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Hayes, J. Huffman, Payne, J., Essex, E., Cole, K., Alverson, J., Dekhtyar, A., Fang, D., Bernosky, G..  2020.  Towards Improved Network Security Requirements and Policy: Domain-Specific Completeness Analysis via Topic Modeling. 2020 IEEE Seventh International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Requirements Engineering (AIRE). :83—86.

Network security policies contain requirements - including system and software features as well as expected and desired actions of human actors. In this paper, we present a framework for evaluation of textual network security policies as requirements documents to identify areas for improvement. Specifically, our framework concentrates on completeness. We use topic modeling coupled with expert evaluation to learn the complete list of important topics that should be addressed in a network security policy. Using these topics as a checklist, we evaluate (students) a collection of network security policies for completeness, i.e., the level of presence of these topics in the text. We developed three methods for topic recognition to identify missing or poorly addressed topics. We examine network security policies and report the results of our analysis: preliminary success of our approach.

Fischer, A., Janneck, J., Kussmaul, J., Krätzschmar, N., Kerschbaum, F., Bodden, E..  2020.  PASAPTO: Policy-aware Security and Performance Trade-off Analysis–Computation on Encrypted Data with Restricted Leakage. 2020 IEEE 33rd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :230—245.

This work considers the trade-off between security and performance when revealing partial information about encrypted data computed on. The focus of our work is on information revealed through control flow side-channels when executing programs on encrypted data. We use quantitative information flow to measure security, running time to measure performance and program transformation techniques to alter the trade-off between the two. Combined with information flow policies, we perform a policy-aware security and performance trade-off (PASAPTO) analysis. We formalize the problem of PASAPTO analysis as an optimization problem, prove the NP-hardness of the corresponding decision problem and present two algorithms solving it heuristically. We implemented our algorithms and combined them with the Dataflow Authentication (DFAuth) approach for outsourcing sensitive computations. Our DFAuth Trade-off Analyzer (DFATA) takes Java Bytecode operating on plaintext data and an associated information flow policy as input. It outputs semantically equivalent program variants operating on encrypted data which are policy-compliant and approximately Pareto-optimal with respect to leakage and performance. We evaluated DFATA in a commercial cloud environment using Java programs, e.g., a decision tree program performing machine learning on medical data. The decision tree variant with the worst performance is 357% slower than the fastest variant. Leakage varies between 0% and 17% of the input.

Fejrskov, M., Pedersen, J. M., Vasilomanolakis, E..  2020.  Cyber-security research by ISPs: A NetFlow and DNS Anonymization Policy. :1—8.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have an economic and operational interest in detecting malicious network activity relating to their subscribers. However, it is unclear what kind of traffic data an ISP has available for cyber-security research, and under which legal conditions it can be used. This paper gives an overview of the challenges posed by legislation and of the data sources available to a European ISP. DNS and NetFlow logs are identified as relevant data sources and the state of the art in anonymization and fingerprinting techniques is discussed. Based on legislation, data availability and privacy considerations, a practically applicable anonymization policy is presented.

Engram, S., Ligatti, J..  2020.  Through the Lens of Code Granularity: A Unified Approach to Security Policy Enforcement. 2020 IEEE Conference on Application, Information and Network Security (AINS). :41—46.

A common way to characterize security enforcement mechanisms is based on the time at which they operate. Mechanisms operating before a program's execution are static mechanisms, and mechanisms operating during a program's execution are dynamic mechanisms. This paper introduces a different perspective and classifies mechanisms based on the granularity of program code that they monitor. Classifying mechanisms in this way provides a unified view of security mechanisms and shows that all security mechanisms can be encoded as dynamic mechanisms that operate at different levels of program code granularity. The practicality of the approach is demonstrated through a prototype implementation of a framework for enforcing security policies at various levels of code granularity on Java bytecode applications.

Lu, Y., Zhang, C..  2020.  Nontransitive Security Types for Coarse-grained Information Flow Control. 2020 IEEE 33rd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :199—213.

