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2021-06-30
He, Kexun, Qin, Kongjian, Wang, Changyuan, Fang, Xiyu.  2020.  Research on Cyber Security Test Method for GNSS of Intelligent Connected Vehicle. 2020 International Conference on Computer Information and Big Data Applications (CIBDA). :200—203.
Intelligent connected vehicle cyber security has attracted widespread attention this year. The safety of GNSS information is related to the safety of cars and has become a key technology. This paper researches the cyber security characteristics of intelligent connected vehicle navigation and positioning by analyzing the signal receiving mode of navigation and positioning on the vehicle terminal. The article expounds the principles of deceiving and interfering cyber security that lead to the safety of GNSS information. This paper studies the key causes of cyber security. Based on key causes, the article constructs a GNSS cyber security test method by combining a navigation signal simulator and an interference signal generator. The results shows that the method can realize the security test of the GNSS information of the vehicle terminal. This method provides a test method for the navigation terminal defense cyber security capability for a vehicle terminal, and fills a gap in the industry for the vehicle terminal information security test.
2021-05-13
Plappert, Christian, Zelle, Daniel, Gadacz, Henry, Rieke, Roland, Scheuermann, Dirk, Krauß, Christoph.  2021.  Attack Surface Assessment for Cybersecurity Engineering in the Automotive Domain. 2021 29th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing (PDP). :266–275.
Connected smart cars enable new attacks that may have serious consequences. Thus, the development of new cars must follow a cybersecurity engineering process as defined for example in ISO/SAE 21434. A central part of such a process is the threat and risk assessment including an attack feasibility rating. In this paper, we present an attack surface assessment with focus on the attack feasibility rating compliant to ISO/SAE 21434. We introduce a reference architecture with assets constituting the attack surface, the attack feasibility rating for these assets, and the application of this rating on typical use cases. The attack feasibility rating assigns attacks and assets to an evaluation of the attacker dimensions such as the required knowledge and the feasibility of attacks derived from it. Our application of sample use cases shows how this rating can be used to assess the feasibility of an entire attack path. The attack feasibility rating can be used as a building block in a threat and risk assessment according to ISO/SAE 21434.
2021-05-05
Singh, Sukhpreet, Jagdev, Gagandeep.  2020.  Execution of Big Data Analytics in Automotive Industry using Hortonworks Sandbox. 2020 Indo – Taiwan 2nd International Conference on Computing, Analytics and Networks (Indo-Taiwan ICAN). :158—163.

The market landscape has undergone dramatic change because of globalization, shifting marketing conditions, cost pressure, increased competition, and volatility. Transforming the operation of businesses has been possible because of the astonishing speed at which technology has witnessed the change. The automotive industry is on the edge of a revolution. The increased customer expectations, changing ownership, self-driving vehicles and much more have led to the transformation of automobiles, applications, and services from artificial intelligence, sensors, RFID to big data analysis. Large automobiles industries have been emphasizing the collection of data to gain insight into customer's expectations, preferences, and budgets alongside competitor's policies. Statistical methods can be applied to historical data, which has been gathered from various authentic sources and can be used to identify the impact of fixed and variable marketing investments and support automakers to come up with a more effective, precise, and efficient approach to target customers. Proper analysis of supply chain data can disclose the weak links in the chain enabling to adopt timely countermeasures to minimize the adverse effects. In order to fully gain benefit from analytics, the collaboration of a detailed set of capabilities responsible for intersecting and integrating with multiple functions and teams across the business is required. The effective role played by big data analysis in the automobile industry has also been expanded in the research paper. The research paper discusses the scope and challenges of big data. The paper also elaborates on the working technology behind the concept of big data. The paper illustrates the working of MapReduce technology that executes in the back end and is responsible for performing data mining.

2021-03-29
Agirre, I..  2020.  Safe and secure software updates on high-performance embedded systems. 2020 50th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks Workshops (DSN-W). :68—69.

