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2021-03-09
Naveena, S., Senthilkumar, C., Manikandan, T..  2020.  Analysis and Countermeasures of Black-Hole Attack in MANET by Employing Trust-Based Routing. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1222–1227.
A self-governing system consisting of mobile nodes that exchange information within a cellular area and is known as a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Due to its dynamic nature, it is vulnerable to attacks and there is no fixed infrastructure. To transfer a data packet Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) is used and it's another form of a reactive protocol. The black-hole attack is a major attack that drastically decreases the packet delivery ratio during a data transaction in a routing environment. In this attack, the attacker's node acts as the shortest path to the target node itself. If the attacker node receives the data packet from the source node, all obtained data packets are excluded from a routing network. A trust-based routing scheme is suggested to ensure secure routing. This routing scheme is divided into two stages, i.e., the Data retrieval (DR), to identify and preserve each node data transfer mechanism in a routing environment and route development stage, to predict a safe path to transmit a data packet to the target node.
Chakravorty, R., Prakash, J..  2020.  A Review on Prevention and Detection Schemes for Black Hole Attacks in MANET. 2020 8th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO). :801–806.
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is one of the emerging technologies to communicate between nodes and its decentralized structure, self-configuring nature are the few properties of this Ad hoc network. Due to its undefined structure, it has found its usage in the desired and temporary communication network. MANET has many routing protocols governing it and due to its changing topology, there can be many issues arise in recent times. Problems like no central node, limited energy, and the quality of service, performance, design issues, and security challenges have been bugging the researchers. The black hole attacks are the kind that cause ad hoc network to be at loss of information and make the source to believe that it has the actual least distance path to the destination, but in real scenario the packets do not get forwarded to neighbouring nodes. In this paper, we have discussed different solutions over the past years to deal with such attacks. A summary of the schemes with their results and drawbacks in terms of performance metrics is also given.
Omprakash, S. H., Suthar, M. K..  2020.  Mitigation Technique for Black hole Attack in Mobile Ad hoc Network. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1–5.
Mobile Ad hoc Network is a very important key technology for device to device communication without any support of extra infrastructure. As it is being used as a mode of communication in various fields, protecting the network from various attacks becomes more important. In this research paper, we have created a real network scenario using random mobility of nodes and implemented Black hole Attack and Gray hole Attack, which degrades the performance of the network. In our research, we have found a novel mitigation technique which is efficient to mitigate both the attack from the network.
2020-12-28
Menaka, R., Mathana, J. M., Dhanagopal, R., Sundarambal, B..  2020.  Performance Evaluation of DSR Protocol in MANET Untrustworthy Environment. 2020 6th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1049—1052.

In the Mobile Ad hoc Network, the entire nodes taken as routers and contribute transmission when the nodes are not in the range of transmission for the senders. Directing conventions for the ad hoc systems are intended for the indisposed system setting, on the supposition that all the hubs in the system are reliable. Dependability of the directing convention is endangered in the genuine setting as systems are assaulted by pernicious hubs which regularly will in general upset the correspondence. Right now, it is proposed to contemplate the exhibition of the DSR convention under deceitful conditions. Another strategy is proposed to recognize untrue nodes dependent on the RREQ control parcel arrangement.

2020-11-17
Zhou, Z., Qian, L., Xu, H..  2019.  Intelligent Decentralized Dynamic Power Allocation in MANET at Tactical Edge based on Mean-Field Game Theory. MILCOM 2019 - 2019 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :604—609.

In this paper, decentralized dynamic power allocation problem has been investigated for mobile ad hoc network (MANET) at tactical edge. Due to the mobility and self-organizing features in MANET and environmental uncertainties in the battlefield, many existing optimal power allocation algorithms are neither efficient nor practical. Furthermore, the continuously increasing large scale of the wireless connection population in emerging Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) introduces additional challenges for optimal power allocation due to the “Curse of Dimensionality”. In order to address these challenges, a novel Actor-Critic-Mass algorithm is proposed by integrating the emerging Mean Field game theory with online reinforcement learning. The proposed approach is able to not only learn the optimal power allocation for IoBT in a decentralized manner, but also effectively handle uncertainties from harsh environment at tactical edge. In the developed scheme, each agent in IoBT has three neural networks (NN), i.e., 1) Critic NN learns the optimal cost function that minimizes the Signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR), 2) Actor NN estimates the optimal transmitter power adjustment rate, and 3) Mass NN learns the probability density function of all agents' transmitting power in IoBT. The three NNs are tuned based on the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov (FPK) and Hamiltonian-Jacobian-Bellman (HJB) equation given in the Mean Field game theory. An IoBT wireless network has been simulated to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that the actor-critic-mass algorithm can effectively approximate the probability distribution of all agents' transmission power and converge to the target SINR. Moreover, the optimal decentralized power allocation is obtained through integrated mean-field game theory with reinforcement learning.

