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2015-04-30
Myalapalli, V.K., Chakravarthy, A.S.N..  2014.  A unified model for cherishing privacy in database system an approach to overhaul vulnerabilities. Networks Soft Computing (ICNSC), 2014 First International Conference on. :263-266.

Privacy is the most anticipated aspect in many perspectives especially with sensitive data and the database is being targeted incessantly for vulnerability. The database must be persistently monitored for ensuring comprehensive security. The proposed model is intended to cherish the database privacy by thwarting intrusions and inferences. The Database Static protection and Intrusion Tolerance Subsystem proposed in the architecture bolster this practice. This paper enunciates Privacy Cherished Database architecture model and how it achieves security under sundry circumstances.

Myalapalli, V.K., Chakravarthy, A.S.N..  2014.  A unified model for cherishing privacy in database system an approach to overhaul vulnerabilities. Networks Soft Computing (ICNSC), 2014 First International Conference on. :263-266.

Privacy is the most anticipated aspect in many perspectives especially with sensitive data and the database is being targeted incessantly for vulnerability. The database must be persistently monitored for ensuring comprehensive security. The proposed model is intended to cherish the database privacy by thwarting intrusions and inferences. The Database Static protection and Intrusion Tolerance Subsystem proposed in the architecture bolster this practice. This paper enunciates Privacy Cherished Database architecture model and how it achieves security under sundry circumstances.

Myalapalli, V.K., Chakravarthy, A.S.N..  2014.  A unified model for cherishing privacy in database system an approach to overhaul vulnerabilities. Networks Soft Computing (ICNSC), 2014 First International Conference on. :263-266.

Privacy is the most anticipated aspect in many perspectives especially with sensitive data and the database is being targeted incessantly for vulnerability. The database must be persistently monitored for ensuring comprehensive security. The proposed model is intended to cherish the database privacy by thwarting intrusions and inferences. The Database Static protection and Intrusion Tolerance Subsystem proposed in the architecture bolster this practice. This paper enunciates Privacy Cherished Database architecture model and how it achieves security under sundry circumstances.

Wei Min, Keecheon Kim.  2014.  Intrusion tolerance mechanisms using redundant nodes for wireless sensor networks. Information Networking (ICOIN), 2014 International Conference on. :131-135.

Wireless sensor networks extend people's ability to explore, monitor, and control the physical world. Wireless sensor networks are susceptible to certain types of attacks because they are deployed in open and unprotected environments. Novel intrusion tolerance architecture is proposed in this paper. An expert intrusion detection analysis system and an all-channel analyzer are introduced. A proposed intrusion tolerance scheme is implemented. Results show that this scheme can detect data traffic and re-route it to a redundant node in the wireless network, prolong the lifetime of the network, and isolate malicious traffic introduced through compromised nodes or illegal intrusions.

Wang, H..  2015.  Identity-Based Distributed Provable Data Possession in Multicloud Storage. Services Computing, IEEE Transactions on. 8:328-340.

Remote data integrity checking is of crucial importance in cloud storage. It can make the clients verify whether their outsourced data is kept intact without downloading the whole data. In some application scenarios, the clients have to store their data on multicloud servers. At the same time, the integrity checking protocol must be efficient in order to save the verifier's cost. From the two points, we propose a novel remote data integrity checking model: ID-DPDP (identity-based distributed provable data possession) in multicloud storage. The formal system model and security model are given. Based on the bilinear pairings, a concrete ID-DPDP protocol is designed. The proposed ID-DPDP protocol is provably secure under the hardness assumption of the standard CDH (computational Diffie-Hellman) problem. In addition to the structural advantage of elimination of certificate management, our ID-DPDP protocol is also efficient and flexible. Based on the client's authorization, the proposed ID-DPDP protocol can realize private verification, delegated verification, and public verification.

Miller, Andrew, Hicks, Michael, Katz, Jonathan, Shi, Elaine.  2014.  Authenticated Data Structures, Generically. SIGPLAN Not.. 49:411–423.

