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2020-02-26
Sanjeetha, R., Benoor, Pallavi, Kanavalli, Anita.  2019.  Mitigation of DDoS Attacks in Software Defined Networks at Application Level. 2019 PhD Colloquium on Ethically Driven Innovation and Technology for Society (PhD EDITS). :1–3.

Software-Defined Network's (SDN) core working depends on the centralized controller which implements the control plane. With the help of this controller, security threats like Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks can be identified easily. A DDoS attack is usually instigated on servers by sending a huge amount of unwanted traffic that exhausts its resources, denying their services to genuine users. Earlier research work has been carried out to mitigate DDoS attacks at the switch and the host level. Mitigation at switch level involves identifying the switch which sends a lot of unwanted traffic in the network and blocking it from the network. But this solution is not feasible as it will also block genuine hosts connected to that switch. Later mitigation at the host level was introduced wherein the compromised hosts were identified and blocked thereby allowing genuine hosts to send their traffic in the network. Though this solution is feasible, it will block the traffic from the genuine applications of the compromised host as well. In this paper, we propose a new way to identify and mitigate the DDoS attack at the application level so that only the application generating the DDoS traffic is blocked and other genuine applications are allowed to send traffic in the network normally.

Belehaki, Anna, Galkin, Ivan, Borries, Claudia, Pintor, Pedro, Altadill, David, Sanz, Jaume, Juan, J. Miguel, Buresova, Dalia, Verhulst, Tobias, Mielich, Jens et al..  2019.  TechTIDE: Warning and Mitigation Technologies for Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances Effects. 2019 URSI Asia-Pacific Radio Science Conference (AP-RASC). :1–1.

Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) are ionospheric manifestations of internal atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) in the neutral atmosphere driven by near-Earth space dynamics and by lower atmosphere phenomena. They constitute a threat for operational systems such as precise navigation (e.g., EGNOS and NRTK) and high frequency geolocation as they can impose disturbances with amplitudes of up to 20% of the ambient electron density, and Doppler frequency shifts of the order of 0.5 Hz on HF signals. The Horizon 2020 Project TechTIDE (http://techtide.space.noa.gr/) funded by the European Commission aims at designing and testing new viable TID impact mitigation strategies for the technologies affected by developing a system able to calculate in real-time the main TID characteristics (velocity, amplitude, propagation drection), to realistically specify background ionospheric conditions and to specify those ionospheric characteristics whose perturbation, because of TIDs, cause the impact in each specific technology. The TechTIDE system will contribute new understanding of the physical processes resulting in the formation of TIDs, and will consequently help to identify the drivers in the interplanetary medium, the magnetosphere and the atmosphere. This paper will provide a description of the instrumentation involved and outline the project methodologies for the identification and tracking of TIDs based on the exploitation of real-time observations from networks of Digisonde, GNSS receivers and Continuous Doppler Sounding Systems.

Crouch, Alfred L, Ley, Adam W.  2019.  A Role for Embedded Instrumentation in Real-Time Hardware Assurance and Online Monitoring against Cybersecurity Threats. 2019 IEEE AUTOTESTCON. :1–9.

Jeopardy to cybersecurity threats in electronic systems is persistent and growing. Such threats present in hardware, by means such as Trojans and counterfeits, and in software, by means such as viruses and other malware. Against such threats, we propose a range of embedded instruments that are capable of real-time hardware assurance and online monitoring.

Vlachokostas, Alex, Prousalidis, John, Spathis, Dimosthenis, Nikitas, Mike, Kourmpelis, Theo, Dallas, Stefanos, Soghomonian, Zareh, Georgiou, Vassilis.  2019.  Ship-to-Grid Integration: Environmental Mitigation and Critical Infrastructure Resilience. 2019 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS). :542–547.

The United States and European Union have an increasing number of projects that are engaging end-use devices for improved grid capabilities. Areas such as building-to-grid and vehicle-to-grid are simple examples of these advanced capabilities. In this paper, we present an innovative concept study for a ship-to-grid integration. The goal of this study is to simulate a two-way power flow between ship(s) and the grid with GridLAB-D for the port of Kyllini in Greece, where a ship-to-shore interconnection was recently implemented. Extending this further, we explore: (a) the ability of ships to meet their load demand needs, while at berth, by being supplied with energy from the electric grid and thus powering off their diesel engines; and (b) the ability of ships to provide power to critical loads onshore. As a result, the ship-to-grid integration helps (a) mitigate environmental pollutants from the ships' diesel engines and (b) provide resilience to nearby communities during a power disruption due to natural disasters or man-made threats.