Language-based information flow control (IFC) aims to provide guarantees about information propagation in computer systems having multiple security levels. Existing IFC systems extend the lattice model of Denning's, enforcing transitive security policies by tracking information flows along with a partially ordered set of security levels. They yield a transitive noninterference property of either confidentiality or integrity. In this paper, we explore IFC for security policies that are not necessarily transitive. Such nontransitive security policies avoid unwanted or unexpected information flows implied by transitive policies and naturally accommodate high-level coarse-grained security requirements in modern component-based software. We present a novel security type system for enforcing nontransitive security policies. Unlike traditional security type systems that verify information propagation by subtyping security levels of a transitive policy, our type system relaxes strong transitivity by inferring information flow history through security levels and ensuring that they respect the nontransitive policy in effect. Such a type system yields a new nontransitive noninterference property that offers more flexible information flow relations induced by security policies that do not have to be transitive, therefore generalizing the conventional transitive noninterference. This enables us to directly reason about the extent of information flows in the program and restrict interactions between security-sensitive and untrusted components.

Farahmandian, S., Hoang, D. B..  2020.  A Policy-based Interaction Protocol between Software Defined Security Controller and Virtual Security Functions. 2020 4th Cyber Security in Networking Conference (CSNet). :1—8.

Cloud, Software-Defined Networking (SDN), and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) technologies have introduced a new era of cybersecurity threats and challenges. To protect cloud infrastructure, in our earlier work, we proposed Software Defined Security Service (SDS2) to tackle security challenges centered around a new policy-based interaction model. The security architecture consists of three main components: a Security Controller, Virtual Security Functions (VSF), and a Sec-Manage Protocol. However, the security architecture requires an agile and specific protocol to transfer interaction parameters and security messages between its components where OpenFlow considers mainly as network routing protocol. So, The Sec-Manage protocol has been designed specifically for obtaining policy-based interaction parameters among cloud entities between the security controller and its VSFs. This paper focuses on the design and the implementation of the Sec-Manage protocol and demonstrates its use in setting, monitoring, and conveying relevant policy-based interaction security parameters.

Belim, S. V., Belim, S. Y..  2020.  The Security Policies Optimization Problem for Composite Information Systems. 2020 International Multi-Conference on Industrial Engineering and Modern Technologies (FarEastCon). :1—4.

The problem of optimizing the security policy for the composite information system is formulated. Subject-object model for information system is used. Combining different types of security policies is formalized. The target function for the optimization task is recorded. The optimization problem for combining two discretionary security policies is solved. The case of combining two mandatory security policies is studied. The main problems of optimization the composite security policy are formulated. +50 CHMBOJIOB‼!

Kabir, H., Mohsin, M. H. Bin, Kantola, R..  2020.  Implementing a Security Policy Management for 5G Customer Edge Nodes. NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1—8.

The upcoming 5th generation (5G) mobile networks need to support ultra-reliable communication for business and life-critical applications. To do that 5G must offer higher degree of reliability than the current Internet, where networks are often subjected to Internet attacks, such as denial of service (DoS) and unwanted traffic. Besides improving the mitigation of Internet attacks, we propose that ultra-reliable mobile networks should only carry the expected user traffic to achieve a predictable level of reliability under malicious activity. To accomplish this, we introduce device-oriented communication security policies. Mobile networks have classically introduced a policy architecture that includes Policy and Charging Control (PCC) functions in LTE. However, in state of the art, this policy architecture is limited to QoS policies for end devices only. In this paper, we present experimental implementation of a Security Policy Management (SPM) system that accounts communication security interests of end devices. The paper also briefly presents the overall security architecture, where the policies set for devices or services in a network slice providing ultra-reliability, are enforced by a network edge node (via SPM) to only admit the expected traffic, by default treating the rest as unwanted traffic.

Tang, C., Fu, X., Tang, P..  2020.  Policy-Based Network Access and Behavior Control Management. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :1102—1106.

Aiming at the requirements of network access control, illegal outreach control, identity authentication, security monitoring and application system access control of information network, an integrated network access and behavior control model based on security policy is established. In this model, the network access and behavior management control process is implemented through abstract policy configuration, network device and application server, so that management has device-independent abstraction, and management simplification, flexibility and automation are improved. On this basis, a general framework of policy-based access and behavior management control is established. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the method of device connection, data drive and fusion based on policy-based network access and behavior management control.