An authenticated data structure (ADS) is a data structure whose operations can be carried out by an untrusted prover, the results of which a verifier can efficiently check as authentic. This is done by having the prover produce a compact proof that the verifier can check along with each operation's result. ADSs thus support outsourcing data maintenance and processing tasks to untrusted servers without loss of integrity. Past work on ADSs has focused on particular data structures (or limited classes of data structures), one at a time, often with support only for particular operations.

This paper presents a generic method, using a simple extension to a ML-like functional programming language we call λ• (lambda-auth), with which one can program authenticated operations over any data structure defined by standard type constructors, including recursive types, sums, and products. The programmer writes the data structure largely as usual and it is compiled to code to be run by the prover and verifier. Using a formalization of λ• we prove that all well-typed λ• programs result in code that is secure under the standard cryptographic assumption of collision-resistant hash functions. We have implemented λ• as an extension to the OCaml compiler, and have used it to produce authenticated versions of many interesting data structures including binary search trees, red-black+ trees, skip lists, and more. Performance experiments show that our approach is efficient, giving up little compared to the hand-optimized data structures developed previously.

Zheng, J.X., Dongfang Li, Potkonjak, M..  2014.  A secure and unclonable embedded system using instruction-level PUF authentication. Field Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL), 2014 24th International Conference on. :1-4.

In this paper we present a secure and unclonable embedded system design that can target either an FPGA or an ASIC technology. The premise of the security is that the executed machine code and the executing environment (the embedded processor) will authenticate each other at a per-instruction basis using Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) that are built into the processor. The PUFs ensure that the execution of the binary code may only proceed if the binary is compiled with the correct intrinsic knowledge of the PUFs, and that such intrinsic knowledge is virtually unique to each processor and therefore unclonable. We will explain how to implement and integrate the PUFs into the processor's execution environment such that each instruction is authenticated and de-obfuscated on-demand and how to transform an ordinary binary executable into PUF-aware, obfuscated binaries. We will also present a prototype system on a Xilinx Spartan6-based FPGA board.

Jindal, M., Dave, M..  2014.  Data security protocol for cloudlet based architecture. Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (ICRAIE), 2014. :1-5.

Mobile cloud computing is a combination of mobile computing and cloud computing that provides a platform for mobile users to offload heavy tasks and data on the cloud, thus, helping them to overcome the limitations of their mobile devices. However, while utilizing the mobile cloud computing technology users lose physical control of their data; this ultimately calls for the need of a data security protocol. Although, numerous such protocols have been proposed,none of them consider a cloudlet based architecture. A cloudlet is a reliable, resource-rich computer/cluster which is well-connected to the internet and is available to nearby mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a data security protocol for a distributed cloud architecture having cloudlet integrated with the base station, using the property of perfect forward secrecy. Our protocol not only protects data from any unauthorized user, but also prevents exposure of data to the cloud owner.
 

Hassen, H., Khemakhem, M..  2014.  A secured distributed OCR system in a pervasive environment with authentication as a service in the Cloud. Multimedia Computing and Systems (ICMCS), 2014 International Conference on. :1200-1205.

In this paper we explore the potential for securing a distributed Arabic Optical Character Recognition (OCR) system via cloud computing technology in a pervasive and mobile environment. The goal of the system is to achieve full accuracy, high speed and security when taking into account large vocabularies and amounts of documents. This issue has been resolved by integrating the recognition process and the security issue with multiprocessing and distributed computing technologies.

Guizani, S..  2014.  Security applications challenges of RFID technology and possible countermeasures. Computing, Management and Telecommunications (ComManTel), 2014 International Conference on. :291-297.

Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) is a technique for speedy and proficient identification system, it has been around for more than 50 years and was initially developed for improving warfare machinery. RFID technology bridges two technologies in the area of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), namely Product Code (PC) technology and Wireless technology. This broad-based rapidly expanding technology impacts business, environment and society. The operating principle of an RFID system is as follows. The reader starts a communication process by radiating an electromagnetic wave. This wave will be intercepted by the antenna of the RFID tag, placed on the item to be identified. An induced current will be created at the tag and will activate the integrated circuit, enabling it to send back a wave to the reader. The reader redirects information to the host where it will be processed. RFID is used for wide range of applications in almost every field (Health, education, industry, security, management ...). In this review paper, we will focus on agricultural and environmental applications.

