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Barbàra, Fadi, Schifanella, Claudio.  2022.  BxTB: cross-chain exchanges of bitcoins for all Bitcoin wrapped tokens. 2022 Fourth International Conference on Blockchain Computing and Applications (BCCA). :143–150.
While it is possible to exchange tokens whose smart contracts are on the same blockchain, cross-exchanging bitcoins for a Bitcoin wrapped token is still cumbersome. In particular, current methods of exchange are still custodial and perform privacy-threatening controls on the users in order to operate. To solve this problem we present BxTB: cross-chain exchanges of bitcoins for any Bitcoin wrapped tokens. BxTB lets users achieve that by bypassing the mint-and-burn paradigm of current wrapped tokens and cross-exchanging already minted tokens in a P2P way. Instead of relaying on HTLCs and the overhead of communication and slowness due to time-locks, we leverage Stateless SPVs, i.e. proof-of-inclusion of transactions in the Bitcoin chain validated through a smart contract deployed on the other blockchain. Furthermore, since this primitive has not been introduced in the academic literature yet, we formally introduce it and we prove its security.
Chen, Xiaofeng, Wei, Zunbo, Jia, Xiangjuan, Zheng, Peiyu, Han, Mengwei, Yang, Xiaohu.  2022.  Current Status and Prospects of Blockchain Security Standardization. 2022 IEEE 9th International Conference on Cyber Security and Cloud Computing (CSCloud)/2022 IEEE 8th International Conference on Edge Computing and Scalable Cloud (EdgeCom). :24–29.
In recent years, blockchain technology has become one of the key technical innovation fields in the world. From the simple Bitcoin that can only be transferred at first to the blockchain application ecology that is now blooming, blockchain is gradually building a credible internet of value. However, with the continuous development and application of blockchain, even the blockchain based on cryptography is facing a series of network security problems and has caused great property losses to participants. Therefore, studying blockchain security and accelerating standardization of blockchain security have become the top priority to ensure the orderly and healthy development of blockchain technology. This paper briefly introduces the scope of blockchain security from the perspective of network security, sorts out some existing standards related to blockchain security, and gives some suggestions to promote the development and application of blockchain security standardization.
ISSN: 2693-8928
Fan, Wenjun, Wuthier, Simeon, Hong, Hsiang-Jen, Zhou, Xiaobo, Bai, Yan, Chang, Sang-Yoon.  2022.  The Security Investigation of Ban Score and Misbehavior Tracking in Bitcoin Network. 2022 IEEE 42nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS). :191–201.
Bitcoin P2P networking is especially vulnerable to networking threats because it is permissionless and does not have the security protections based on the trust in identities, which enables the attackers to manipulate the identities for Sybil and spoofing attacks. The Bitcoin node keeps track of its peer’s networking misbehaviors through ban scores. In this paper, we investigate the security problems of the ban-score mechanism and discover that the ban score is not only ineffective against the Bitcoin Message-based DoS (BM-DoS) attacks but also vulnerable to the Defamation attack as the network adversary can exploit the ban score to defame innocent peers. To defend against these threats, we design an anomaly detection approach that is effective, lightweight, and tailored to the networking threats exploiting Bitcoin’s ban-score mechanism. We prototype our threat discoveries against a real-world Bitcoin node connected to the Bitcoin Mainnet and conduct experiments based on the prototype implementation. The experimental results show that the attacks have devastating impacts on the targeted victim while being cost-effective on the attacker side. For example, an attacker can ban a peer in two milliseconds and reduce the victim’s mining rate by hundreds of thousands of hash computations per second. Furthermore, to counter the threats, we empirically validate our detection countermeasure’s effectiveness and performances against the BM-DoS and Defamation attacks.
ISSN: 2575-8411
Tarmissi, Khaled, Shalan, Atef, Al Shahrani, Abdullah, Alsulamy, Rayan, Alotaibi, Saud S., Al-Shareef, Sarah.  2022.  Mitigating Security Threats of Bitcoin Network by Reducing Message Broadcasts During Transaction Dissemination. 2022 14th International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Communication Networks (CICN). :772–777.
