Visible to the public Biblio

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Severson, T., Rodriguez-Seda, E., Kiriakidis, K., Croteau, B., Krishnankutty, D., Robucci, R., Patel, C., Banerjee, N..  2018.  Trust-Based Framework for Resilience to Sensor-Targeted Attacks in Cyber-Physical Systems. 2018 Annual American Control Conference (ACC). :6499-6505.
Networked control systems improve the efficiency of cyber-physical plants both functionally, by the availability of data generated even in far-flung locations, and operationally, by the adoption of standard protocols. A side-effect, however, is that now the safety and stability of a local process and, in turn, of the entire plant are more vulnerable to malicious agents. Leveraging the communication infrastructure, the authors here present the design of networked control systems with built-in resilience. Specifically, the paper addresses attacks known as false data injections that originate within compromised sensors. In the proposed framework for closed-loop control, the feedback signal is constructed by weighted consensus of estimates of the process state gathered from other interconnected processes. Observers are introduced to generate the state estimates from the local data. Side-channel monitors are attached to each primary sensor in order to assess proper code execution. These monitors provide estimates of the trust assigned to each observer output and, more importantly, independent of it; these estimates serve as weights in the consensus algorithm. The authors tested the concept on a multi-sensor networked physical experiment with six primary sensors. The weighted consensus was demonstrated to yield a feedback signal within specified accuracy even if four of the six primary sensors were injecting false data.
Ivanov, A. V., Sklyarov, V. A..  2018.  The Urgency of the Threats of Attacks on Interfaces and Field-Layer Protocols in Industrial Control Systems. 2018 XIV International Scientific-Technical Conference on Actual Problems of Electronics Instrument Engineering (APEIE). :162-165.

The paper is devoted to analysis of condition of executing devices and sensors of Industrial Control Systems information security. The work contains structures of industrial control systems divided into groups depending on system's layer. The article contains the analysis of analog interfaces work and work features of data transmission protocols in industrial control system field layer. Questions about relevance of industrial control systems information security, both from the point of view of the information security occurring incidents, and from the point of view of regulators' reaction in the form of normative legal acts, are described. During the analysis of the information security systems of industrial control systems a possibility of leakage through technical channels of information leakage at the field layer was found. Potential vectors of the attacks on devices of field layer and data transmission network of an industrial control system are outlined in the article. The relevance analysis of the threats connected with the attacks at the field layer of an industrial control system is carried out, feature of this layer and attractiveness of this kind of attacks is observed.

Lu, G., Feng, D..  2018.  Network Security Situation Awareness for Industrial Control System Under Integrity Attacks. 2018 21st International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION). :1808-1815.

Due to the wide implementation of communication networks, industrial control systems are vulnerable to malicious attacks, which could cause potentially devastating results. Adversaries launch integrity attacks by injecting false data into systems to create fake events or cover up the plan of damaging the systems. In addition, the complexity and nonlinearity of control systems make it more difficult to detect attacks and defense it. Therefore, a novel security situation awareness framework based on particle filtering, which has good ability in estimating state for nonlinear systems, is proposed to provide an accuracy understanding of system situation. First, a system state estimation based on particle filtering is presented to estimate nodes state. Then, a voting scheme is introduced into hazard situation detection to identify the malicious nodes and a local estimator is constructed to estimate the actual system state by removing the identified malicious nodes. Finally, based on the estimated actual state, the actual measurements of the compromised nodes are predicted by using the situation prediction algorithm. At the end of this paper, a simulation of a continuous stirred tank is conducted to verify the efficiency of the proposed framework and algorithms.