Kholidy, H.A., Erradi, A., Abdelwahed, S., Azab, A..  2014.  A Finite State Hidden Markov Model for Predicting Multistage Attacks in Cloud Systems. Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing (DASC), 2014 IEEE 12th International Conference on. :14-19.

Cloud computing significantly increased the security threats because intruders can exploit the large amount of cloud resources for their attacks. However, most of the current security technologies do not provide early warnings about such attacks. This paper presents a Finite State Hidden Markov prediction model that uses an adaptive risk approach to predict multi-staged cloud attacks. The risk model measures the potential impact of a threat on assets given its occurrence probability. The attacks prediction model was integrated with our autonomous cloud intrusion detection framework (ACIDF) to raise early warnings about attacks to the controller so it can take proactive corrective actions before the attacks pose a serious security risk to the system. According to our experiments on DARPA 2000 dataset, the proposed prediction model has successfully fired the early warning alerts 39.6 minutes before the launching of the LLDDoS1.0 attack. This gives the auto response controller ample time to take preventive measures.

Cerqueira Ferreira, H.G., De Sousa, R.T., Gomes de Deus, F.E., Dias Canedo, E..  2014.  Proposal of a secure, deployable and transparent middleware for Internet of Things. Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 2014 9th Iberian Conference on. :1-4.

This paper proposes a security architecture for an IoT transparent middleware. Focused on bringing real life objects to the virtual realm, the proposed architecture is deployable and comprises protection measures based on existent technologies for security such as AES, TLS and oAuth. This way, privacy, authenticity, integrity and confidentiality on data exchange services are integrated to provide security for generated smart objects and for involved users and services in a reliable and deployable manner.

Barclay, C..  2014.  Sustainable security advantage in a changing environment: The Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (CM2). ITU Kaleidoscope Academic Conference: Living in a converged world - Impossible without standards?, Proceedings of the 2014. :275-282.

With the rapid advancement in technology and the growing complexities in the interaction of these technologies and networks, it is even more important for countries and organizations to gain sustainable security advantage. Security advantage refers to the ability to manage and respond to threats and vulnerabilities with a proactive security posture. This is accomplished through effectively planning, managing, responding to and recovering from threats and vulnerabilities. However not many organizations and even countries, especially in the developing world, have been able to equip themselves with the necessary and sufficient know-how or ability to integrate knowledge and capabilities to achieve security advantage within their environment. Having a structured set of requirements or indicators to aid in progressively attaining different levels of maturity and capabilities is one important method to determine the state of cybersecurity readiness. The research introduces the Cybersecurity Capability Maturity Model (CM2), a 6-step process of progressive development of cybersecurity maturity and knowledge integration that ranges from a state of limited awareness and application of security controls to pervasive optimization of the protection of critical assets.

Severi, S., Sottile, F., Abreu, G., Pastrone, C., Spirito, M., Berens, F..  2014.  M2M technologies: Enablers for a pervasive Internet of Things. Networks and Communications (EuCNC), 2014 European Conference on. :1-5.

We survey the state-of-the-art on the Internet-of-Things (IoT) from a wireless communications point of view, as a result of the European FP7 project BUTLER which has its focus on pervasiveness, context-awareness and security for IoT. In particular, we describe the efforts to develop so-called (wireless) enabling technologies, aimed at circumventing the many challenges involved in extending the current set of domains (“verticals”) of IoT applications towards a “horizontal” (i.e. integrated) vision of the IoT. We start by illustrating current research effort in machine-to-machine (M2M), which is mainly focused on vertical domains, and we discuss some of them in details, depicting then the necessary horizontal vision for the future intelligent daily routine (“Smart Life”). We then describe the technical features of the most relevant heterogeneous communications technologies on which the IoT relies, under the light of the on-going M2M service layer standardization. Finally we identify and present the key aspects, within three major cross-vertical categories, under which M2M technologies can function as enablers for the horizontal vision of the IoT.

Chiang, R., Rajasekaran, S., Zhang, N., Huang, H..  2014.  Swiper: Exploiting Virtual Machine Vulnerability in Third-Party Clouds with Competition for I/O Resources. Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on. PP:1-1.