Propagation delay in blockchain networks is a major impairment of message transmission and validation in the bitcoin network. The transaction delay caused by message propagation across long network chains can cause significant threats to the bitcoin network integrity by allowing miners to find blocks during the message consensus process. Potential threats of slow transaction dissemination include double-spending, partitions, and eclipse attacks. In this paper, we propose a method for minimizing propagation delay by reducing non-compulsory message broadcasts during transaction dissemination in the underlying blockchain network. Our method will decrease the propagation delay in the bitcoin network and consequently mitigate the security threats based on message dissemination delay. Our results show improvement in the delay time with more effect on networks with a large number of nodes.
ISSN: 2472-7555
L, Shammi, Milind, Emilin Shyni, C., Ul Nisa, Khair, Bora, Ravi Kumar, Saravanan, S..  2022.  Securing Biometric Data with Optimized Share Creation and Visual Cryptography Technique. 2022 6th International Conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology. :673–679.
Biometric security is the fastest growing area that receives considerable attention over the past few years. Digital hiding and encryption technologies provide an effective solution to secure biometric information from intentional or accidental attacks. Visual cryptography is the approach utilized for encrypting the information which is in the form of visual information for example images. Meanwhile, the biometric template stored in the databases are generally in the form of images, the visual cryptography could be employed effectively for encrypting the template from the attack. This study develops a share creation with improved encryption process for secure biometric verification (SCIEP-SBV) technique. The presented SCIEP-SBV technique majorly aims to attain security via encryption and share creation (SC) procedure. Firstly, the biometric images undergo SC process to produce several shares. For encryption process, homomorphic encryption (HE) technique is utilized in this work. To further improve the secrecy, an improved bald eagle search (IBES) approach was exploited in this work. The simulation values of the SCIEP-SBV system are tested on biometric images. The extensive comparison study demonstrated the improved outcomes of the SCIEP-SBV technique over compared methods.
Hu, Zhiyuan, Shi, Linghang, Chen, Huijun, Li, Chao, Lu, Jinghui.  2022.  Security Assessment of Android-Based Mobile Terminals. 2022 25th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC). :279–284.
Mobile terminals especially smartphones are changing people's work and life style. For example, mobile payments are experiencing rapid growth as consumers use mobile terminals as part of lifestyles. However, security is a big challenge for mobile application services. In order to reduce security risks, mobile terminal security assessment should be conducted before providing application services. An approach of comprehensive security assessment is proposed in this paper by defining security metrics with the corresponding scores and determining the relative weights of security metrics based on the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Overall security assessment of Android-based mobile terminals is implemented for mobile payment services with payment fraud detection accuracy of 89%, which shows that the proposed approach of security assessment is reasonable.
ISSN: 1882-5621
Shi, Huan, Hui, Bo, Hu, Biao, Gu, RongJie.  2022.  Construction of Intelligent Emergency Response Technology System Based on Big Data Technology. 2022 International Conference on Big Data, Information and Computer Network (BDICN). :59–62.
This paper analyzes the problems existing in the existing emergency management technology system in China from various perspectives, and designs the construction of intelligent emergency system in combination with the development of new generation of Internet of Things, big data, cloud computing and artificial intelligence technology. The overall design is based on scientific and technological innovation to lead the reform of emergency management mechanism and process reengineering to build an intelligent emergency technology system characterized by "holographic monitoring, early warning, intelligent research and accurate disposal". To build an intelligent emergency management system that integrates intelligent monitoring and early warning, intelligent emergency disposal, efficient rehabilitation, improvement of emergency standards, safety and operation and maintenance construction.
Habbak, Hany, Metwally, Khaled, Mattar, Ahmed Maher.  2022.  Securing Big Data: A Survey on Security Solutions. 2022 13th International Conference on Electrical Engineering (ICEENG). :145–149.
Big Data (BD) is the combination of several technologies which address the gathering, analyzing and storing of massive heterogeneous data. The tremendous spurt of the Internet of Things (IoT) and different technologies are the fundamental incentive behind this enduring development. Moreover, the analysis of this data requires high-performance servers for advanced and parallel data analytics. Thus, data owners with their limited capabilities may outsource their data to a powerful but untrusted environment, i.e., the Cloud. Furthermore, data analytic techniques performed on external cloud may arise various security intimidations regarding the confidentiality and the integrity of the aforementioned; transferred, analyzed, and stored data. To countermeasure these security issues and challenges, several techniques have been addressed. This survey paper aims to summarize and emphasize the security threats within Big Data framework, in addition, it is worth mentioning research work related to Big Data Analytics (BDA).