The next generation of dependable embedded systems feature autonomy and higher levels of interconnection. Autonomy is commonly achieved with the support of artificial intelligence algorithms that pose high computing demands on the hardware platform, reaching a high performance scale. This involves a dramatic increase in software and hardware complexity, fact that together with the novelty of the technology, raises serious concerns regarding system dependability. Traditional approaches for certification require to demonstrate that the system will be acceptably safe to operate before it is deployed into service. The nature of autonomous systems, with potentially infinite scenarios, configurations and unanticipated interactions, makes it increasingly difficult to support such claim at design time. In this context, the extended networking technologies can be exploited to collect post-deployment evidence that serve to oversee whether safety assumptions are preserved during operation and to continuously improve the system through regular software updates. These software updates are not only convenient for critical bug fixing but also necessary for keeping the interconnected system resilient against security threats. However, such approach requires a recondition of the traditional certification practices.

2021-03-17
Lee, Y., Woo, S., Song, Y., Lee, J., Lee, D. H..  2020.  Practical Vulnerability-Information-Sharing Architecture for Automotive Security-Risk Analysis. IEEE Access. 8:120009—120018.
Emerging trends that are shaping the future of the automotive industry include electrification, autonomous driving, sharing, and connectivity, and these trends keep changing annually. Thus, the automotive industry is shifting from mechanical devices to electronic control devices, and is not moving to Internet of Things devices connected to 5G networks. Owing to the convergence of automobile-information and communication technology (ICT), the safety and convenience features of automobiles have improved significantly. However, cyberattacks that occur in the existing ICT environment and can occur in the upcoming 5G network are being replicated in the automobile environment. In a hyper-connected society where 5G networks are commercially available, automotive security is extremely important, as vehicles become the center of vehicle to everything (V2X) communication connected to everything around them. Designing, developing, and deploying information security techniques for vehicles require a systematic security-risk-assessment and management process throughout the vehicle's lifecycle. To do this, a security risk analysis (SRA) must be performed, which requires an analysis of cyber threats on automotive vehicles. In this study, we introduce a cyber kill chain-based cyberattack analysis method to create a formal vulnerability-analysis system. We can also analyze car-hacking studies that were conducted on real cars to identify the characteristics of the attack stages of existing car-hacking techniques and propose the minimum but essential measures for defense. Finally, we propose an automotive common-vulnerabilities-and-exposure system to manage and share evolving vehicle-related cyberattacks, threats, and vulnerabilities.
2021-02-08
Li, W., Li, L..  2009.  A Novel Approach for Vehicle-logo Location Based on Edge Detection and Morphological Filter. 2009 Second International Symposium on Electronic Commerce and Security. 1:343—345.

Vehicle-logo location is a crucial step in vehicle-logo recognition system. In this paper, a novel approach of the vehicle-logo location based on edge detection and morphological filter is proposed. Firstly, the approximate location of the vehicle-logo region is determined by the prior knowledge about the position of the vehicle-logo; Secondly, the texture measure is defined to recognize the texture of the vehicle-logo background; Then, vertical edge detection is executed for the vehicle-logo background with the horizontal texture and horizontal edge detection is implemented for the vehicle-logo background with the vertical texture; Finally, position of the vehicle-logo is located accurately by mathematical morphology filter. Experimental results show the proposed method is effective.

2021-02-03
Razin, Y. S., Feigh, K. M..  2020.  Hitting the Road: Exploring Human-Robot Trust for Self-Driving Vehicles. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1—6.

With self-driving cars making their way on to our roads, we ask not what it would take for them to gain acceptance among consumers, but what impact they may have on other drivers. How they will be perceived and whether they will be trusted will likely have a major effect on traffic flow and vehicular safety. This work first undertakes an exploratory factor analysis to validate a trust scale for human-robot interaction and shows how previously validated metrics and general trust theory support a more complete model of trust that has increased applicability in the driving domain. We experimentally test this expanded model in the context of human-automation interaction during simulated driving, revealing how using these dimensions uncovers significant biases within human-robot trust that may have particularly deleterious effects when it comes to sharing our future roads with automated vehicles.