Pieper, P., Herdt, V., Große, D., Drechsler, R..  2020.  Dynamic Information Flow Tracking for Embedded Binaries using SystemC-based Virtual Prototypes. 2020 57th ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC). :1—6.

Avoiding security vulnerabilities is very important for embedded systems. Dynamic Information Flow Tracking (DIFT) is a powerful technique to analyze SW with respect to security policies in order to protect the system against a broad range of security related exploits. However, existing DIFT approaches either do not exist for Virtual Prototypes (VPs) or fail to model complex hardware/software interactions.In this paper, we present a novel approach that enables early and accurate DIFT of binaries targeting embedded systems with custom peripherals. Leveraging the SystemC framework, our DIFT engine tracks accurate data flow information alongside the program execution to detect violations of security policies at run-time. We demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of our approach by extensive experiments.

Karmakar, K. K., Varadharajan, V., Tupakula, U., Hitchens, M..  2020.  Towards a Dynamic Policy Enhanced Integrated Security Architecture for SDN Infrastructure. NOMS 2020 - 2020 IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium. :1—9.

Enterprise networks are increasingly moving towards Software Defined Networking, which is becoming a major trend in the networking arena. With the increased popularity of SDN, there is a greater need for security measures for protecting the enterprise networks. This paper focuses on the design and implementation of an integrated security architecture for SDN based enterprise networks. The integrated security architecture uses a policy-based approach to coordinate different security mechanisms to detect and counteract a range of security attacks in the SDN. A distinguishing characteristic of the proposed architecture is its ability to deal with dynamic changes in the security attacks as well as changes in trust associated with the network devices in the infrastructure. The adaptability of the proposed architecture to dynamic changes is achieved by having feedback between the various security components/mechanisms in the architecture and managing them using a dynamic policy framework. The paper describes the prototype implementation of the proposed architecture and presents security and performance analysis for different attack scenarios. We believe that the proposed integrated security architecture provides a significant step towards achieving a secure SDN for enterprises.

Suzic, B., Latinovic, M..  2020.  Rethinking Authorization Management of Web-APIs. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom). :1—10.

Service providers typically utilize Web APIs to enable the sharing of tenant data and resources with numerous third party web, cloud, and mobile applications. Security mechanisms such as OAuth 2.0 and API keys are commonly applied to manage authorization aspects of such integrations. However, these mechanisms impose functional and security drawbacks both for service providers and their users due to their static design, coarse and context insensitive capabilities, and weak interoperability. Implementing secure, feature-rich, and flexible data sharing services still poses a challenge that many providers face in the process of opening their interfaces to the public.To address these issues, we design the framework that allows pluggable and transparent externalization of authorization functionality for service providers and flexibility in defining and managing security aspects of resource sharing with third parties for their users. Our solution applies a holistic perspective that considers service descriptions, data fragments, security policies, as well as system interactions and states as an integrated space dynamically exposed and collaboratively accessed by agents residing across organizational boundaries.In this work we present design aspects of our contribution and illustrate its practical implementation by analyzing case scenario involving resource sharing of a popular service.