Tuan, Nguyen Ngoc, Hung, Pham Huy, Nghia, Nguyen Danh, Van Tho, Nguyen, Phan, Trung V., Thanh, Nguyen Huu.  2019.  A Robust TCP-SYN Flood Mitigation Scheme Using Machine Learning Based on SDN. 2019 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). :363–368.

Keeping Internet users safe from attacks and other threats is one of the biggest security challenges nowadays. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) [1] is one of the most common attacks. DDoS makes the system stop working by resource overload. Software Define Networking (SDN) [2] has recently emerged as a new networking technology offering an unprecedented programmability that allows network operators to dynamically configure and manage their infrastructures. The flexible processing and centralized management of SDN controller allow flexibly deploying complex security algorithms and mitigation methods. In this paper, we propose a new TCP-SYN flood attack mitigation in SDN networks using machine learning. By using a testbed, we implement the proposed algorithms, evaluate their accuracy and address the trade-off between the accuracy and capacity of the security device. The results show that the algorithms can mitigate TCP-SYN Flood attack over 96.

Qiu, Tongsheng, Wang, Xianyi, Tian, Yusen, Du, Qifei, Sun, Yueqiang.  2019.  A System Design of Real-Time Narrowband Rfi Detection And Mitigation for Gnss-R Receiver. IGARSS 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. :5167–5170.

With the rapid development of radio detection and wireless communication, narrowband radio-frequency interference (NB-RFI) is a serious threat for GNSS-R (global navigation satellite systems - reflectometry) receivers. However, interferometric GNSS-R (iGNSS-R) is more prone to the NB-RFIs than conventional GNSS-R (cGNSS-R), due to wider bandwidth and unclean replica. Therefore, there is strong demand of detecting and mitigating NB-RFIs for GNSS-R receivers, especially iGNSS-R receivers. Hence, focusing on working with high sampling rate and simplifying the fixed-point implementation on FPGA, this paper proposes a system design exploiting cascading IIR band-stop filters (BSFs) to suppress NB-RFIs. Furthermore, IIR BSF compared with IIR notch filter (NF) and IIR band-pass filter (BPF) is the merely choice that is able to mitigate both white narrowband interference (WNBI) and continuous wave interference (CWI) well. Finally, validation and evaluation are conducted, and then it is indicated that the system design can detect NB-RFIs and suppress WNBI and CWI effectively, which improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the Delay-Doppler map (DDM).

Bikov, T. D., Iliev, T. B., Mihaylov, Gr. Y., Stoyanov, I. S..  2019.  Phishing in Depth – Modern Methods of Detection and Risk Mitigation. 2019 42nd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :447–450.

Nowadays, everyone is living in a digital world with various of virtual experiences and realities, but all of them may eventually cause real threats in our real world. Some of these threats have been born together with the first electronic mail service. Some of them might be considered as really basic and simple, compared to others that were developed and advanced in time to adapt themselves for the security defense mechanisms of the modern digital world. On a daily basis, more than 238.4 billion emails are sent worldwide, which makes more than 2.7 million emails per second, and these statistics are only from the publicly visible networks. Having that information and considering around 60% and above of all emails as threatening or not legitimate, is more than concerning. Unfortunately, even the modern security measures and systems are not capable to identify and prevent all the fraudulent content that is created and distributed every day. In this paper we will cover the most common attack vectors, involving the already mass email infrastructures, the required contra measures to minimize the impact over the corporate environments and what else should be developed to mitigate the modern sophisticated email attacks.