2020-11-02
Vaseer, G., Ghai, G., Ghai, D., Patheja, P. S..  2019.  A Neighbor Trust-Based Mechanism to Protect Mobile Networks. IEEE Potentials. 38:20–25.
Mobile nodes in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) form a temporal link between a sender and receiver due to their continuous movement in a limited area. This network can be easily attacked because there is no organized identity. This article discusses the MANET, its various associated challenges, and selected solutions. As a case study, a neighbor trust-based security scheme that can prevent malicious attacks in a MANET is discussed in detail. The security scheme identifies each node's behavior in the network in terms of packets received and forwarded. Nodes are placed in a suspicious range, and if the security scheme detects malicious function continuously, then it is confirmed that the particular node is the attacker in the network.
Gupta, D. S., Islam, S. H., Obaidat, M. S..  2019.  A Secure Identity-based Deniable Authentication Protocol for MANETs. 2019 International Conference on Computer, Information and Telecommunication Systems (CITS). :1–5.
A deniable authentication (DA) protocol plays a vital role to provide security and privacy of the mobile nodes in a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). In recent years, a number of similar works have been proposed, but most of them experience heavy computational and communication overhead. Further, most of these protocols are not secure against different attacks. To address these concerns, we devised an identity-based deniable authentication (IBDA) protocol with adequate security and efficiency. The proposed IBDA protocol is mainly designed for MANETs, where the mobile devices are resource-limited. The proposed IBDA protocol used the elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) and identity-based cryptosystem (IBC). The security of our IBDA protocol depends on the elliptic curve discrete logarithm (ECDL) problem and bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) problem.
2020-10-29
Bakht, Humayun, Eding, Samuel.  2018.  Policy-Based Approach for Securing Message Dissemination in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. 2018 IEEE 16th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 16th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 4th Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :1040—1045.

Mobile ad hoc networks present numerous advantages compared to traditional networks. However, due to the fact that they do not have any central management point and are highly dynamic, mobile ad hoc networks display many issues. The one study in this paper is the one related to security. A policy based approach for securing messages dissemination in mobile ad hoc network is proposed in order to tackle that issue.

Dholey, Milan Kumar, Biswas, G. P..  2018.  Secure DSR Routing from Malicious Node by PGP Encryption. 2018 2nd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :1449—1453.

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an infrastructure less, self organizing on demand wireless communication. The nodes communicate among themselves through their radio range and nodes within the range are known as neighbor nodes. DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), a MANET reactive routing protocol identify the destination by transmitting route request (RREQ) control message into the network and establishes a path after receiving route reply (RREP) control messages. The intermediate node lies in between source to destination may also send RREP control message, weather they have path information about that destination is present into their route cache due to any previous communication. A malicious node may enter within the network and may send RREP control message to the source before original RREP is being received. After receiving RREP without knowing about the destination source starts to send data and data may reached to a different location. In this paper we proposed a novel algorithm by which a malicious node, even stay in the network and send RREP control message but before data transmission source can authenticate the destination by applying PGP (pretty Good Privacy) encryption program. In order to design our algorithm we proposed to add an extra field with RREQ control message with a unique index value (UIV) and two extra fields in RREP applied over UIV to form a random key (Rk) in such a way that, our proposal can maintained two way authorization scheme. Even a malicious node may exists into the network but before data transmission source can identified weather RREP is received by the requested destination or a by a malicious node.

Noguchi, Taku, Hayakawa, Mayuko.  2018.  Black Hole Attack Prevention Method Using Multiple RREPs in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :539—544.