Demjaha, A., Caulfield, T., Sasse, M. Angela, Pym, D..  2019.  2 Fast 2 Secure: A Case Study of Post-Breach Security Changes. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS PW). :192—201.
A security breach often makes companies react by changing their attitude and approach to security within the organization. This paper presents an in-depth case study of post-breach security changes made by a company and the consequences of those changes. We employ the principles of participatory action research and humble inquiry to conduct a long-term study with employee interviews while embedded in the organization's security division. Despite an extremely high level of financial investment in security, and consistent attention and involvement from the board, the interviews indicate a significant level of friction between employees and security. In the main themes that emerged from our data analysis, a number of factors shed light on the friction: fear of another breach leading to zero risk appetite, impossible security controls making non-compliance a norm, security theatre underminining the purpose of security policies, employees often trading-off security with productivity, and as such being treated as children in detention rather than employees trying to finish their paid jobs. This paper shows that post-breach security changes can be complex and sometimes risky due to emotions often being involved. Without an approach considerate of how humans and security interact, even with high financial investment, attempts to change an organization's security behaviour may be ineffective.
Pinisetty, Srinivas, Schneider, Gerardo, Sands, David.  2018.  Runtime Verification of Hyperproperties for Deterministic Programs. 2018 IEEE/ACM 6th International FME Workshop on Formal Methods in Software Engineering (FormaliSE). :20—29.
In this paper, we consider the runtime verification problem of safety hyperproperties for deterministic programs. Several security and information-flow policies such as data minimality, non-interference, integrity, and software doping are naturally expressed formally as safety hyperproperties. Although there are monitoring results for hyperproperties, the algorithms are very complex since these are properties over set of traces, and not over single traces. For the deterministic input-output programs that we consider, and the specific safety hyperproperties we are interested in, the problem can be reduced to monitoring of trace properties. In this paper, we present a simpler monitoring approach for safety hyperproperties of deterministic programs. The approach involves transforming the given safety hyperproperty into a trace property, extracting a characteristic predicate for the given hyperproperty, and providing a parametric monitor taking such predicate as parameter. For any hyperproperty in the considered subclass, we show how runtime verification monitors can be synthesised. We have implemented our approach in the form of a parameterised monitor for the given class, and have applied it to a number of hyperproperties including data minimisation, non-interference, integrity and software doping. We show results concerning both offline and online monitoring.
Tabiban, Azadeh, Majumdar, Suryadipta, Wang, Lingyu, Debbabi, Mourad.  2018.  PERMON: An OpenStack Middleware for Runtime Security Policy Enforcement in Clouds. 2018 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :1–7.

To ensure the accountability of a cloud environment, security policies may be provided as a set of properties to be enforced by cloud providers. However, due to the sheer size of clouds, it can be challenging to provide timely responses to all the requests coming from cloud users at runtime. In this paper, we design and implement a middleware, PERMON, as a pluggable interface to OpenStack for intercepting and verifying the legitimacy of user requests at runtime, while leveraging our previous work on proactive security verification to improve the efficiency. We describe detailed implementation of the middleware and demonstrate its usefulness through a use case.