2021-02-01
Lee, J., Abe, G., Sato, K., Itoh, M..  2020.  Impacts of System Transparency and System Failure on Driver Trust During Partially Automated Driving. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Human-Machine Systems (ICHMS). :1–3.
The objective of this study is to explore changes of trust by a situation where drivers need to intervene. Trust in automation is a key determinant for appropriate interaction between drivers and the system. System transparency and types of system failure influence shaping trust in a supervisory control. Subjective ratings of trust were collected to examine the impact of two factors: system transparency (Detailed vs. Less) and system failure (by Limits vs. Malfunction) in a driving simulator study in which drivers experienced a partially automated vehicle. We examined trust ratings at three points: before and after driver intervention in the automated vehicle, and after subsequent experience of flawless automated driving. Our result found that system transparency did not have significant impacts on trust change from before to after the intervention. System-malfunction led trust reduction compared to those of before the intervention, whilst system-limits did not influence trust. The subsequent experience recovered decreased trust, in addition, when the system-limit occurred to drivers who have detailed information about the system, trust prompted in spite of the intervention. The present finding has implications for automation design to achieve the appropriate level of trust.
2021-01-11
Shin, H. C., Chang, J., Na, K..  2020.  Anomaly Detection Algorithm Based on Global Object Map for Video Surveillance System. 2020 20th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (ICCAS). :793—795.

Recently, smart video security systems have been active. The existing video security system is mainly a method of detecting a local abnormality of a unit camera. In this case, it is difficult to obtain the characteristics of each local region and the situation for the entire watching area. In this paper, we developed an object map for the entire surveillance area using a combination of surveillance cameras, and developed an algorithm to detect anomalies by learning normal situations. The surveillance camera in each area detects and tracks people and cars, and creates a local object map and transmits it to the server. The surveillance server combines each local maps to generate a global map for entire areas. Probability maps were automatically calculated from the global maps, and normal and abnormal decisions were performed through trained data about normal situations. For three reporting status: normal, caution, and warning, and the caution report performance shows that normal detection 99.99% and abnormal detection 86.6%.

2020-12-28
Cominelli, M., Gringoli, F., Patras, P., Lind, M., Noubir, G..  2020.  Even Black Cats Cannot Stay Hidden in the Dark: Full-band De-anonymization of Bluetooth Classic Devices. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP). :534—548.

Bluetooth Classic (BT) remains the de facto connectivity technology in car stereo systems, wireless headsets, laptops, and a plethora of wearables, especially for applications that require high data rates, such as audio streaming, voice calling, tethering, etc. Unlike in Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), where address randomization is a feature available to manufactures, BT addresses are not randomized because they are largely believed to be immune to tracking attacks. We analyze the design of BT and devise a robust de-anonymization technique that hinges on the apparently benign information leaking from frame encoding, to infer a piconet's clock, hopping sequence, and ultimately the Upper Address Part (UAP) of the master device's physical address, which are never exchanged in clear. Used together with the Lower Address Part (LAP), which is present in all frames transmitted, this enables tracking of the piconet master, thereby debunking the privacy guarantees of BT. We validate this attack by developing the first Software-defined Radio (SDR) based sniffer that allows full BT spectrum analysis (79 MHz) and implements the proposed de-anonymization technique. We study the feasibility of privacy attacks with multiple testbeds, considering different numbers of devices, traffic regimes, and communication ranges. We demonstrate that it is possible to track BT devices up to 85 meters from the sniffer, and achieve more than 80% device identification accuracy within less than 1 second of sniffing and 100% detection within less than 4 seconds. Lastly, we study the identified privacy attack in the wild, capturing BT traffic at a road junction over 5 days, demonstrating that our system can re-identify hundreds of users and infer their commuting patterns.

2020-11-30
Chai, W. K., Pavlou, G., Kamel, G., Katsaros, K. V., Wang, N..  2019.  A Distributed Interdomain Control System for Information-Centric Content Delivery. IEEE Systems Journal. 13:1568–1579.
The Internet, the de facto platform for large-scale content distribution, suffers from two issues that limit its manageability, efficiency, and evolution. First, the IP-based Internet is host-centric and agnostic to the content being delivered and, second, the tight coupling of the control and data planes restrict its manageability, and subsequently the possibility to create dynamic alternative paths for efficient content delivery. Here, we present the CURLING system that leverages the emerging Information-Centric Networking paradigm for enabling cost-efficient Internet-scale content delivery by exploiting multicasting and in-network caching. Following the software-defined networking concept that decouples the control and data planes, CURLING adopts an interdomain hop-by-hop content resolution mechanism that allows network operators to dynamically enforce/change their network policies in locating content sources and optimizing content delivery paths. Content publishers and consumers may also control content access according to their preferences. Based on both analytical modeling and simulations using real domain-level Internet subtopologies, we demonstrate how CURLING supports efficient Internet-scale content delivery without the necessity for radical changes to the current Internet.
2020-11-23
Jolfaei, A., Kant, K., Shafei, H..  2019.  Secure Data Streaming to Untrusted Road Side Units in Intelligent Transportation System. 2019 18th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/13th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :793–798.
The paper considers data security issues in vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, where vehicles stream data to a road side unit. We assume aggregated data in road side units can be stored or used for data analytics. In this environment, there are issues in regards to the scalability of key management and computation limitations at the edge of the network. To address these issues, we suggest the formation of groups in the vehicle layer, where a group leader is assigned to communicate with group devices and the road side unit. We propose a lightweight permutation mechanism for preserving the confidentiality of sensory data.
2020-11-02
Davydov, Vadim, Bezzateev, Sergey.  2018.  Secure Information Exchange in Defining the Location of the Vehicle. 2018 41st International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :1—5.