Navuluri, Karthik, Mukkamala, Ravi, Ahmad, Aftab.  2016.  Privacy-Aware Big Data Warehouse Architecture. 2016 IEEE International Congress on Big Data (BigData Congress). :341–344.
Along with the ever increasing growth in data collection and its mining, there is an increasing fear of compromising individual and population privacy. Several techniques have been proposed in literature to preserve privacy of collected data while storing and processing. In this paper, we propose a privacy-aware architecture for storing and processing data in a Big Data warehouse. In particular, we propose a flexible, extendable, and adaptable architecture that enforces user specified privacy requirements in the form of Embedded Privacy Agreements. The paper discusses the details of the architecture with some implementation details.
Chibba, Michelle, Cavoukian, Ann.  2015.  Privacy, consumer trust and big data: Privacy by design and the 3 C'S. 2015 ITU Kaleidoscope: Trust in the Information Society (K-2015). :1–5.
The growth of ICTs and the resulting data explosion could pave the way for the surveillance of our lives and diminish our democratic freedoms, at an unimaginable scale. Consumer mistrust of an organization's ability to safeguard their data is at an all time high and this has negative implications for Big Data. The timing is right to be proactive about designing privacy into technologies, business processes and networked infrastructures. Inclusiveness of all objectives can be achieved through consultation, co-operation, and collaboration (3 C's). If privacy is the default, without diminishing functionality or other legitimate interests, then trust will be preserved and innovation will flourish.
Li, Yunchen, Luo, Da.  2022.  Adversarial Audio Detection Method Based on Transformer. 2022 International Conference on Machine Learning and Intelligent Systems Engineering (MLISE). :77–82.
Speech recognition technology has been applied to all aspects of our daily life, but it faces many security issues. One of the major threats is the adversarial audio examples, which may tamper the recognition results of the acoustic speech recognition system (ASR). In this paper, we propose an adversarial detection framework to detect adversarial audio examples. The method is based on the transformer self-attention mechanism. Spectrogram features are extracted from the audio and divided into patches. Position information are embedded and then fed into transformer encoder. Experimental results show that the method achieves good performance with the detection accuracy of above 96.5% under the white-box attacks and blackbox attacks, and noisy circumstances. Even when detecting adversarial examples generated by the unknown attacks, it also achieves satisfactory results.
Shahid, Jahanzeb, Muhammad, Zia, Iqbal, Zafar, Khan, Muhammad Sohaib, Amer, Yousef, Si, Weisheng.  2022.  SAT: Integrated Multi-agent Blackbox Security Assessment Tool using Machine Learning. 2022 2nd International Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ICAI). :105–111.
The widespread adoption of eCommerce, iBanking, and eGovernment institutions has resulted in an exponential rise in the use of web applications. Due to a large number of users, web applications have become a prime target of cybercriminals who want to steal Personally Identifiable Information (PII) and disrupt business activities. Hence, there is a dire need to audit the websites and ensure information security. In this regard, several web vulnerability scanners are employed for vulnerability assessment of web applications but attacks are still increasing day by day. Therefore, a considerable amount of research has been carried out to measure the effectiveness and limitations of the publicly available web scanners. It is identified that most of the publicly available scanners possess weaknesses and do not generate desired results. In this paper, the evaluation of publicly available web vulnerability scanners is performed against the top ten OWASP11OWASP® The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP) is an online community that produces comprehensive articles, documentation, methodologies, and tools in the arena of web and mobile security. vulnerabilities and their performance is measured on the precision of their results. Based on these results, we proposed an Integrated Multi-Agent Blackbox Security Assessment Tool (SAT) for the security assessment of web applications. Research has proved that the vulnerabilities assessment results of the SAT are more extensive and accurate.
Gabsi, Souhir, Kortli, Yassin, Beroulle, Vincent, Kieffer, Yann, Belgacem, Hamdi.  2022.  Adoption of a Secure ECC-based RFID Authentication Protocol. 2022 IEEE 9th International Conference on Sciences of Electronics, Technologies of Information and Telecommunications (SETIT). :69–74.
A single RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a technology for the remote identification of objects or people. It integrates a reader that receives the information contained in an RFID tag through an RFID authentication protocol. RFID provides several security services to protect the data transmitted between the tag and the reader. However, these advantages do not prevent an attacker to access this communication and remaining various security and privacy issues in these systems. Furthermore, with the rapid growth of IoT, there is an urgent need of security authentication and confidential data protection. Authentication protocols based on elliptic curve cryptographic (ECC) were widely investigated and implemented to guarantee protection against the various attacks that can suffer an RFID system. In this paper, we are going to focus on a comparative study between the most efficient ECC-based RFID authentication protocols that are already published, and study their security against the different wireless attacks.