2020-02-24
De, Asmit, Basu, Aditya, Ghosh, Swaroop, Jaeger, Trent.  2019.  FIXER: Flow Integrity Extensions for Embedded RISC-V. 2019 Design, Automation Test in Europe Conference Exhibition (DATE). :348–353.
With the recent proliferation of Internet of Things (IoT) and embedded devices, there is a growing need to develop a security framework to protect such devices. RISC-V is a promising open source architecture that targets low-power embedded devices and SoCs. However, there is a dearth of practical and low-overhead security solutions in the RISC-V architecture. Programs compiled using RISC-V toolchains are still vulnerable to code injection and code reuse attacks such as buffer overflow and return-oriented programming (ROP). In this paper, we propose FIXER, a hardware implemented security extension to RISC-V that provides a defense mechanism against such attacks. FIXER enforces fine-grained control-flow integrity (CFI) of running programs on backward edges (returns) and forward edges (calls) without requiring any architectural modifications to the RISC-V processor core. We implement FIXER on RocketChip, a RISC-V SoC platform, by leveraging the integrated Rocket Custom Coprocessor (RoCC) to detect and prevent attacks. Compared to existing software based solutions, FIXER reduces energy overhead by 60% at minimal execution time (1.5%) and area (2.9%) overheads.
Maunero, Nicoló, Prinetto, Paolo, Roascio, Gianluca.  2019.  CFI: Control Flow Integrity or Control Flow Interruption? 2019 IEEE East-West Design Test Symposium (EWDTS). :1–6.
Runtime memory vulnerabilities, especially present in widely used languages as C and C++, are exploited by attackers to corrupt code pointers and hijack the execution flow of a program running on a target system to force it to behave abnormally. This is the principle of modern Code Reuse Attacks (CRAs) and of famous attack paradigms as Return-Oriented Programming (ROP) and Jump-Oriented Programming (JOP), which have defeated the previous defenses against malicious code injection such as Data Execution Prevention (DEP). Control-Flow Integrity (CFI) is a promising approach to protect against such runtime attacks. Recently, many CFI solutions have been proposed, with both hardware and software implementations. But how can a defense based on complying with a graph calculated a priori efficiently deal with something unpredictable as exceptions and interrupt requests? The present paper focuses on this dichotomy by analysing some of the CFI-based defenses and showing how the unexpected trigger of an interrupt and the sudden execution of an Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) can circumvent them.
2020-02-10
Palacio, David N., McCrystal, Daniel, Moran, Kevin, Bernal-Cárdenas, Carlos, Poshyvanyk, Denys, Shenefiel, Chris.  2019.  Learning to Identify Security-Related Issues Using Convolutional Neural Networks. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance and Evolution (ICSME). :140–144.
Software security is becoming a high priority for both large companies and start-ups alike due to the increasing potential for harm that vulnerabilities and breaches carry with them. However, attaining robust security assurance while delivering features requires a precarious balancing act in the context of agile development practices. One path forward to help aid development teams in securing their software products is through the design and development of security-focused automation. Ergo, we present a novel approach, called SecureReqNet, for automatically identifying whether issues in software issue tracking systems describe security-related content. Our approach consists of a two-phase neural net architecture that operates purely on the natural language descriptions of issues. The first phase of our approach learns high dimensional word embeddings from hundreds of thousands of vulnerability descriptions listed in the CVE database and issue descriptions extracted from open source projects. The second phase then utilizes the semantic ontology represented by these embeddings to train a convolutional neural network capable of predicting whether a given issue is security-related. We evaluated SecureReqNet by applying it to identify security-related issues from a dataset of thousands of issues mined from popular projects on GitLab and GitHub. In addition, we also applied our approach to identify security-related requirements from a commercial software project developed by a major telecommunication company. Our preliminary results are encouraging, with SecureReqNet achieving an accuracy of 96% on open source issues and 71.6% on industrial requirements.
Hoey, Jesse, Sheikhbahaee, Zahra, MacKinnon, Neil J..  2019.  Deliberative and Affective Reasoning: a Bayesian Dual-Process Model. 2019 8th International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction Workshops and Demos (ACIIW). :388–394.
The presence of artificial agents in human social networks is growing. From chatbots to robots, human experience in the developed world is moving towards a socio-technical system in which agents can be technological or biological, with increasingly blurred distinctions between. Given that emotion is a key element of human interaction, enabling artificial agents with the ability to reason about affect is a key stepping stone towards a future in which technological agents and humans can work together. This paper presents work on building intelligent computational agents that integrate both emotion and cognition. These agents are grounded in the well-established social-psychological Bayesian Affect Control Theory (BayesAct). The core idea of BayesAct is that humans are motivated in their social interactions by affective alignment: they strive for their social experiences to be coherent at a deep, emotional level with their sense of identity and general world views as constructed through culturally shared symbols. This affective alignment creates cohesive bonds between group members, and is instrumental for collaborations to solidify as relational group commitments. BayesAct agents are motivated in their social interactions by a combination of affective alignment and decision theoretic reasoning, trading the two off as a function of the uncertainty or unpredictability of the situation. This paper provides a high-level view of dual process theories and advances BayesAct as a plausible, computationally tractable model based in social-psychological and sociological theory.