Pawlenka, T., Škuta, J..  2018.  Security system based on microcontrollers. 2018 19th International Carpathian Control Conference (ICCC). :344–347.
The article describes design and realization of security system based on single-chip microcontrollers. System includes sensor modules for unauthorized entrance detection based on magnetic contact, measuring carbon monoxide level, movement detection and measuring temperature and humidity. System also includes control unit, control panel and development board Arduino with ethernet interface connected for web server implementation.
Schuette, J., Brost, G. S..  2018.  LUCON: Data Flow Control for Message-Based IoT Systems. 2018 17th IEEE International Conference On Trust, Security And Privacy In Computing And Communications/ 12th IEEE International Conference On Big Data Science And Engineering (TrustCom/BigDataSE). :289-299.
Today's emerging Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) scenarios are characterized by the exchange of data between services across enterprises. Traditional access and usage control mechanisms are only able to determine if data may be used by a subject, but lack an understanding of how it may be used. The ability to control the way how data is processed is however crucial for enterprises to guarantee (and provide evidence of) compliant processing of critical data, as well as for users who need to control if their private data may be analyzed or linked with additional information - a major concern in IoT applications processing personal information. In this paper, we introduce LUCON, a data-centric security policy framework for distributed systems that considers data flows by controlling how messages may be routed across services and how they are combined and processed. LUCON policies prevent information leaks, bind data usage to obligations, and enforce data flows across services. Policy enforcement is based on a dynamic taint analysis at runtime and an upfront static verification of message routes against policies. We discuss the semantics of these two complementing enforcement models and illustrate how LUCON policies are compiled from a simple policy language into a first-order logic representation. We demonstrate the practical application of LUCON in a real-world IoT middleware and discuss its integration into Apache Camel. Finally, we evaluate the runtime impact of LUCON and discuss performance and scalability aspects.
Ulz, T., Pieber, T., Steger, C., Matischek, R., Bock, H..  2017.  Towards trustworthy data in networked control systems: A hardware-based approach. 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). :1–8.

The importance of Networked Control Systems (NCS) is steadily increasing due to recent trends such as smart factories. Correct functionality of such NCS needs to be protected as malfunctioning systems could have severe consequences for the controlled process or even threaten human lives. However, with the increase in NCS, also attacks targeting these systems are becoming more frequent. To mitigate attacks that utilize captured sensor data in an NCS, transferred data needs to be protected. While using well-known methods such as Transport Layer Security (TLS) might be suitable to protect the data, resource constraint devices such as sensors often are not powerful enough to perform the necessary cryptographic operations. Also, as we will show in this paper, applying simple encryption in an NCS may enable easy Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks by attacking single bits of the encrypted data. Therefore, in this paper, we present a hardware-based approach that enables sensors to perform the necessary encryption while being robust against (injected) bit failures.

Brandauer, C., Dorfinger, P., Paiva, P. Y. A..  2017.  Towards scalable and adaptable security monitoring. 2017 IEEE 36th International Performance Computing and Communications Conference (IPCCC). :1–6.

A long time ago Industrial Control Systems were in a safe place due to the use of proprietary technology and physical isolation. This situation has changed dramatically and the systems are nowadays often prone to severe attacks executed from remote locations. In many cases, intrusions remain undetected for a long time and this allows the adversary to meticulously prepare an attack and maximize its destructiveness. The ability to detect an attack in its early stages thus has a high potential to significantly reduce its impact. To this end, we propose a holistic, multi-layered, security monitoring and mitigation framework spanning the physical- and cyber domain. The comprehensiveness of the approach demands for scalability measures built-in by design. In this paper we present how scalability is addressed by an architecture that enforces geographically decentralized data reduction approaches that can be dynamically adjusted to the currently perceived context. A specific focus is put on a robust and resilient solution to orchestrate dynamic configuration updates. Experimental results based on a prototype implementation show the feasibility of the approach.

Xia, D., Zhang, Y..  2017.  The fuzzy control of trust establishment. 2017 4th International Conference on Systems and Informatics (ICSAI). :655–659.

In the open network environment, the strange entities can establish the mutual trust through Automated Trust Negotiation (ATN) that is based on exchanging digital credentials. In traditional ATN, the attribute certificate required to either satisfied or not, and in the strategy, the importance of the certificate is same, it may cause some unnecessary negotiation failure. And in the actual situation, the properties is not just 0 or 1, it is likely to between 0 and 1, so the satisfaction degree is different, and the negotiation strategy need to be quantified. This paper analyzes the fuzzy negotiation process, in order to improve the trust establishment in high efficiency and accuracy further.

Crabtree, A., Lodge, T., Colley, J., Greenghalgh, C., Mortier, R..  2017.  Accountable Internet of Things? Outline of the IoT databox model 2017 IEEE 18th International Symposium on A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM). :1–6.

