-to-end delay. Proposed work suggested the efficient and secure routing in MANET. Using this approach of buffer length and RTT calculation, routing overhead minimizes. This research is based on detection and prevention of wormhole attacks in AODV. The proposed protocol is simulated using NS-2 and its performance is compared with the standard AODV protocol. The statistical analysis shows that modified AODV protocol detects wormhole attack efficiently and provides secure and optimum path for routing.

Santhi, G..  2016.  An Efficient Intrusion Detection System Based on Adaptive Acknowledgement with Digital Signature Scheme in MANETs. Proceedings of the International Conference on Informatics and Analytics. :103:1–103:5.

Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) is a collection of mobile nodes and they can communicate with each other over the wireless medium without any fixed infrastructure. In MANETs any node can join and leave the network at any time and this makes MANETs vulnerable to a malicious attackers. Hence, it is necessary to develop an efficient intrusion-detection system to safeguard the MANET from attacks. In this paper, an Enhanced Adaptive Acknowledgement with Digital Signature Algorithm namely (EAACK-DSA) has been proposed which can detect and isolate the malicious nodes. This algorithm is based on the acknowledgement packet and hence all acknowledgement packets are digitally signed before transmission. The proposed algorithm can be integrated with any source routing protocol and EAACK-DSA gives a better malicious-behavior-detection than the conventional approaches.

Alapati, Yaswanth Kumar, Ravichandran, Suban.  2019.  Efficient Route Identification Method for Secure Packets Transfer in MANET. 2019 Third International conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC). :467–471.
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) routing is basic and route selection ought to be made faster before the node leaves the system. MANET routing Methods are intended to work in a friendly and satisfying condition which makes them helpless against different attacks. MANET is one of the most encouraging fields for innovative work of remote system. MANET has now turned out to be one of the most lively and dynamic field of communication among systems. A MANET is a self-sufficient gathering of mobile nodes that speak with one another over remote connections and coordinate in an appropriated way so as to give the fundamental system convenience without a fixed framework. MANET has transfer speed limitations yet it permits self-ruling communication of versatile clients over it. Because of regular node mobility, and along these lines change in route topology, the architecture of the system goes unpredicted after some time. In such a decentralized situation, secured route identification is a key task for communication among nodes. Trust calculation among nodes is done for involving trusted nodes in route discovery process. In this manuscript, a novel secure routing method is proposed which identifies route among trusted nodes and update the routing table info frequently because of dynamic topology of the network. The outcomes demonstrate that the proposed method takes better routing technique when compared with existing methods.
Wagh, D., Pareek, N., Singh, U..  2017.  Elimination of internal attacksfor PUMA in MANET. 2017 International conference of Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). 2:478–482.

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) play a significant role for communication whenever infrastructure is not available. In MANET, the group communication-based applications use the multicast routing protocol, where there is a single sender node and a group of receiver nodes. The benefits of multicast routing protocols are the capability to reduce the communication costs and saving the network resources by reproduction of the message over a shared network. The security is the main concern for multicast routing protocol in MANET, as it includes large number of participants. The security issues become more rigorous in a multicast communication due to its high variedness and routing difficulty. In this paper, we consider the internal attack, namely Multicast Announcement Packet Fabrication Attack on PUMA (Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcements). We proposed the security approach to detect the attacks as multicast activity-based overhearing technique, i.e., traffic analysis-based detection method with a unique key value. The performance analysis, shows an improved network performance of proposed approach over PUMA.

Rathi, P. S., Rao, C. M..  2018.  An Enhanced Threshold Based Cryptography with Secrete Sharing and Particle Swarm Optimization for Data Sending in MANET. 2018 3rd Asia-Pacific Conference on Intelligent Robot Systems (ACIRS). :87-91.