Al-Aziz, Faiq Najib, Mayasari, Ratna, Sartika, Nike, Irawan, Arif Indra.  2022.  Strategy to Increase RFID Security System Using Encryption Algorithm. 2022 8th International Conference on Wireless and Telematics (ICWT). :1–6.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly evolving, allowing physical items to share information and coordinate with other nodes, increasing IoT’s value and being widely applied to various applications. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is usually used in IoT applications to automate item identification by establishing symmetrical communication between the tag device and the reader. Because RFID reading data is typically in plain text, a security mechanism is required to ensure that the reading results from this RFID data remain confidential. Researchers propose a lightweight encryption algorithm framework for IoT-based RFID applications to address this security issue. Furthermore, this research assesses the implementation of lightweight encryption algorithms, such as Grain v1 and Espresso, as two systems scenarios. The Grain v1 encryption is the final eSTREAM project that accepts an 80-bit key, 64-bit IV, and has a 160-bit internal state with limited application. In contrast, the Espresso algorithm has been implemented in various applications such as 5G wireless communication. Furthermore, this paper tested the performance of each encryption algorithm in the microcontroller and inspected the network performance in an IoT system.
Simatupang, Joni Welman, Tambunan, Ramses Wanto.  2022.  Security Door Lock Using Multi-Sensor System Based on RFID, Fingerprint, and Keypad. 2022 International Conference on Green Energy, Computing and Sustainable Technology (GECOST). :453–457.
Thefts problem in household needs to be anticipated with home security system. One of simple methods is using automatic solenoid door lock system, so that it is difficult to be duplicated and will reduce the chance of theft action when the house is empty. Therefore, a home security system prototype that can be accessed by utilizing biometric fingerprint, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), and keypad sensors was designed and tested. Arduino Uno works to turn on the door lock solenoid, so door access will be given when authentication is successful. Experimental results show that fingerprint sensor works well by being able to read fingerprints perfectly and the average time required to scan a fingerprint was 3.7 seconds. Meanwhile, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) sensor detects Electronic-Kartu Tanda Penduduk (E-KTP) and the average time required for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) to scan the card is about 2.4 seconds. Keypad functions to store password to unlock the door which produces the average time of 3.7 seconds after 10 trials. Average time to open with multi-sensor is 9.8 seconds. However, its drawback is no notification or SMS which directly be accessed by a cellphone or website with Wi-Fi or Telegram applications allow homeowners to monitor their doors from afar as to minimize the number of house thefts.
Liu, Qingyan, Albina, Erlito M..  2022.  Application of Face Recognition Technology in Mobile Payment. 2022 IEEE 12th International Conference on RFID Technology and Applications (RFID-TA). :217–219.
The current face recognition technology has rapidly come into the public life, from unlocking cell phone face to mobile payment, which has brought a lot of convenience to life. However, it is undeniable that it also brings security challenges. Based on this paper, we will discuss the risks of face recognition in the mobile payment and put forward relevant suggestions.
Dash, Lipsa, Sharma, Sanjeev, M, Manish, M, Chaitanya, P, Vamsi Krishna, Manna, Souvik.  2022.  Comparative Analysis of Secured Transport Systems using RFID Technology for Schools. 2022 International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication and Applied Informatics (ACCAI). :1–6.
Despite the strict measures taken by authorities for children safety, crime against children is increasing. To curb this crime, it is important to improve the safety of children. School authorities can be severely penalized for these incidents, hence monitoring the school bus is significantly important in limiting these incidents. The developing worry of families for the security and insurance of their kids has started incredible interest in creating strong frameworks that give successful following and oversight of kids driving among home and school. Coordinated transport following permits youngsters to partake more in their normal schoolwork longer than trusting that a transport will be late with the assistance of notice and guarantees the security of every understudy. These days, reacting to the necessities existing apart from everything else, numerous instructive foundations have begun to push more towards a compelling global positioning framework of their vehicles that ensures the wellbeing of their understudies. Effective transport following is accomplished by procuring the geographic directions utilizing the GPS module and communicating the informationto a distant server. The framework depends on prepared to-utilize inactive RFID peruses. Make a message pop-up from the server script subsequent to checking the understudy's RFID tag be. The RFID examine exhibiting that the understudy boarded the vehicle to the specific trained professionals and the parent. Successful transport following permits school specialists, guardians, and drivers to precisely design their schedules while protecting kids from the second they get on until they get off the transport. The framework overall makes it conceivable to educate the administration regarding crises or protests. A variety of reports can be generated for different school-wide real-time bus and vehicle activities. This paper reviews the various smart security transport systems proposed for providing security features.