With the advent of the electric vehicle market, the problem of locating a vehicle is becoming more and more important. Smart roads are creating, where the car control system can work without a person - communicating with the elements on the road. The standard technologies, such as GPS, can't always accurately determine the location, and not all vehicles have a GPS-module. It is very important to build an effective secure communication protocol between the vehicle and the base stations on the road. In this paper we consider different methods of location determination, propose the improved communicating protocol between the vehicle and the base station.

Zhao, Xinghan, Gao, Xiangfei.  2018.  An AI Software Test Method Based on Scene Deductive Approach. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :14—20.
Artificial intelligence (AI) software has high algorithm complexity, and the scale and dimension of the input and output parameters are high, and the test oracle isn't explicit. These features make a lot of difficulties for the design of test cases. This paper proposes an AI software testing method based on scene deductive approach. It models the input, output parameters and the environment, uses the random algorithm to generate the inputs of the test cases, then use the algorithm of deductive approach to make the software testing automatically, and use the test assertions to verify the results of the test. After description of the theory, this paper uses intelligent tracking car as an example to illustrate the application of this method and the problems needing attention. In the end, the paper describes the shortcoming of this method and the future research directions.
2020-10-19
Bao, Shihan, Lei, Ao, Cruickshank, Haitham, Sun, Zhili, Asuquo, Philip, Hathal, Waleed.  2019.  A Pseudonym Certificate Management Scheme Based on Blockchain for Internet of Vehicles. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, Intl Conf on Cloud and Big Data Computing, Intl Conf on Cyber Science and Technology Congress (DASC/PiCom/CBDCom/CyberSciTech). :28–35.
Research into the established area of ITS is evolving into the Internet of Vehicles (IoV), itself a fast-moving research area, fuelled in part by rapid changes in computing and communication technologies. Using pseudonym certificate is a popular way to address privacy issues in IoV. Therefore, the certificate management scheme is considered as a feasible technique to manage system and maintain the lifecycle of certificate. In this paper, we propose an efficient pseudonym certificate management scheme in IoV. The Blockchain concept is introduced to simplify the network structure and distributed maintenance of the Certificate Revocation List (CRL). The proposed scheme embeds part of the certificate revocation functions within the security and privacy applications, aiming to reduce the communication overhead and shorten the processing time cost. Extensive simulations and analysis show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed scheme, in which the Blockchain structure costs fewer network resources and gives a more economic solution to against further cybercrime attacks.
Peng, Ruxiang, Li, Weishi, Yang, Tao, Huafeng, Kong.  2019.  An Internet of Vehicles Intrusion Detection System Based on a Convolutional Neural Network. 2019 IEEE Intl Conf on Parallel Distributed Processing with Applications, Big Data Cloud Computing, Sustainable Computing Communications, Social Computing Networking (ISPA/BDCloud/SocialCom/SustainCom). :1595–1599.
With the continuous development of the Internet of Vehicles, vehicles are no longer isolated nodes, but become a node in the car network. The open Internet will introduce traditional security issues into the Internet of Things. In order to ensure the safety of the networked cars, we hope to set up an intrusion detection system (IDS) on the vehicle terminal to detect and intercept network attacks. In our work, we designed an intrusion detection system for the Internet of Vehicles based on a convolutional neural network, which can run in a low-powered embedded vehicle terminal to monitor the data in the car network in real time. Moreover, for the case of packet encryption in some car networks, we have also designed a separate version for intrusion detection by analyzing the packet header. Experiments have shown that our system can guarantee high accuracy detection at low latency for attack traffic.
2020-09-28
Evans, David, Calvo, Daniel, Arroyo, Adrian, Manilla, Alejandro, Gómez, David.  2019.  End-to-end security assessment framework for connected vehicles. 2019 22nd International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC). :1–6.