The emerging paradigm of cloud computing, e.g., Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), promises a highly flexible yet robust environment for large-scale applications. Ideally, while multiple virtual machines (VM) share the same physical resources (e.g., CPUs, caches, DRAM, and I/O devices), each application should be allocated to an independently managed VM and isolated from one another. Unfortunately, the absence of physical isolation inevitably opens doors to a number of security threats. In this paper, we demonstrate in EC2 a new type of security vulnerability caused by competition between virtual I/O workloads-i.e., by leveraging the competition for shared resources, an adversary could intentionally slow down the execution of a targeted application in a VM that shares the same hardware. In particular, we focus on I/O resources such as hard-drive throughput and/or network bandwidth-which are critical for data-intensive applications. We design and implement Swiper, a framework which uses a carefully designed workload to incur significant delays on the targeted application and VM with minimum cost (i.e., resource consumption). We conduct a comprehensive set of experiments in EC2, which clearly demonstrates that Swiper is capable of significantly slowing down various server applications while consuming a small amount of resources.

Mianxiong Dong, He Lit, Ota, K., Haojin Zhu.  2014.  HVSTO: Efficient privacy preserving hybrid storage in cloud data center. Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), 2014 IEEE Conference on. :529-534.

In cloud data center, shared storage with good management is a main structure used for the storage of virtual machines (VM). In this paper, we proposed Hybrid VM storage (HVSTO), a privacy preserving shared storage system designed for the virtual machine storage in large-scale cloud data center. Unlike traditional shared storage, HVSTO adopts a distributed structure to preserve privacy of virtual machines, which are a threat in traditional centralized structure. To improve the performance of I/O latency in this distributed structure, we use a hybrid system to combine solid state disk and distributed storage. From the evaluation of our demonstration system, HVSTO provides a scalable and sufficient throughput for the platform as a service infrastructure.

Youngjung Ahn, Yongsuk Lee, Jin-Young Choi, Gyungho Lee, Dongkyun Ahn.  2014.  Monitoring Translation Lookahead Buffers to Detect Code Injection Attacks. Computer. 47:66-72.

By identifying memory pages that external I/O operations have modified, a proposed scheme blocks malicious injected code activation, accurately distinguishing an attack from legitimate code injection with negligible performance impact and no changes to the user application.

Shropshire, J..  2014.  Analysis of Monolithic and Microkernel Architectures: Towards Secure Hypervisor Design. System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on. :5008-5017.

This research focuses on hyper visor security from holistic perspective. It centers on hyper visor architecture - the organization of the various subsystems which collectively compromise a virtualization platform. It holds that the path to a secure hyper visor begins with a big-picture focus on architecture. Unfortunately, little research has been conducted with this perspective. This study investigates the impact of monolithic and micro kernel hyper visor architectures on the size and scope of the attack surface. Six architectural features are compared: management API, monitoring interface, hyper calls, interrupts, networking, and I/O. These subsystems are core hyper visor components which could be used as attack vectors. Specific examples and three leading hyper visor platforms are referenced (ESXi for monolithic architecture; Xen and Hyper-V for micro architecture). The results describe the relative strengths and vulnerabilities of both types of architectures. It is concluded that neither design is more secure, since both incorporate security tradeoffs in core processes.

Muller, K., Sigl, G., Triquet, B., Paulitsch, M..  2014.  On MILS I/O Sharing Targeting Avionic Systems. Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC), 2014 Tenth European. :182-193.

This paper discusses strategies for I/O sharing in Multiple Independent Levels of Security (MILS) systems mostly deployed in the special environment of avionic systems. MILS system designs are promising approaches for handling the increasing complexity of functionally integrated systems, where multiple applications run concurrently on the same hardware platform. Such integrated systems, also known as Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) in the aviation industry, require communication to remote systems located outside of the hosting hardware platform. One possible solution is to provide each partition, the isolated runtime environment of an application, a direct interface to the communication's hardware controller. Nevertheless, this approach requires a special design of the hardware itself. This paper discusses efficient system architectures for I/O sharing in the environment of high-criticality embedded systems and the exemplary analysis of Free scale's proprietary Data Path Acceleration Architecture (DPAA) with respect to generic hardware requirements. Based on this analysis we also discuss the development of possible architectures matching with the MILS approach. Even though the analysis focuses on avionics it is equally applicable to automotive architectures such as Auto SAR.