Alim, Mohammad Ehsanul, Maswood, Ali Iftekhar, Bin Alam, Md. Nazmus Sakib.  2022.  True-Time-Delay Line of Chipless RFID Tag for Security & IoT Sensing Applications. 2022 5th International Conference on Information and Communications Technology (ICOIACT). :1–6.
In this paper, a novel composite right/left-handed transmission line (CRLH TL) 3-unit cell is presented for finding excellent time-delay (TD) efficiency of Chipless RFID's True-Time-Delay Lines (TTDLs). RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a non-contact automatic identification technology that uses radio frequency (RF) signals to identify target items automatically and retrieve pertinent data without the need for human participation. However, as compared to barcodes, RFID tags are prohibitively expensive and complex to manufacture. Chipless RFID tags are RFID tags that do not contain silicon chips and are therefore less expensive and easier to manufacture. It combines radio broadcasting technology with radar technology. Radio broadcasting technology use radio waves to send and receive voice, pictures, numbers, and symbols, whereas radar technology employs the radio wave reflection theory. Chipless RFID lowers the cost of sensors such as gas, temperature, humidity, and pressure. In addition, Chipless RFID tags can be used as sensors which are also required for security purposes and future IoT applications.
ISSN: 2770-4661
Cherneva, Vanya, Trahan, Jerry L..  2022.  2P-mtOTP: A Secure, Two-Party, Ownership Transfer Protocol for Multiple RFID Tags based on Quadratic Residues. 2022 IEEE International Conference on RFID (RFID). :29–34.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) improves the efficiency of managing assets in supply chain applications throughout an entire life cycle or while in transport. Transfer of ownership of RFID-tagged items involves replacing information authorizing the old owner with information authorizing the new owner. In this work, we present a two-party, multiple tag, single-owner protocol for ownership transfer: 2P-mtOTP. This two-party protocol depends only on the communication among the two owners and the tags. Further, 2P-mtOTP is robust to attacks on its security, and it preserves the privacy of the owners and tags. We analyze our work in comparison to recent ownership transfer protocols in terms of security, privacy, and efficiency.
ISSN: 2573-7635
Dhasade, Akash, Dresevic, Nevena, Kermarrec, Anne-Marie, Pires, Rafael.  2022.  TEE-based decentralized recommender systems: The raw data sharing redemption. 2022 IEEE International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS). :447–458.
Recommenders are central in many applications today. The most effective recommendation schemes, such as those based on collaborative filtering (CF), exploit similarities between user profiles to make recommendations, but potentially expose private data. Federated learning and decentralized learning systems address this by letting the data stay on user's machines to preserve privacy: each user performs the training on local data and only the model parameters are shared. However, sharing the model parameters across the network may still yield privacy breaches. In this paper, we present Rex, the first enclave-based decentralized CF recommender. Rex exploits Trusted execution environments (TEE), such as Intel software guard extensions (SGX), that provide shielded environments within the processor to improve convergence while preserving privacy. Firstly, Rex enables raw data sharing, which ultimately speeds up convergence and reduces the network load. Secondly, Rex fully preserves privacy. We analyze the impact of raw data sharing in both deep neural network (DNN) and matrix factorization (MF) recommenders and showcase the benefits of trusted environments in a full-fledged implementation of Rex. Our experimental results demonstrate that through raw data sharing, Rex significantly decreases the training time by 18.3 x and the network load by 2 orders of magnitude over standard decentralized approaches that share only parameters, while fully protecting privacy by leveraging trustworthy hardware enclaves with very little overhead.
ISSN: 1530-2075
Woralert, Chutitep, Liu, Chen, Blasingame, Zander.  2022.  HARD-Lite: A Lightweight Hardware Anomaly Realtime Detection Framework Targeting Ransomware. 2022 Asian Hardware Oriented Security and Trust Symposium (AsianHOST). :1–6.