This paper outlines the IoT Databox model as a means of making the Internet of Things (IoT) accountable to individuals. Accountability is a key to building consumer trust and mandated in data protection legislation. We briefly outline the `external' data subject accountability requirement specified in actual legislation in Europe and proposed legislation in the US, and how meeting requirement this turns on surfacing the invisible actions and interactions of connected devices and the social arrangements in which they are embedded. The IoT Databox model is proposed as an in principle means of enabling accountability and providing individuals with the mechanisms needed to build trust in the IoT.

Genge, B., Duka, A. V., Haller, P., Crainicu, B., Sándor, H., Graur, F..  2017.  Design, Verification and Implementation of a Lightweight Remote Attestation Protocol for Process Control Systems. 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). :75–82.

Until recently, IT security received limited attention within the scope of Process Control Systems (PCS). In the past, PCS consisted of isolated, specialized components running closed process control applications, where hardware was placed in physically secured locations and connections to remote network infrastructures were forbidden. Nowadays, industrial communications are fully exploiting the plethora of features and novel capabilities deriving from the adoption of commodity off the shelf (COTS) hardware and software. Nonetheless, the reliance on COTS for remote monitoring, configuration and maintenance also exposed PCS to significant cyber threats. In light of these issues, this paper presents the steps for the design, verification and implementation of a lightweight remote attestation protocol. The protocol is aimed at providing a secure software integrity verification scheme that can be readily integrated into existing industrial applications. The main novelty of the designed protocol is that it encapsulates key elements for the protection of both participating parties (i.e., verifier and prover) against cyber attacks. The protocol is formally verified for correctness with the help of the Scyther model checking tool. The protocol implementation and experimental results are provided for a Phoenix-Contact industrial controller, which is widely used in the automation of gas transportation networks in Romania.

Atli, A. V., Uluderya, M. S., Tatlicioglu, S., Gorkemli, B., Balci, A. M..  2017.  Protecting SDN controller with per-flow buffering inside OpenFlow switches. 2017 IEEE International Black Sea Conference on Communications and Networking (BlackSeaCom). :1–5.

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a paradigm shift that changes the working principles of IP networks by separating the control logic from routers and switches, and logically centralizing it within a controller. In this architecture the control plane (controller) communicates with the data plane (switches) through a control channel using a standards-compliant protocol, that is, OpenFlow. While having a centralized controller creates an opportunity to monitor and program the entire network, as a side effect, it causes the control plane to become a single point of failure. Denial of service (DoS) attacks or even heavy control traffic conditions can easily become real threats to the proper functioning of the controller, which indirectly detriments the entire network. In this paper, we propose a solution to reduce the control traffic generated primarily during table-miss events. We utilize the buffer\_id feature of the OpenFlow protocol, which has been designed to identify individually buffered packets within a switch, reusing it to identify flows buffered as a series of packets during table-miss, which happens when there is no related rule in the switch flow tables that matches the received packet. Thus, we allow the OpenFlow switch to send only the first packet of a flow to the controller for a table-miss while buffering the rest of the packets in the switch memory until the controller responds or time out occurs. The test results show that OpenFlow traffic is significantly reduced when the proposed method is used.

Shan-Shan, J., Ya-Bin, X..  2017.  The APT detection method in SDN. 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Computer and Communications (ICCC). :1240–1245.

SDN is a new network framework which can be controlled and defined by software programming, and OpenFlow is the communication protocol between SDN controller plane and data plane. With centralized control of SDN, the network is more vulnerable encounter APT than traditional network. After deeply analyzing the process of APT at each stage in SDN, this paper proposes the APT detection method based on HMM, which can fully reflect the relationship between attack behavior and APT stage. Experiment shows that the method is more accurate to detect APT in SDN, and less overhead.

Drias, Z., Serhrouchni, A., Vogel, O..  2017.  Identity-based cryptography (IBC) based key management system (KMS) for industrial control systems (ICS). 2017 1st Cyber Security in Networking Conference (CSNet). :1–10.