There are two types of network architectures are presents those are wired network and wireless network. MANETs is one of the examples of wireless network. Each and every network has their own features which make them different from other types of network. Some of the features of MANETs are; infrastructure less network, mobility, dynamic network topology which make it different and more popular from wired network but these features also generate different problems for achieving security due to the absence of centralized authority inside network as well as sending of data due to its mobility features. Achieving security in wired network is little-bit easy compare to MANETs because in wired network user need to just protect main centralized authority for achieving security whereas in MANETs there is no centralized authority available so protecting server in MANETs is difficult compare to wired network. Data sending and receiving process is also easy in wired network but mobility features makes this data sending and receiving process difficult in MANETs. Protecting server or central repository without making use of secrete sharing in wired network will create so many challenges and problem in terms of security. The proposed system makes use of Secrete sharing method to protect server from malicious nodes and `A New particle Swarm Optimization Method for MANETs' (NPSOM) for performing data sending and receiving operation in optimization way. NPSOM technique get equated with the steady particle swarm optimizer (PSO) technique. PSO was essentially designed by Kennedy, Eberhart in 1995. These methods are based upon 4 dissimilar types of parameters. These techniques were encouraged by common performance of animals, some of them are bird assembling and fish tuition, ant colony. The proposed system converts this PSO in the form of MANETs where Particle is nothing but the nodes in the network, Swarm means collection of multiple nodes and Optimization means finding the best and nearer root to reach to destination. Each and every element study about their own previous best solution which they are having with them for the given optimization problem, likewise they see for the groups previous best solution which they got for the same problem and finally they correct its solution depending on these values. This same process gets repeated for finding of the best and optimal solutions value. NPSOM technique, used in proposed system there every element changes its location according to the solution which they got previously and which is poorest as well as their collection's earlier poorest solution for finding best, optimal value. In this proposed system we are concentrating on, sidestepping element's and collections poorest solution which they got before.

Mohapatra, S., Siddappa, M..  2017.  Enhancing security for load balanced energy enhanced clustered bee ad hoc network using secret public keys. 2017 International Conference on Innovative Mechanisms for Industry Applications (ICIMIA). :343–348.

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is one of the most important and unique network in wireless network which has brought maximum mobility and scalability. It is suitable for environments that need on fly setup. A lot of challenges come with implementing these networks. The most sensitive challenge that MANET faces is making the MANET energy efficient at the same time handling the security issues. In this paper we are going to discuss the best routing for maximum energy saving which is Load Balanced Energy Enhanced Clustered Bee Ad Hoc Routing (LBEE) along with secured PKI scheme. LBEE which is inspired from swarm intelligence and follows the bee colony paradigm has been found as the best energy efficient method for the MANETs. In this paper along with energy efficiency care has been taken for security of all the nodes of the network. The best suiting security for the protocol has been chosen as the four key security scheme.

Jangir, Sunil Kumar, Hemrajani, Naveen.  2016.  Evaluation of Black Hole, Wormhole and Sybil Attacks in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Competitive Strategies. :74:1–74:6.

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructure-less network of various mobile devices and generally known for its self configuring behavior. MANET can communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. Due to limited bandwidth battery power and dynamic network, topology routing in MANET is a challenging issue. Collaborative attacks are particularly serious issues in MANET. Attacks are liable to occur if routing algorithms fail to detect prone threats and to find as well as remove malicious nodes. Our objective is to examine and improve the performance of network diminished by variety of attacks. The performance of MANET network is examined under Black hole, Wormhole and Sybil attacks using Performance matrices and then major issues which are related to these attacks are addressed.

Ansari, A., Waheed, M. A..  2017.  Flooding attack detection and prevention in MANET based on cross layer link quality assessment. 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS). :612–617.