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes that do not need to rely on a pre-existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Securing MANETs is a serious concern as current research on MANETs continues to progress. Each node in a MANET acts as a router, forwarding data packets for other nodes and exchanging routing information between nodes. It is this intrinsic nature that introduces the serious security issues to routing protocols. A black hole attack is one of the well-known security threats for MANETs. A black hole is a security attack in which a malicious node absorbs all data packets by sending fake routing information and drops them without forwarding them. In order to defend against a black hole attack, in this paper we propose a new threshold-based black hole attack prevention method using multiple RREPs. To investigate the performance of the proposed method, we compared it with existing methods. Our simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods from the standpoints of packet delivery rate, throughput, and routing overhead.

El-Zoghby, Ayman M., Mosharafa, Ahmed, Azer, Marianne A..  2018.  Anonymous Routing Protocols in MANETs, a Security Comparative Analysis. 2018 14th International Computer Engineering Conference (ICENCO). :254—259.

A Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is considered a type of network which is wireless and has no fixed infrastructure composed of a set if nodes in self organized fashion which are randomly, frequently and unpredictably mobile. MANETs can be applied in both military and civil environments ones because of its numerous applications. This is due to their special characteristics and self-configuration capability. This is due to its dynamic nature, lack of fixed infrastructure, and the no need of being centrally managed; a special type of routing protocols such as Anonymous routing protocols are needed to hide the identifiable information of communicating parties, while preserving the communication secrecy. This paper provides an examination of a comprehensive list of anonymous routing protocols in MANET, focusing their security and performance capabilities.