Often considered as the brain of an industrial process, Industrial control systems are presented as the vital part of today's critical infrastructure due to their crucial role in process control and monitoring. Any failure or error in the system will have a considerable damage. Their openness to the internet world raises the risk related to cyber-attacks. Therefore, it's necessary to consider cyber security challenges while designing an ICS in order to provide security services such as authentication, integrity, access control and secure communication channels. To implement such services, it's necessary to provide an efficient key management system (KMS) as an infrastructure for all cryptographic operations, while preserving the functional characteristics of ICS. In this paper we will analyze existing KMS and their suitability for ICS, then we propose a new KMS based on Identity Based Cryptography (IBC) as a better alternative to traditional KMS. In our proposal, we consider solving two security problems in IBC which brings it up to be more suitable for ICS.

Matias, J., Garay, J., Jacob, E., Sköldström, P., Ghafoor, A..  2016.  FlowSNAC: Improving FlowNAC with Secure Scaling and Resiliency. 2016 Fifth European Workshop on Software-Defined Networks (EWSDN). :59–61.

Life-cycle management of stateful VNF services is a complicated task, especially when automated resiliency and scaling should be handled in a secure manner, without service degradation. We present FlowSNAC, a resilient and scalable VNF service for user authentication and service deployment. FlowSNAC consists of both stateful and stateless components, some of that are SDN-based and others that are NFVs. We describe how it adapts to changing conditions by automatically updating resource allocations through a series of intermediate steps of traffic steering, resource allocation, and secure state transfer. We conclude by highlighting some of the lessons learned during implementation, and their wider consequences for the architecture of SDN/NFV management and orchestration systems.

Babu, V., Kumar, R., Nguyen, H. H., Nicol, D. M., Palani, K., Reed, E..  2017.  Melody: Synthesized datasets for evaluating intrusion detection systems for the smart grid. 2017 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC). :1061–1072.

As smart grid systems become increasingly reliant on networks of control devices, attacks on their inherent security vulnerabilities could lead to catastrophic system failures. Network Intrusion Detection Systems(NIDS) detect such attacks by learning traffic patterns and finding anomalies in them. However, availability of data for robust training and evaluation of NIDS is rare due to associated operational and security risks of sharing such data. Consequently, we present Melody, a scalable framework for synthesizing such datasets. Melody models both, the cyber and physical components of the smart grid by integrating a simulated physical network with an emulated cyber network while using virtual time for high temporal fidelity. We present a systematic approach to generate traffic representing multi-stage attacks, where each stage is either emulated or recreated with a mechanism to replay arbitrary packet traces. We describe and evaluate the suitability of Melodys datasets for intrusion detection, by analyzing the extent to which temporal accuracy of pertinent features is maintained.

Boite, J., Nardin, P. A., Rebecchi, F., Bouet, M., Conan, V..  2017.  Statesec: Stateful monitoring for DDoS protection in software defined networks. 2017 IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft). :1–9.

Software-Defined Networking (SDN) allows for fast reactions to security threats by dynamically enforcing simple forwarding rules as counter-measures. However, in classic SDN all the intelligence resides at the controller, with the switches only capable of performing stateless forwarding as ruled by the controller. It follows that the controller, in addition to network management and control duties, must collect and process any piece of information required to take advanced (stateful) forwarding decisions. This threatens both to overload the controller and to congest the control channel. On the other hand, stateful SDN represents a new concept, developed both to improve reactivity and to offload the controller and the control channel by delegating local treatments to the switches. In this paper, we adopt this stateful paradigm to protect end-hosts from Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS). We propose StateSec, a novel approach based on in-switch processing capabilities to detect and mitigate DDoS attacks. StateSec monitors packets matching configurable traffic features (e.g., IP src/dst, port src/dst) without resorting to the controller. By feeding an entropy-based algorithm with such monitoring features, StateSec detects and mitigates several threats such as (D)DoS and port scans with high accuracy. We implemented StateSec and compared it with a state-of-the-art approach to monitor traffic in SDN. We show that StateSec is more efficient: it achieves very accurate detection levels, limiting at the same time the control plane overhead.

Ahmed, C. M., Mathur, A. P..  2017.  Hardware Identification via Sensor Fingerprinting in a Cyber Physical System. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :517–524.