Yang, Zihan, Mi, Zeyu, Xia, Yubin.  2019.  Undertow: An Intra-Kernel Isolation Mechanism for Hardware-Assisted Virtual Machines. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Service-Oriented System Engineering (SOSE). :257—2575.
The prevalence of Cloud Computing has appealed many users to put their business into low-cost and flexible cloud servers instead of bare-metal machines. Most virtual machines in the cloud run commodity operating system(e.g., linux), and the complexity of such operating systems makes them more bug-prone and easier to be compromised. To mitigate the security threats, previous works attempt to mediate and filter system calls, transform all unpopular paths into popular paths, or implement a nested kernel along with the untrusted outter kernel to enforce certain security policies. However, such solutions only enforce read-only protection or assume that popular paths in the kernel to contain almost no bug, which is not always the case in the real world. To overcome their shortcomings and combine their advantages as much as possible, we propose a hardware-assisted isolation mechanism that isolates untrusted part of the kernel. To achieve isolation, we prepare multiple restricted Extended Page Table (EPT) during boot time, each of which has certain critical data unmapped from it so that the code executing in the isolated environment could not access sensitive data. We leverage the VMFUNC instruction already available in recent Intel processors to directly switch to another pre-defined EPT inside guest virtual machine without trapping into the underlying hypervisor, which is faster than the traditional trap-and-emulate procedure. The semantic gap is minimized and real-time check is achieved by allowing EPT violations to be converted to Virtualization Exception (VE), which could be handled inside guest kernel in non-root mode. Our preliminary evaluation shows that with hardware virtualization feature, we are able to run the untrusted code in an isolated environment with negligible overhead.
Avianto, Hana, Ogi, Dion.  2019.  Design of Electronic Medical Record Security Policy in Hospital Management Information System (SIMRS) in XYZ Hospital. 2019 2nd International Conference on Applied Information Technology and Innovation (ICAITI). :163–167.
Electronic Medical Record (EMR) is a medical record management system. EMR contains personal data of patients that is critical. The critical nature of medical records is the reason for the necessity to develop security policies as guidelines for EMR in SIMRS in XZY Hospital. In this study, analysis and risk assessment conducted to EMR management at SIMRS in XZY Hospital. Based on this study, the security of SIMRS in XZY Hospital is categorized as high. Security and Privacy Control mapping based on NIST SP800-53 rev 5 obtained 57 security controls related to privacy aspects as control options to protect EMR in SIMRS in XZY Hospital. The policy designing was done using The Triangle framework for Policy Analysis. The analysis obtained from the policy decisions of the head of XYZ Hospital. The contents of the security policy are provisions on the implementation of security policies of EMR, outlined of 17 controls were selected.
Rivera, Sean, Lagraa, Sofiane, Nita-Rotaru, Cristina, Becker, Sheila, State, Radu.  2019.  ROS-Defender: SDN-Based Security Policy Enforcement for Robotic Applications. 2019 IEEE Security and Privacy Workshops (SPW). :114–119.
In this paper we propose ROS-Defender, a holistic approach to secure robotics systems, which integrates a Security Event Management System (SIEM), an intrusion prevention system (IPS) and a firewall for a robotic system. ROS-Defender combines anomaly detection systems at application (ROS) level and network level, with dynamic policy enforcement points using software defined networking (SDN) to provide protection against a large class of attacks. Although SIEMs, IPS, and firewall have been previously used to secure computer networks, ROSDefender is applying them for the specific use case of robotic systems, where security is in many cases an afterthought.
Papachristou, Konstantinos, Theodorou, Traianos, Papadopoulos, Stavros, Protogerou, Aikaterini, Drosou, Anastasios, Tzovaras, Dimitrios.  2019.  Runtime and Routing Security Policy Verification for Enhanced Quality of Service of IoT Networks. 2019 Global IoT Summit (GIoTS). :1–6.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is growing rapidly controlling and connecting thousands of devices every day. The increased number of interconnected devices increase the network traffic leading to energy and Quality of Service efficiency problems of the IoT network. Therefore, IoT platforms and networks are susceptible to failures and attacks that have significant economic and security consequences. In this regard, implementing effective secure IoT platforms and networks are valuable for both the industry and society. In this paper, we propose two frameworks that aim to verify a number of security policies related to runtime information of the network and dynamic flow routing paths, respectively. The underlying rationale is to allow the operator of an IoT network in order to have an overall control of the network and to define different policies based on the demands of the network and the use cases (e.g., achieving more secure or faster network).
Verma, Dinesh, Bertino, Elisa, de Mel, Geeth, Melrose, John.  2019.  On the Impact of Generative Policies on Security Metrics. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Smart Computing (SMARTCOMP). :104–109.
Policy based Security Management in an accepted practice in the industry, and required to simplify the administrative overhead associated with security management in complex systems. However, the growing dynamicity, complexity and scale of modern systems makes it difficult to write the security policies manually. Using AI, we can generate policies automatically. Security policies generated automatically can reduce the manual burden introduced in defining policies, but their impact on the overall security of a system is unclear. In this paper, we discuss the security metrics that can be associated with a system using generative policies, and provide a simple model to determine the conditions under which generating security policies will be beneficial to improve the security of the system. We also show that for some types of security metrics, a system using generative policies can be considered as equivalent to a system using manually defined policies, and the security metrics of the generative policy based system can be mapped to the security metrics of the manual system and vice-versa.
Garigipati, Nagababu, Krishna, Reddy V.  2019.  A Study on Data Security and Query privacy in Cloud. 2019 3rd International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics (ICOEI). :337—341.

A lot of organizations need effective resolutions to record and evaluate the existing enormous volume of information. Cloud computing as a facilitator offers scalable resources and noteworthy economic assistances as the decreased operational expenditures. This model increases a wide set of security and privacy problems that have to be taken into reflexion. Multi-occupancy, loss of control, and confidence are the key issues in cloud computing situations. This paper considers the present know-hows and a comprehensive assortment of both previous and high-tech tasks on cloud security and confidentiality. The paradigm shift that supplements the usage of cloud computing is progressively enabling augmentation to safety and privacy contemplations linked with the different facades of cloud computing like multi-tenancy, reliance, loss of control and responsibility. So, cloud platforms that deal with big data that have sensitive information are necessary to use technical methods and structural precautions to circumvent data defence failures that might lead to vast and costly harms.