Wang, Shi-wen, Xia, Hui.  2018.  A Reputation Management Framework for MANETs. 2018 IEEE Symposium on Privacy-Aware Computing (PAC). :119—120.
Resistance to malicious attacks and assessment of the trust value of nodes are important aspects of trusted mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and it is therefore necessary to establish an effective reputation management system. Previous studies have relied on the direct monitoring of nodes, recommendations from neighbors or a combination of these two methods to calculate a reputation value. However, these models can neither collect trust information effectively, nor cooperate to resist an attack, instead increasing the network load. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel reputation management framework that collects trust information and calculates the reputation value of nodes by selecting special nodes as management nodes. This framework can effectively identify malicious information and improve the credibility of a reputation value.
Chauhan, Gargi K, Patel, Saurabh M.  2018.  Public String Based Threshold Cryptography (PSTC) for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET). 2018 Second International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems (ICICCS). :1—5.
Communication is an essential part of everyday life, both as a social interaction and collaboration to achieve goals. Wireless technology has effectively release the users to roam more freely to achieving collaboration and communication. The principle attraction of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) are their set-up less and decentralized action. However, mobile ad hoc networks are seen as relatively easy targets for attackers. Security in mobile ad hoc network is provided by encrypting the data when exchanging messages and key management. Cryptography is therefore vital to ensure privacy of message and robustness against disruption. The proposed scheme public string based threshold cryptography (PSTC) describes the new scheme based on threshold cryptography that provides reasonably secure and robust cryptography scheme for mobile ad hoc networks. The scheme is implemented and simulated in ns-2. The scheme is based on trust value and analyze against Denial of Service attack as node found the attacker, the node reject all packet from that attacker. In proposed scheme whole network is compromised only when all nodes of network is compromised because threshold nodes only sharing public string not the master private key. The scheme provides confidentiality and integrity. The default threshold value selected is 2 according to time and space analysis.
Sajyth, RB, Sujatha, G.  2018.  Design of Data Confidential and Reliable Bee Clustering Routing Protocol in MANET. 2018 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1—7.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) requires extraneous energy effectualness and legion intelligence for which a best clustered based approach is pertained called the “Bee-Ad Hoc-C”. In MANET the mechanism of multi-hop routing is imperative but may leads to a challenging issue like lack of data privacy during communication. ECC (Elliptical Curve Cryptography) is integrated with the Bee clustering approach to provide an energy efficient and secure data delivery system. Even though it ensures data confidentiality, data reliability is still disputable such as data dropping attack, Black hole attack (Attacker router drops the data without forwarding to destination). In such cases the technique of overhearing is utilized by the neighbor routers and the packet forwarding statistics are measured based on the ratio between the received and forwarded packets. The presence of attack is detected if the packet forwarding ratio is poor in the network which paves a way to the alternate path identification for a reliable data transmission. The proposed work is an integration of SC-AODV along with ECC in Bee clustering approach with an extra added overhearing technique which n on the whole ensures data confidentiality, data reliability and energy efficiency.
Kaur, Jasleen, Singh, Tejpreet, Lakhwani, Kamlesh.  2019.  An Enhanced Approach for Attack Detection in VANETs Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System. 2019 International Conference on Automation, Computational and Technology Management (ICACTM). :191—197.
Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are generally acknowledged as an extraordinary sort of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). VANETs have seen enormous development in a decade ago, giving a tremendous scope of employments in both military and in addition non-military personnel exercises. The temporary network in the vehicles can likewise build the driver's capability on the road. In this paper, an effective information dispersal approach is proposed which enhances the vehicle-to-vehicle availability as well as enhances the QoS between the source and the goal. The viability of the proposed approach is shown with regards to the noteworthy gets accomplished in the parameters in particular, end to end delay, packet drop ratio, average download delay and throughput in comparison with the existing approaches.
Hossain, Sazzat, Hussain, Md. Sazzad, Ema, Romana Rahman, Dutta, Songita, Sarkar, Suborna, Islam, Tajul.  2019.  Detecting Black hole attack by selecting appropriate routes for authentic message passing using SHA-3 and Diffie-Hellman algorithm in AODV and AOMDV routing protocols in MANET. 2019 10th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—7.
Ad hoc network is sensitive to attacks because it has temporary nature and frequently recognized insecure environment. Both Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance vector (AOMDV) routing protocols have the strategy to take help from Wireless and mobile ad hoc networks. A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is recognized as an useful internet protocol and where the mobile nodes are self-configuring and self-organizing in character. This research paper has focused on the detection and influence of black hole attack on the execution of AODV and AOMDV routing protocols and has also evaluated the performance of those two on-demand routing protocols in MANETs. AODV has the characteristics for discovering a single path in single route discovery and AOMDV has the characteristics for discovering multiple paths in single route discovery. Here a proposed method for both AODV and AOMDV routing protocol, has been applied for the detection of the black hole attack, which is the merge of both SHA-3 and Diffie-Hellman algorithm. This merge technique has been applied to detect black hole attack in MANET. This technique has been applied to measure the performance matrices for both AODV and AOMDV and those performance matrices are Average Throughput, Average End to End delay and Normalized Routing Load. Both AODV and AOMDV routing protocol have been compared with each other to show that under black hole attack, AOMDV protocol always has better execution than AODV protocol. Here, NS-2.35 has been used as the Network Simulator tool for the simulation of these particular three types of performance metrics stated above.
2020-09-04
Khan, Samar, Khodke, Priti A., Bhagat, Amol P..  2018.  An Approach to Fault Tolerant Key Generation and Secure Spread Spectrum Communiction. 2018 International Conference on Research in Intelligent and Computing in Engineering (RICE). :1—6.
Wireless communications have encountered a considerable improvement and have integrated human life through various applications, mainly by the widespread of mobile ad hoc and sensor networks. A fundamental characteristic of wireless communications are in their broadcast nature, which allows accessibility of information without placing restrictions on a user's location. However, accessibility also makes wireless communications vulnerable to eavesdropping. To enhance the security of network communication, we propose a separate key generation server which is responsible for key generation using complex random algorithm. The key will remain in database in encrypted format. To prevent brute force attack, we propose various group key generation algorithms in which every group will have separate group key to verify group member's identity. The group key will be verified with the session information before decryption, so that our system will prevent attack if any attacker knows the group key. To increase the security of the system, we propose three level encryption securities: Client side encryption using AES, Server side encryption using AES, and Artificial noise generation and addition. By using this our system is free from brute force attack as we are using three level message security and complex Random key generation algorithms.
2020-08-28
Aravindhar, D. John, Gino Sophia, S. G., Krishnan, Padmaveni, Kumar, D. Praveen.  2019.  Minimization of Black hole Attacks in AdHoc Networks using Risk Aware Response Mechanism. 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :1391—1394.

Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is the collection of mobile devices which could change the locations and configure themselves without a centralized base point. Mobile Ad hoc Networks are vulnerable to attacks due to its dynamic infrastructure. The routing attacks are one among the possible attacks that causes damage to MANET. This paper gives a new method of risk aware response technique which is combined version the Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) algorithm. This can reduce black hole attacks. Dijkstra's algorithm finds the shortest path from the single source to the destination when the edges have positive weights. The DSDV is an improved version of the conventional technique by adding the sequence number and next hop address in each routing table.

2020-08-03
POLAT, Hüseyin, POLAT, Onur, SÖĞÜT, Esra, ERDEM, O. Ayhan.  2019.  Performance Analysis of Between Software Defined Wireless Network and Mobile Ad Hoc Network Under DoS Attack. 2019 3rd International Symposium on Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Technologies (ISMSIT). :1–5.

The traditional network used today is unable to meet the increasing needs of technology in terms of management, scaling, and performance criteria. Major developments in information and communication technologies show that the traditional network structure is quite lacking in meeting the current requirements. In order to solve these problems, Software Defined Network (SDN) is capable of responding as it, is flexible, easier to manage and offers a new structure. Software Defined Networks have many advantages over traditional network structure. However, it also brings along many security threats due to its new architecture. For example, the DoS attack, which overloads the controller's processing and communication capacity in the SDN structure, is a significant threat. Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET), which is one of the wireless network technologies, is different from SDN technology. MANET is exposed to various attacks such as DoS due to its security vulnerabilities. The aim of the study is to reveal the security problems in SDN structure presented with a new understanding. This is based on the currently used network structures such as MANET. The study consists of two parts. First, DoS attacks against the SDN controller were performed. Different SDN controllers were used for more accurate results. Second, MANET was established and DoS attacks against this network were performed. Different MANET routing protocols were used for more accurate results. According to the scenario, attacks were performed and the performance values of the networks were tested. The reason for using two different networks in this study is to compare the performance values of these networks at the time of attack. According to the test results, both networks were adversely affected by the attacks. It was observed that network performance decreased in MANET structure but there was no network interruption. The SDN controller becomes dysfunctional and collapses as a result of the attack. While the innovations offered by the SDN structure are expected to provide solutions to many problems in traditional networks, there are still many vulnerabilities for network security.

Seetharaman, R., Subramaniam, L.Harihara, Ramanathan, S..  2019.  Mobile Ad Hoc Network for Security Enhancement. 2019 2nd International Conference on Power and Embedded Drive Control (ICPEDC). :279–282.

This project enhances the security in which Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol for MANETs with the game theoretical approach. This is achieved by using public key and private key for encryption and decryption processes. Proactive and reactive method is implemented in the proposed system. Reactive method is done in identification process but in proactive method is used to identify the nodes and also block the hackers node, then change the direction of data transmission to good nodes. This application can be used in military, research, confidential and emergency circumferences.

Maxa, Jean-Aimé, Ben Mahmoud, Mohamed Slim, Larrieu, Nicolas.  2019.  Performance evaluation of a new secure routing protocol for UAV Ad hoc Network. 2019 IEEE/AIAA 38th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC). :1–10.

UAANET (UAV Ad hoc Network) is defined as an autonomous system made of swarm of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and GCS (Ground Control Station). Compared to other types of MANET (Mobile Ad hoc network), UAANET have some unique features and bring several challenges. One of them is the design of routing protocol. It must be efficient for creating routes between nodes and dynamically adjusting to the rapidly changing topology. It must also be secure to protect the integrity of the network against malicious attackers. In this paper, we will present the architecture and the performance evaluation (based on both real-life experimental and emulation studies) of a secure routing protocol called SUAP (Secure UAV Ad hoc routing Protocol). SUAP ensures routing services between nodes to exchange real-time traffic and also guarantees message authentication and integrity to protect the network integrity. Additional security mechanisms were added to detect Wormhole attacks. Wormhole attacks represent a high level of risk for UAV ad hoc network and this is the reason why we choose to focus on this specific multi node attack. Through performance evaluation campaign, our results show that SUAP ensures the expected security services against different types of attacks while providing an acceptable quality of service for real-time data exchanges.