A lot of research in security of cyber physical systems focus on threat models where an attacker can spoof sensor readings by compromising the communication channel. A little focus is given to attacks on physical components. In this paper a method to detect potential attacks on physical components in a Cyber Physical System (CPS) is proposed. Physical attacks are detected through a comparison of noise pattern from sensor measurements to a reference noise pattern. If an adversary has physically modified or replaced a sensor, the proposed method issues an alert indicating that a sensor is probably compromised or is defective. A reference noise pattern is established from the sensor data using a deterministic model. This pattern is referred to as a fingerprint of the corresponding sensor. The fingerprint so derived is used as a reference to identify measured data during the operation of a CPS. Extensive experimentation with ultrasonic level sensors in a realistic water treatment testbed point to the effectiveness of the proposed fingerprinting method in detecting physical attacks.

Rebaï, S. Bezzaoucha, Voos, H., Darouach, M..  2017.  A contribution to cyber-security of networked control systems: An event-based control approach. 2017 3rd International Conference on Event-Based Control, Communication and Signal Processing (EBCCSP). :1–7.
In the present paper, a networked control system under both cyber and physical attacks Is considered. An adapted formulation of the problem under physical attacks, data deception and false data injection attacks, is used for controller synthesis. Based on the classical fault tolerant detection (FTD) tools, a residual generator for attack/fault detection based on observers is proposed. An event-triggered and Bilinear Matrix Inequality (BMI) implementation is proposed in order to achieve novel and better security strategy. The purpose in using this implementation would be to reduce (limit) the total number of transmissions to only instances when the networked control system (NCS) needs attention. It is important to note that the main contribution of this paper is to establish the adequate event-triggered and BMI-based methodology so that the particular structure of the mixed attacked/faulty structure can be re-formulated within the classical FTD paradigm. Experimental results are given to illustrate the developed approach efficiency on a pilot three-tank system. The plant model is presented and the proposed control design is applied to the system.
Li, Bo, Ma, Yehan, Westenbroek, Tyler, Wu, Chengjie, Gonzalez, Humberto, Lu, Chenyang.  2016.  Wireless Routing and Control: A Cyber-physical Case Study. Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems. :32:1–32:10.

Wireless sensor-actuator networks (WSANs) are being adopted in process industries because of their advantages in lowering deployment and maintenance costs. While there has been significant theoretical advancement in networked control design, only limited empirical results that combine control design with realistic WSAN standards exist. This paper presents a cyber-physical case study on a wireless process control system that integrates state-of-the-art network control design and a WSAN based on the WirelessHART standard. The case study systematically explores the interactions between wireless routing and control design in the process control plant. The network supports alternative routing strategies, including single-path source routing and multi-path graph routing. To mitigate the effect of data loss in the WSAN, the control design integrates an observer based on an Extended Kalman Filter with a model predictive controller and an actuator buffer of recent control inputs. We observe that sensing and actuation can have different levels of resilience to packet loss under this network control design. We then propose a flexible routing approach where the routing strategy for sensing and actuation can be configured separately. Finally, we show that an asymmetric routing configuration with different routing strategies for sensing and actuation can effectively improve control performance under significant packet loss. Our results highlight the importance of co-joining the design of wireless network protocols and control in wireless control systems.

bibtex: li\_wireless\_2016

Cao, B., Wang, Z., Shi, H., Yin, Y..  2015.  Research and practice on Aluminum Industry 4.0. 2015 Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Control and Information Processing (ICICIP). :517–521.

This paper presents a six-layer Aluminum Industry 4.0 architecture for the aluminum production and full lifecycle supply chain management. It integrates a series of innovative technologies, including the IoT sensing physical system, industrial cloud platform for data management, model-driven and big data driven analysis & decision making, standardization & securitization intelligent control and management, as well as visual monitoring and backtracking process etc. The main relevant control models are studied. The applications of real-time accurate perception & intelligent decision technology in the aluminum electrolytic industry are introduced.

Orojloo, H., Azgomi, M. A..  2015.  Evaluating the complexity and impacts of attacks on cyber-physical systems. 2015 CSI Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies (RTEST). :1–8.