To increase security and to offer user experiences according to the requirements of a hyper-connected world, modern vehicles are integrating complex electronic systems, being transformed into systems of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). While a great diversity of heterogeneous hardware and software components must work together and control in real-time crucial functionalities, cybersecurity for the automotive sector is still in its infancy. This paper provides an analysis of the most common vulnerabilities and risks of connected vehicles, using a real example based on industrial and market-ready technologies. Several components have been implemented to inject and simulate multiple attacks, which enable security services and mitigation actions to be developed and validated.
2020-09-21
Vasile, Mario, Groza, Bogdan.  2019.  DeMetrA - Decentralized Metering with user Anonymity and layered privacy on Blockchain. 2019 23rd International Conference on System Theory, Control and Computing (ICSTCC). :560–565.
Wear and tear are essential in establishing the market value of an asset. From shutter counters on DSLRs to odometers inside cars, specific counters, that encode the degree of wear, exist on most products. But malicious modification of the information that they report was always a concern. Our work explores a solution to this problem by using the blockchain technology, a layered encoding of product attributes and identity-based cryptography. Merging such technologies is essential since blockchains facilitate the construction of a distributed database that is resilient to adversarial modifications, while identity-based signatures set room for a more convenient way to check the correctness of the reported values based on the name of the product and pseudonym of the owner alone. Nonetheless, we reinforce security by using ownership cards deployed around NFC tokens. Since odometer fraud is still a major practical concern, we discuss a practical scenario centered on vehicles, but the framework can be easily extended to many other assets.
Andel, Todd R., Todd McDonald, J., Brown, Adam J., Trigg, Tyler H., Cartsten, Paul W..  2019.  Towards Protection Mechanisms for Secure and Efficient CAN Operation. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). :1–6.
Cyber attacks against automobiles have increased over the last decade due to the expansion in attack surfaces. This is the result of modern automobiles having connections such as Bluetooth, WiFi, and other broadband services. While there has been numerous proposed solutions in the literature, none have been widely adopted as maintaining real-time message deliverability in the Controller Area Networks (CAN) outweighs proposed security solutions. Through iterative research, we have developed a solution which mitigates an attacker's impact on the CAN bus by using CAN's inherent features of arbitration, error detection and signaling, and fault confinement mechanism. The solution relies on an access controller and message priority thresholds added to the CAN data-link layer. The results provide no time delay for non-malicious traffic and mitigates bus impact of a subverted node attempting to fabricate messages at an unauthorized priority level.
2020-08-28
BOUGHACI, Dalila, BENMESBAH, Mounir, ZEBIRI, Aniss.  2019.  An improved N-grams based Model for Authorship Attribution. 2019 International Conference on Computer and Information Sciences (ICCIS). :1—6.

Authorship attribution is the problem of studying an anonymous text and finding the corresponding author in a set of candidate authors. In this paper, we propose a method based on N-grams model for the problem of authorship attribution. Several measures are used to assign an anonymous text to an author. The different variants of the proposed method are implemented and validated on PAN benchmarks. The numerical results are encouraging and demonstrate the benefit of the proposed idea.

Brewer, John N., Dimitoglou, George.  2019.  Evaluation of Attack Vectors and Risks in Automobiles and Road Infrastructure. 2019 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI). :84—89.

The evolution of smart automobiles and vehicles within the Internet of Things (IoT) - particularly as that evolution leads toward a proliferation of completely autonomous vehicles - has sparked considerable interest in the subject of vehicle/automotive security. While the attack surface is wide, there are patterns of exploitable vulnerabilities. In this study we reviewed, classified according to their attack surface and evaluated some of the common vehicle and infrastructure attack vectors identified in the literature. To remediate these attack vectors, specific technical recommendations have been provided as a way towards secure deployments of smart automobiles and transportation infrastructures.