Islam, Noman.  2019.  A Secure Service Discovery Scheme for Mobile ad hoc Network using Artificial Deep Neural Network. 2019 International Conference on Frontiers of Information Technology (FIT). :133–1335.

In this paper, an agent-based cross-layer secure service discovery scheme has been presented. Service discovery in MANET is a critical task and it presents numerous security challenges. These threats can compromise the availability, privacy and integrity of service discovery process and infrastructure. This paper highlights various security challenges prevalent to service discovery in MANET. Then, in order to address these security challenges, the paper proposes a cross-layer, agent based secure service discovery scheme for MANET based on deep neural network. The software agents will monitor the intrusive activities in the network based on an Intrusion Detection System (IDS). The service discovery operation is performed based on periodic dissemination of service, routing and security information. The QoS provisioning is achieved by encapsulating QoS information in the periodic advertisements done by service providers. The proposed approach has been implemented in JIST/ SWANS simulator. The results show that proposed approach provides improved security, scalability, latency, packet delivery ratio and service discovery success ratio, for various simulation scenarios.

2020-05-26
Hamamreh, Rushdi A., Ayyad, Mohammad, Jamoos, Mohammad.  2019.  RAD: Reinforcement Authentication DYMO Protocol for MANET. 2019 International Conference on Promising Electronic Technologies (ICPET). :136–141.
Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) does not have fixed infrastructure centralized server which manage the connections between the nodes. Rather, the nodes in MANET move randomly. Thus, it is risky to exchange data between nodes because there is a high possibility of having malicious node in the path. In this paper, we will describe a new authentication technique using message digest 5 (MD5), hashing for dynamic MANET on demand protocol (DYMO) based on reinforcement learning. In addition, we will describe an encryption technique that can be used without the need for a third party to distribute a secret key. After implementing the suggested model, results showed a remarkable enhancement in securing the path by increasing the packet delivery ratio and average throughput. On the other hand, there was an increase in end to end delay due to time spent in cryptographic operations.
Soualfi, Abderrahim Hajji, Agoujil, Said, Qaraai, Youssef.  2019.  Performance Analysis of OLSR Protocol under MPR Attack in Progressive Size Grid MANET. 2019 International Conference on Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM). :1–5.
Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) is a collection of mobile devices which interchange information without the use of predefined infrastructures or central administration. It is employed in many domains such as military and commercial sectors, data and sensors networks, low level applications, etc. The important constraints in this network are the limitation of bandwidth, processing capabilities and battery life. The choice of an effective routing protocol is primordial. From many routing protocols developed for MANET, OLSR protocol is a widely-used proactive routing protocol which diffuses topological information periodically. Thus, every node has a global vision of the entire network. The protocol assumes, like the other protocols, that the nodes cooperate in a trusted environment. So, all control messages are transmitted (HELLO messages) to all 1-hop neighbor nodes or broadcasted (TC and MID messages) to the entire network in clear. However, a node, which listens to OLSR control messages, can exploit this property to lead an attack. In this paper, we investigate on MultiPoint Relay (MPR) attack considered like one of the efficient OLSR attacks by using a simulation in progressive size gridMANET.
Tripathi, Shripriya.  2019.  Performance Analysis of AODV and DSR Routing Protocols of MANET under Wormhole Attack and a Suggested Trust Based Routing Algorithm for DSR. 2019 IEEE International WIE Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (WIECON-ECE). :1–5.

The nodes in Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) can self-assemble themselves, locomote unreservedly and can interact with one another without taking any help from a centralized authority or fixed infrastructure. Due to its continuously changing and self-organizing nature, MANET is vulnerable to a variety of attacks like spoofing attack, wormhole attack, black hole attack, etc. This paper compares and analyzes the repercussion of the wormhole attack on MANET's two common routing protocols of reactive category, specifically, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) by increasing the number of wormhole tunnels in MANET. The results received by simulation will reveal that DSR is greatly affected by this attack. So, as a solution, a routing algorithm for DSR which is based on trust is proposed to prevent the routes from caching malicious nodes.