Algarni, A., Yue Xu, Chan, T..  2014.  Social Engineering in Social Networking Sites: The Art of Impersonation. Services Computing (SCC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :797-804.

Social networking sites (SNSs), with their large number of users and large information base, seem to be the perfect breeding ground for exploiting the vulnerabilities of people, who are considered the weakest link in security. Deceiving, persuading, or influencing people to provide information or to perform an action that will benefit the attacker is known as "social engineering." Fraudulent and deceptive people use social engineering traps and tactics through SNSs to trick users into obeying them, accepting threats, and falling victim to various crimes such as phishing, sexual abuse, financial abuse, identity theft, and physical crime. Although organizations, researchers, and practitioners recognize the serious risks of social engineering, there is a severe lack of understanding and control of such threats. This may be partly due to the complexity of human behaviors in approaching, accepting, and failing to recognize social engineering tricks. This research aims to investigate the impact of source characteristics on users' susceptibility to social engineering victimization in SNSs, particularly Facebook. Using grounded theory method, we develop a model that explains what and how source characteristics influence Facebook users to judge the attacker as credible.

Bian Yang, Huiguang Chu, Guoqiang Li, Petrovic, S., Busch, C..  2014.  Cloud Password Manager Using Privacy-Preserved Biometrics. Cloud Engineering (IC2E), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :505-509.

Using one password for all web services is not secure because the leakage of the password compromises all the web services accounts, while using independent passwords for different web services is inconvenient for the identity claimant to memorize. A password manager is used to address this security-convenience dilemma by storing and retrieving multiple existing passwords using one master password. On the other hand, a password manager liberates human brain by enabling people to generate strong passwords without worry about memorizing them. While a password manager provides a convenient and secure way to managing multiple passwords, it centralizes the passwords storage and shifts the risk of passwords leakage from distributed service providers to a software or token authenticated by a single master password. Concerned about this one master password based security, biometrics could be used as a second factor for authentication by verifying the ownership of the master password. However, biometrics based authentication is more privacy concerned than a non-biometric password manager. In this paper we propose a cloud password manager scheme exploiting privacy enhanced biometrics, which achieves both security and convenience in a privacy-enhanced way. The proposed password manager scheme relies on a cloud service to synchronize all local password manager clients in an encrypted form, which is efficient to deploy the updates and secure against untrusted cloud service providers.

Cailleux, L., Bouabdallah, A., Bonnin, J.-M..  2014.  A confident email system based on a new correspondence model. Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), 2014 16th International Conference on. :489-492.

Despite all the current controversies, the success of the email service is still valid. The ease of use of its various features contributed to its widespread adoption. In general, the email system provides for all its users the same set of features controlled by a single monolithic policy. Such solutions are efficient but limited because they grant no place for the concept of usage which denotes a user's intention of communication: private, professional, administrative, official, military. The ability to efficiently send emails from mobile devices creates new interesting opportunities. We argue that the context (location, time, device, operating system, access network...) of the email sender appears as a new dimension we have to take into account to complete the picture. Context is clearly orthogonal to usage because a same usage may require different features depending of the context. It is clear that there is no global policy meeting requirements of all possible usages and contexts. To address this problem, we propose to define a correspondence model which for a given usage and context allows to derive a correspondence type encapsulating the exact set of required features. With this model, it becomes possible to define an advanced email system which may cope with multiple policies instead of a single monolithic one. By allowing a user to select the exact policy coping with her needs, we argue that our approach reduces the risk-taking allowing the email system to slide from a trusted one to a confident one.

Shila, D.M., Venugopal, V..  2014.  Design, implementation and security analysis of Hardware Trojan Threats in FPGA. Communications (ICC), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :719-724.