Iqbal, Shahrear, Haque, Anwar, Zulkernine, Mohammad.  2019.  Towards a Security Architecture for Protecting Connected Vehicles from Malware. 2019 IEEE 89th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2019-Spring). :1—5.

Vehicles are becoming increasingly connected to the outside world. We can connect our devices to the vehicle's infotainment system and internet is being added as a functionality. Therefore, security is a major concern as the attack surface has become much larger than before. Consequently, attackers are creating malware that can infect vehicles and perform life-threatening activities. For example, a malware can compromise vehicle ECUs and cause unexpected consequences. Hence, ensuring the security of connected vehicle software and networks is extremely important to gain consumer confidence and foster the growth of this emerging market. In this paper, we propose a characterization of vehicle malware and a security architecture to protect vehicle from these malware. The architecture uses multiple computational platforms and makes use of the virtualization technique to limit the attack surface. There is a real-time operating system to control critical vehicle functionalities and multiple other operating systems for non-critical functionalities (infotainment, telematics, etc.). The security architecture also describes groups of components for the operating systems to prevent malicious activities and perform policing (monitor, detect, and control). We believe this work will help automakers guard their systems against malware and provide a clear guideline for future research.

2020-08-03
Arthi, A., Aravindhan, K..  2019.  Enhancing the Performance Analysis of LWA Protocol Key Agreement in Vehicular Ad hoc Network. 2019 5th International Conference on Advanced Computing Communication Systems (ICACCS). :1070–1074.

Road accidents are challenging threat in the present scenario. In India there are 5, 01,423 road accidents in 2015. A day 400 hundred deaths are forcing to India to take car safety sincerely. The common cause for road accidents is driver's distraction. In current world the people are dominated by the tablet PC and other hand held devices. The VANET technology is a vehicle-to-vehicle communication; here the main challenge will be to deliver qualified communication during mobility. The paper proposes a standard new restricted lightweight authentication protocol utilizing key agreement theme for VANETs. Inside the planned topic, it has three sorts of validations: 1) V2V 2) V2CH; and 3) CH and RSU. Aside from this authentication, the planned topic conjointly keeps up mystery keys between RSUs for the safe communication. Thorough informal security analysis demonstrates the planned subject is skilled to guard different malicious attack. In addition, the NS2 Simulation exhibits the possibility of the proposed plan in VANET background.

2020-07-27
Liem, Clifford, Murdock, Dan, Williams, Andrew, Soukup, Martin.  2019.  Highly Available, Self-Defending, and Malicious Fault-Tolerant Systems for Automotive Cybersecurity. 2019 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :24–27.
With the growing number of electronic features in cars and their connections to the cloud, smartphones, road-side equipment, and neighboring cars the need for effective cybersecurity is paramount. Beyond the concern of brand degradation, warranty fraud, and recalls, what keeps manufacturers up at night is the threat of malicious attacks which can affect the safety of vehicles on the road. Would any single protection technique provide the security needed over the long lifetime of a vehicle? We present a new methodology for automotive cybersecurity where the designs are made to withstand attacks in the future based on the concepts of high availability and malicious fault-tolerance through self-defending techniques. When a system has an intrusion, self-defending technologies work to contain the breach using integrity verification, self-healing, and fail-over techniques to keep the system running.
Vöelp, Marcus, Esteves-Verissimo, Paulo.  2018.  Intrusion-Tolerant Autonomous Driving. 2018 IEEE 21st International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC). :130–133.
Fully autonomous driving is one if not the killer application for the upcoming decade of real-time systems. However, in the presence of increasingly sophisticated attacks by highly skilled and well equipped adversarial teams, autonomous driving must not only guarantee timeliness and hence safety. It must also consider the dependability of the software concerning these properties while the system is facing attacks. For distributed systems, fault-and-intrusion tolerance toolboxes already offer a few solutions to tolerate partial compromise of the system behind a majority of healthy components operating in consensus. In this paper, we present a concept of an intrusion-tolerant architecture for autonomous driving. In such a scenario, predictability and recovery challenges arise from the inclusion of increasingly more complex software on increasingly less predictable hardware. We highlight how an intrusion tolerant design can help solve these issues by allowing timeliness to emerge from a majority of complex components being fast enough, often enough while preserving safety under attack through pre-computed fail safes.