Al-Haj, Ali, Aziz, Benjamin.  2019.  Enforcing Multilevel Security Policies in Database-Defined Networks using Row-Level Security. 2019 International Conference on Networked Systems (NetSys). :1-6.

Despite the wide of range of research and technologies that deal with the problem of routing in computer networks, there remains a gap between the level of network hardware administration and the level of business requirements and constraints. Not much has been accomplished in literature in order to have a direct enforcement of such requirements on the network. This paper presents a new solution in specifying and directly enforcing security policies to control the routing configuration in a software-defined network by using Row-Level Security checks which enable fine-grained security policies on individual rows in database tables. We show, as a first step, how a specific class of such policies, namely multilevel security policies, can be enforced on a database-defined network, which presents an abstraction of a network's configuration as a set of database tables. We show that such policies can be used to control the flow of data in the network either in an upward or downward manner.

PONGSRISOMCHAI, Sutthinee, Ngamsuriyaroj, Sudsanguan.  2019.  Automated IT Audit of Windows Server Access Control. 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT). :539–544.

To protect sensitive information of an organization, we need to have proper access controls since several data breach incidents were happened because of broken access controls. Normally, the IT auditing process would be used to identify security weaknesses and should be able to detect any potential access control violations in advance. However, most auditing processes are done manually and not performed consistently since lots of resources are required; thus, the auditing is performed for quality assurance purposes only. This paper proposes an automated process to audit the access controls on the Windows server operating system. We define the audit checklist and use the controls defined in ISO/IEC 27002:2013 as a guideline for identifying audit objectives. In addition, an automated audit tool is developed for checking security controls against defined security policies. The results of auditing are the list of automatically generated passed and failed policies. If the auditing is done consistently and automatically, the intrusion incidents could be detected earlier and essential damages could be prevented. Eventually, it would help increase the reliability of the system.

Kaur, Gaganjot, Gupta, Prinima.  2019.  Hybrid Approach for Detecting DDOS Attacks in Software Defined Networks. 2019 Twelfth International Conference on Contemporary Computing (IC3). :1–6.

In today's time Software Defined Network (SDN) gives the complete control to get the data flow in the network. SDN works as a central point to which data is administered centrally and traffic is also managed. SDN being open source product is more prone to security threats. The security policies are also to be enforced as it would otherwise let the controller be attacked the most. The attacks like DDOS and DOS attacks are more commonly found in SDN controller. DDOS is destructive attack that normally diverts the normal flow of traffic and starts the over flow of flooded packets halting the system. Machine Learning techniques helps to identify the hidden and unexpected pattern of the network and hence helps in analyzing the network flow. All the classified and unclassified techniques can help detect the malicious flow based on certain parameters like packet flow, time duration, accuracy and precision rate. Researchers have used Bayesian Network, Wavelets, Support Vector Machine and KNN to detect DDOS attacks. As per the review it's been analyzed that KNN produces better result as per the higher precision and giving a lower falser rate for detection. This paper produces better approach of hybrid Machine Learning techniques rather than existing KNN on the same data set giving more accuracy of detecting DDOS attacks on higher precision rate. The result of the traffic with both normal and abnormal behavior is shown and as per the result the proposed algorithm is designed which is suited for giving better approach than KNN and will be implemented later on for future.

Novikova, Evgenia, Bekeneva, Yana, Shorov, Andrey.  2019.  The Location-Centric Approach to Employee's Interaction Pattern Detection. 2019 27th Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Network-Based Processing (PDP). :373–378.
The task of the insider threat detection is one of the most sophisticated problems of the information security. The analysis of the logs of the access control system may reveal on how employees move and interact providing thus better understanding on how personnel observe security policies and established business processes. The paper presents an approach to the detection of the location-centric employees' interaction patterns. The authors propose the formal definition of the interaction patterns and present the visualization-driven technique to the extraction of the patterns from the data when any prior information about existing interaction routine and procedures is not available. The proposed approach is demonstrated on the data set provided within VAST MiniChallenge-2 2016 contest.