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is one of the most popular dynamic topology reconfigurable local wireless network standards. Distributed Denial of Services is one of the most challenging threats in such a network. Flooding attack is one of the forms of DDoS attack whereby certain nodes in the network miss-utilizes the allocated channel by flooding packets with very high packet rate to it's neighbors, causing a fast energy loss to the neighbors and causing other legitimate nodes a denial of routing and transmission services from these nodes. In this work we propose a novel link layer assessment based flooding attack detection and prevention method. MAC layer of the nodes analyzes the signal properties and incorporated into the routing table by a cross layer MAC/Network interface. Once a node is marked as a flooding node, it is blacklisted in the routing table and is communicated to MAC through Network/MAC cross layer interface. Results shows that the proposed technique produces more accurate flooding attack detection in comparison to current state of art statistical analysis based flooding attack detection by network layer.

Rmayti, M., Begriche, Y., Khatoun, R., Khoukhi, L., Gaiti, D..  2015.  Flooding attacks detection in MANETs. 2015 International Conference on Cyber Security of Smart Cities, Industrial Control System and Communications (SSIC). :1–6.

Flooding attacks are well-known security threats that can lead to a denial of service (DoS) in computer networks. These attacks consist of an excessive traffic generation, by which an attacker aim to disrupt or interrupt some services in the network. The impact of flooding attacks is not just about some nodes, it can be also the whole network. Many routing protocols are vulnerable to these attacks, especially those using reactive mechanism of route discovery, like AODV. In this paper, we propose a statistical approach to defense against RREQ flooding attacks in MANETs. Our detection mechanism can be applied on AODV-based ad hoc networks. Simulation results prove that these attacks can be detected with a low rate of false alerts.

Tripathy, B. K., Sudhir, A., Bera, P., Rahman, M. A..  2017.  Formal Modelling and Verification of Requirements of Adaptive Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network. 2017 IEEE 41st Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). 1:548–556.

A group of mobile nodes with limited capabilities sparsed in different clusters forms the backbone of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET). In such situations, the requirements (mobility, performance, security, trust and timing constraints) vary with change in context, time, and geographic location of deployment. This leads to various performance and security challenges which necessitates a trade-off between them on the application of routing protocols in a specific context. The focus of our research is towards developing an adaptive and secure routing protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, which dynamically configures the routing functions using varying contextual features with secure and real-time processing of traffic. In this paper, we propose a formal framework for modelling and verification of requirement constraints to be used in designing adaptive routing protocols for MANET. We formally represent the network topology, behaviour, and functionalities of the network in SMT-LIB language. In addition, our framework verifies various functional, security, and Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints. The verification engine is built using the Yices SMT Solver. The efficacy of the proposed requirement models is demonstrated with experimental results.

Narayanan, G., Das, J. K., Rajeswari, M., Kumar, R. S..  2018.  Game Theoretical Approach with Audit Based Misbehavior Detection System. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :1932-1935.
Mobile Ad-hoc Networks are dynamic in nature and do not have fixed infrastructure to govern nodes in the networks. The mission lies ahead in coordinating among such dynamically shifting nodes. The root problem of identifying and isolating misbehaving nodes that refuse to forward packets in multi-hop ad hoc networks is solved by the development of a comprehensive system called Audit-based Misbehavior Detection (AMD) that can efficiently isolates selective and continuous packet droppers. AMD evaluates node behavior on a per-packet basis, without using energy-expensive overhearing techniques or intensive acknowledgment schemes. Moreover, AMD can detect selective dropping attacks even in end-to-end encrypted traffic and can be applied to multi-channel networks. Game theoretical approaches are more suitable in deciding upon the reward mechanisms for which the mobile nodes operate upon. Rewards or penalties have to be decided by ensuring a clean and healthy MANET environment. A non-routine yet surprise alterations are well required in place in deciding suitable and safe reward strategies. This work focuses on integrating a Audit-based Misbehaviour Detection (AMD)scheme and an incentive based reputation scheme with game theoretical approach called Supervisory Game to analyze the selfish behavior of nodes in the MANETs environment. The proposed work GAMD significantly reduces the cost of detecting misbehavior nodes in the network.