Schneeberger, Tanja, Scholtes, Mirella, Hilpert, Bernhard, Langer, Markus, Gebhard, Patrick.  2019.  Can Social Agents elicit Shame as Humans do? 2019 8th International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII). :164–170.
This paper presents a study that examines whether social agents can elicit the social emotion shame as humans do. For that, we use job interviews, which are highly evaluative situations per se. We vary the interview style (shame-eliciting vs. neutral) and the job interviewer (human vs. social agent). Our dependent variables include observational data regarding the social signals of shame and shame regulation as well as self-assessment questionnaires regarding the felt uneasiness and discomfort in the situation. Our results indicate that social agents can elicit shame to the same amount as humans. This gives insights about the impact of social agents on users and the emotional connection between them.
Zojaji, Sahba, Peters, Christopher.  2019.  Towards Virtual Agents for Supporting Appropriate Small Group Behaviors in Educational Contexts. 2019 11th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games). :1–2.
Verbal and non-verbal behaviors that we use in order to effectively communicate with other people are vital for our success in our daily lives. Despite the importance of social skills, creating standardized methods for training them and supporting their training is challenging. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) may have a good potential to support social and emotional learning (SEL) through virtual social demonstration games. This paper presents initial work involving the design of a pedagogical scenario to facilitate teaching of socially appropriate and inappropriate behaviors when entering and standing in a small group of people, a common occurrence in collaborative social situations. This is achieved through the use of virtual characters and, initially, virtual reality (VR) environments for supporting situated learning in multiple contexts. We describe work done thus far on the demonstrator scenario and anticipated potentials, pitfalls and challenges involved in the approach.
Barnes, Chloe M., Ekárt, Anikó, Lewis, Peter R..  2019.  Social Action in Socially Situated Agents. 2019 IEEE 13th International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems (SASO). :97–106.
Two systems pursuing their own goals in a shared world can interact in ways that are not so explicit - such that the presence of another system alone can interfere with how one is able to achieve its own goals. Drawing inspiration from human psychology and the theory of social action, we propose the notion of employing social action in socially situated agents as a means of alleviating interference in interacting systems. Here we demonstrate that these specific issues of behavioural and evolutionary instability caused by the unintended consequences of interactions can be addressed with agents capable of a fusion of goal-rationality and traditional action, resulting in a stable society capable of achieving goals during the course of evolution.
Carneiro, Lucas R., Delgado, Carla A.D.M., da Silva, João C.P..  2019.  Social Analysis of Game Agents: How Trust and Reputation can Improve Player Experience. 2019 8th Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems (BRACIS). :485–490.
Video games normally use Artificial Intelligence techniques to improve Non-Player Character (NPC) behavior, creating a more realistic experience for their players. However, rational behavior in general does not consider social interactions between player and bots. Because of that, a new framework for NPCs was proposed, which uses a social bias to mix the default strategy of finding the best possible plays to win with a analysis to decide if other players should be categorized as allies or foes. Trust and reputation models were used together to implement this demeanor. In this paper we discuss an implementation of this framework inside the game Settlers of Catan. New NPC agents are created to this implementation. We also analyze the results obtained from simulations among agents and players to conclude how the use of trust and reputation in NPCs can create a better gaming experience.
Chen, Siyuan, Liu, Wei, Liu, Jiamou, Soo, Khí-Uí, Chen, Wu.  2019.  Maximizing Social Welfare in Fractional Hedonic Games using Shapley Value. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Agents (ICA). :21–26.
Fractional hedonic games (FHGs) are extensively studied in game theory and explain the formation of coalitions among individuals in a group. This paper investigates the coalition generation problem, namely, finding a coalition structure whose social welfare, i.e., the sum of the players' payoffs, is maximized. We focus on agent-based methods which set the decision rules for each player in the game. Through repeated interactions the players arrive at a coalition structure. In particular, we propose CFSV, namely, coalition formation with Shapley value-based welfare distribution scheme. To evaluate CFSV, we theoretically demonstrate that this algorithm achieves optimal coalition structure over certain standard graph classes and empirically compare the algorithm against other existing benchmarks on real-world and synthetic graphs. The results show that CFSV is able to achieve superior performance.
Salehi, Sajjad, Taghiyareh, Fattaneh.  2019.  Introspective Agents in Opinion Formation Modeling to Predict Social Market. 2019 5th International Conference on Web Research (ICWR). :28–34.
Individuals may change their opinion in effect of a wide range of factors like interaction with peer groups, governmental policies and personal intentions. Works in this area mainly focus on individuals in social network and their interactions while neglect other factors. In this paper we have introduced an opinion formation model that consider the internal tendency as a personal feature of individuals in social network. In this model agents may trust, distrust or be neutral to their neighbors. They modify their opinion based on the opinion of their neighbors, trust/distrust to them while considering the internal tendency. The results of simulation show that this model can predict the opinion of social network especially when the average of nodal degree and clustering coefficient are high enough. Since this model can predict the preferences of individuals in market, it can be used to define marketing and production strategy.