Hardware Trojan Threats (HTTs) are stealthy components embedded inside integrated circuits (ICs) with an intention to attack and cripple the IC similar to viruses infecting the human body. Previous efforts have focused essentially on systems being compromised using HTTs and the effectiveness of physical parameters including power consumption, timing variation and utilization for detecting HTTs. We propose a novel metric for hardware Trojan detection coined as HTT detectability metric (HDM) that uses a weighted combination of normalized physical parameters. HTTs are identified by comparing the HDM with an optimal detection threshold; if the monitored HDM exceeds the estimated optimal detection threshold, the IC will be tagged as malicious. As opposed to existing efforts, this work investigates a system model from a designer perspective in increasing the security of the device and an adversary model from an attacker perspective exposing and exploiting the vulnerabilities in the device. Using existing Trojan implementations and Trojan taxonomy as a baseline, seven HTTs were designed and implemented on a FPGA testbed; these Trojans perform a variety of threats ranging from sensitive information leak, denial of service to beat the Root of Trust (RoT). Security analysis on the implemented Trojans showed that existing detection techniques based on physical characteristics such as power consumption, timing variation or utilization alone does not necessarily capture the existence of HTTs and only a maximum of 57% of designed HTTs were detected. On the other hand, 86% of the implemented Trojans were detected with HDM. We further carry out analytical studies to determine the optimal detection threshold that minimizes the summation of false alarm and missed detection probabilities.

Srivastava, M..  2014.  In Sensors We Trust – A Realistic Possibility? Distributed Computing in Sensor Systems (DCOSS), 2014 IEEE International Conference on. :1-1.

Sensors of diverse capabilities and modalities, carried by us or deeply embedded in the physical world, have invaded our personal, social, work, and urban spaces. Our relationship with these sensors is a complicated one. On the one hand, these sensors collect rich data that are shared and disseminated, often initiated by us, with a broad array of service providers, interest groups, friends, and family. Embedded in this data is information that can be used to algorithmically construct a virtual biography of our activities, revealing intimate behaviors and lifestyle patterns. On the other hand, we and the services we use, increasingly depend directly and indirectly on information originating from these sensors for making a variety of decisions, both routine and critical, in our lives. The quality of these decisions and our confidence in them depend directly on the quality of the sensory information and our trust in the sources. Sophisticated adversaries, benefiting from the same technology advances as the sensing systems, can manipulate sensory sources and analyze data in subtle ways to extract sensitive knowledge, cause erroneous inferences, and subvert decisions. The consequences of these compromises will only amplify as our society increasingly complex human-cyber-physical systems with increased reliance on sensory information and real-time decision cycles.Drawing upon examples of this two-faceted relationship with sensors in applications such as mobile health and sustainable buildings, this talk will discuss the challenges inherent in designing a sensor information flow and processing architecture that is sensitive to the concerns of both producers and consumer. For the pervasive sensing infrastructure to be trusted by both, it must be robust to active adversaries who are deceptively extracting private information, manipulating beliefs and subverting decisions. While completely solving these challenges would require a new science of resilient, secure and trustworthy networked sensing and decision systems that would combine hitherto disciplines of distributed embedded systems, network science, control theory, security, behavioral science, and game theory, this talk will provide some initial ideas. These include an approach to enabling privacy-utility trade-offs that balance the tension between risk of information sharing to the producer and the value of information sharing to the consumer, and method to secure systems against physical manipulation of sensed information.

Howser, G., McMillin, B..  2014.  A Modal Model of Stuxnet Attacks on Cyber-physical Systems: A Matter of Trust. Software Security and Reliability (SERE), 2014 Eighth International Conference on. :225-234.

Multiple Security Domains Nondeducibility, MSDND, yields results even when the attack hides important information from electronic monitors and human operators. Because MSDND is based upon modal frames, it is able to analyze the event system as it progresses rather than relying on traces of the system. Not only does it provide results as the system evolves, MSDND can point out attacks designed to be missed in other security models. This work examines information flow disruption attacks such as Stuxnet and formally explains the role that implicit trust in the cyber security of a cyber physical system (CPS) plays in the success of the attack. The fact that the attack hides behind MSDND can be used to help secure the system by modifications to break MSDND and leave the attack nowhere to hide. Modal operators are defined to allow the manipulation of belief and trust states within the model. We show how the attack hides and uses the operator's trust to remain undetected. In fact, trust in the CPS is key to the success of the attack.