Recent years have witnessed a surge in ransomware attacks. Especially, many a new variant of ransomware has continued to emerge, employing more advanced techniques distributing the payload while avoiding detection. This renders the traditional static ransomware detection mechanism ineffective. In this paper, we present our Hardware Anomaly Realtime Detection - Lightweight (HARD-Lite) framework that employs semi-supervised machine learning method to detect ransomware using low-level hardware information. By using an LSTM network with a weighted majority voting ensemble and exponential moving average, we are able to take into consideration the temporal aspect of hardware-level information formed as time series in order to detect deviation in system behavior, thereby increasing the detection accuracy whilst reducing the number of false positives. Testing against various ransomware across multiple families, HARD-Lite has demonstrated remarkable effectiveness, detecting all cases tested successfully. What's more, with a hierarchical design that distributing the classifier from the user machine that is under monitoring to a server machine, Hard-Lite enables good scalability as well.
Kamil, Samar, Siti Norul, Huda Sheikh Abdullah, Firdaus, Ahmad, Usman, Opeyemi Lateef.  2022.  The Rise of Ransomware: A Review of Attacks, Detection Techniques, and Future Challenges. 2022 International Conference on Business Analytics for Technology and Security (ICBATS). :1–7.
Cybersecurity is important in the field of information technology. One most recent pressing issue is information security. When we think of cybersecurity, the first thing that comes to mind is cyber-attacks, which are on the rise, such as Ransomware. Various governments and businesses take a variety of measures to combat cybercrime. People are still concerned about ransomware, despite numerous cybersecurity precautions. In ransomware, the attacker encrypts the victim’s files/data and demands payment to unlock the data. Cybersecurity is a collection of tools, regulations, security guards, security ideas, guidelines, risk management, activities, training, insurance, best practices, and technology used to secure the cyber environment, organization, and user assets. This paper analyses ransomware attacks, techniques for dealing with these attacks, and future challenges.
Agarwal, Reshu, Chaudhary, Alka, Gupta, Deepa, Das, Devleen.  2022.  Ransomware Vulnerability used in darknet for web application attack. 2022 2nd International Conference on Emerging Frontiers in Electrical and Electronic Technologies (ICEFEET). :1–5.
Cyber security is turning into a significant angle in each industry like in banking part, force and computerization segments. Servers are basic resources in these enterprises where business basic touch information is put away. These servers frequently join web servers in them through which any business information and tasks are performed remotely. Thus, clearly for a solid activity, security of web servers is extremely basic. This paper gives another testing way to deal with defenselessness appraisal of web applications by methods for breaking down and utilizing a consolidated arrangement of apparatuses to address a wide scope of security issues.
Podeti, Raveendra, Sreeharirao, Patri, Pullakandam, Muralidhar.  2022.  The chaotic-based challenge feed mechanism for Arbiter Physical Unclonable Functions (APUFs) with enhanced reliability in IoT security. 2022 IEEE International Symposium on Smart Electronic Systems (iSES). :118–123.
Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are the secured hardware primitives to authenticate Integrated Circuits (ICs) from various unauthorized attacks. The secured key generation mechanism through PUFs is based on random Process Variations (PVs) inherited by the CMOS transistors. In this paper, we proposed a chaotic-based challenge generation mechanism to feed the arbiter PUFs. The chaotic property is introduced to increase the non-linearity in the arbitration mechanism thereby the uncertainty of the keys is attained. The chaotic sequences are easy to generate, difficult to intercept, and have the additional advantage of being in a large number Challenge-Response Pair (CRP) generation. The proposed design has a significant advantage in key generation with improved uniqueness and diffuseness of 47.33%, and 50.02% respectively. Moreover, the enhancement in the reliability of 96.14% and 95.13% range from −40C to 125C with 10% fluctuations in supply voltage states that it has prominent security assistance to the Internet of Things (IoT) enabled devices against malicious attacks.
Alam, Md Shah, Hossain, Sarkar Marshia, Oluoch, Jared, Kim, Junghwan.  2022.  A Novel Secure Physical Layer Key Generation Method in Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs). 2022 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–6.
A novel secure physical layer key generation method for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) against an attacker is proposed under fading and Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). In the proposed method, a random sequence key is added to the demodulated sequence to generate a unique pre-shared key (PSK) to enhance security. Extensive computer simulation results proved that an attacker cannot extract the same legitimate PSK generated by the received vehicle even if identical fading and AWGN parameters are used both for the legitimate vehicle and attacker.