In this paper, a new method for quantitative evaluation of the security of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) is proposed. The proposed method models the different classes of adversarial attacks against CPSs, including cross-domain attacks, i.e., cyber-to-cyber and cyber-to-physical attacks. It also takes the secondary consequences of attacks on CPSs into consideration. The intrusion process of attackers has been modeled using attack graph and the consequence estimation process of the attack has been investigated using process model. The security attributes and the special parameters involved in the security analysis of CPSs, have been identified and considered. The quantitative evaluation has been done using the probability of attacks, time-to-shutdown of the system and security risks. The validation phase of the proposed model is performed as a case study by applying it to a boiling water power plant and estimating the suitable security measures.

E. Aubry, T. Silverston, I. Chrisment.  2015.  "SRSC: SDN-based routing scheme for CCN". Proceedings of the 2015 1st IEEE Conference on Network Softwarization (NetSoft). :1-5.

Content delivery such as P2P or video streaming generates the main part of the Internet traffic and Content Centric Network (CCN) appears as an appropriate architecture to satisfy the user needs. However, the lack of scalable routing scheme is one of the main obstacles that slows down a large deployment of CCN at an Internet-scale. In this paper we propose to use the Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm to decouple data plane and control plane and present SRSC, a new routing scheme for CCN. Our solution is a clean-slate approach using only CCN messages and the SDN paradigm. We implemented our solution into the NS-3 simulator and perform simulations of our proposal. SRSC shows better performances than the flooding scheme used by default in CCN: it reduces the number of messages, while still improves CCN caching performances.

M. Bere, H. Muyingi.  2015.  "Initial investigation of Industrial Control System (ICS) security using Artificial Immune System (AIS)". 2015 International Conference on Emerging Trends in Networks and Computer Communications (ETNCC). :79-84.

Industrial Control Systems (ICS) which among others are comprised of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and Distributed Control Systems (DCS) are used to control industrial processes. ICS have now been connected to other Information Technology (IT) systems and have as a result become vulnerable to Advanced Persistent Threats (APT). APTs are targeted attacks that use zero-day attacks to attack systems. Current ICS security mechanisms fail to deter APTs from infiltrating ICS. An analysis of possible solutions to deter APTs was done. This paper proposes the use of Artificial Immune Systems to secure ICS from APTs.

Premnath, A.P., Ju-Yeon Jo, Yoohwan Kim.  2014.  Application of NTRU Cryptographic Algorithm for SCADA Security. Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG), 2014 11th International Conference on. :341-346.

Critical Infrastructure represents the basic facilities, services and installations necessary for functioning of a community, such as water, power lines, transportation, or communication systems. Any act or practice that causes a real-time Critical Infrastructure System to impair its normal function and performance will have debilitating impact on security and economy, with direct implication on the society. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is a control system which is widely used in Critical Infrastructure System to monitor and control industrial processes autonomously. As SCADA architecture relies on computers, networks, applications and programmable controllers, it is more vulnerable to security threats/attacks. Traditional SCADA communication protocols such as IEC 60870, DNP3, IEC 61850, or Modbus did not provide any security services. Newer standards such as IEC 62351 and AGA-12 offer security features to handle the attacks on SCADA system. However there are performance issues with the cryptographic solutions of these specifications when applied to SCADA systems. This research is aimed at improving the performance of SCADA security standards by employing NTRU, a faster and light-weight NTRU public key algorithm for providing end-to-end security.

Sabaliauskaite, G., Mathur, A.P..  2014.  Countermeasures to Enhance Cyber-physical System Security and Safety. Computer Software and Applications Conference Workshops (COMPSACW), 2014 IEEE 38th International. :13-18.

An application of two Cyber-Physical System (CPS) security countermeasures - Intelligent Checker (IC) and Cross-correlator - for enhancing CPS safety and achieving required CPS safety integrity level is presented. ICs are smart sensors aimed at detecting attacks in CPS and alerting the human operators. Cross-correlator is an anomaly detection technique for detecting deception attacks. We show how ICs could be implemented at three different CPS safety protection layers to maintain CPS in a safe state. In addition, we combine ICs with the cross-correlator technique to assure high probability of failure detection. Performance simulations show that a combination of these two security countermeasures is effective in detecting and mitigating CPS failures, including catastrophic failures.