Cha, Shi-Cho, Li, Zhuo-Xun, Fan, Chuan-Yen, Tsai, Mila, Li, Je-Yu, Huang, Tzu-Chia.  2019.  On Design and Implementation a Federated Chat Service Framework in Social Network Applications. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Agents (ICA). :33–36.
As many organizations deploy their chatbots on social network applications to interact with their customers, a person may switch among different chatbots for different services. To reduce the switching cost, this study proposed the Federated Chat Service Framework. The framework maintains user profiles and historical behaviors. Instead of deploying chatbots, organizations follow the rules of the framework to provide chat services. Therefore, the framework can organize service requests with context information and responses to emulate the conversations between users and chat services. Consequently, the study can hopefully contribute to reducing the cost for a user to communicate with different chatbots.
Fedyanin, Denis, Giliazova, Albina.  2019.  Influence of Deactivated Agents in Social Networks: Switching Between French-De Groot Models and Friedkin-Johnsen Model. 2019 Twelfth International Conference "Management of large-scale system development" (MLSD). :1–5.
The paper shows the influence of deactivated agents in social networks: switching between French-De Groot models and Friedkin-Johnsen model.
Juszczyszyn, Krzysztof, Kolaczek, Grzegorz.  2019.  Complex Networks Monitoring and Security and Fraud Detection for Enterprises. 2019 IEEE 28th International Conference on Enabling Technologies: Infrastructure for Collaborative Enterprises (WETICE). :124–125.
The purpose of Complex Networks Monitoring and Security and Fraud Detection for Enterprises - CoNeSec track is two-fold: Firstly, the track offers a forum for scientists and engineers to exchange ideas on novel analytical techniques using network log data. Secondly, the track has a thematic focus on emerging technology for complex network, security and privacy. We seek publications on all theoretical and practical work in areas related to the theme above.
Bansal, Bhawana, Sharma, Monika.  2019.  Client-Side Verification Framework for Offline Architecture of IoT. 2019 3rd International conference on Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA). :1044–1050.
Internet of things is a network formed between two or more devices through internet which helps in sharing data and resources. IoT is present everywhere and lot of applications in our day-to-day life such as smart homes, smart grid system which helps in reducing energy consumption, smart garbage collection to make cities clean, smart cities etc. It has some limitations too such as concerns of security of the network and the cost of installations of the devices. There have been many researches proposed various method in improving the IoT systems. In this paper, we have discussed about the scope and limitations of IoT in various fields and we have also proposed a technique to secure offline architecture of IoT.
Lakshminarayana, Subhash, Belmega, E. Veronica, Poor, H. Vincent.  2019.  Moving-Target Defense for Detecting Coordinated Cyber-Physical Attacks in Power Grids. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–7.
This work proposes a moving target defense (MTD) strategy to detect coordinated cyber-physical attacks (CCPAs) against power grids. A CCPA consists of a physical attack, such as disconnecting a transmission line, followed by a coordinated cyber attack that injects false data into the sensor measurements to mask the effects of the physical attack. Such attacks can lead to undetectable line outages and cause significant damage to the grid. The main idea of the proposed approach is to invalidate the knowledge that the attackers use to mask the effects of the physical attack by actively perturbing the grid's transmission line reactances using distributed flexible AC transmission system (D-FACTS) devices. We identify the MTD design criteria in this context to thwart CCPAs. The proposed MTD design consists of two parts. First, we identify the subset of links for D-FACTS device deployment that enables the defender to detect CCPAs against any link in the system. Then, in order to minimize the defense cost during the system's operational time, we use a game-theoretic approach to identify the best subset of links (within the D-FACTS deployment set) to perturb which will provide adequate protection. Extensive simulations performed using the MATPOWER simulator on IEEE bus systems verify the effectiveness of our approach in detecting CCPAs and reducing the operator's defense cost.
Niddodi, Chaitra, Lin, Shanny, Mohan, Sibin, Zhu, Hao.  2019.  Secure Integration of Electric Vehicles with the Power Grid. 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm). :1–7.
This paper focuses on the secure integration of distributed energy resources (DERs), especially pluggable electric vehicles (EVs), with the power grid. We consider the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system where EVs are connected to the power grid through an `aggregator' In this paper, we propose a novel Cyber-Physical Anomaly Detection Engine that monitors system behavior and detects anomalies almost instantaneously (worst case inspection time for a packet is 0.165 seconds1). This detection engine ensures that the critical power grid component (viz., aggregator) remains secure by monitoring (a) cyber messages for various state changes and data constraints along with (b) power data on the V2G cyber network using power measurements from sensors on the physical/power distribution network. Since the V2G system is time-sensitive, the anomaly detection engine also monitors the timing requirements of the protocol messages to enhance the safety of the aggregator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first piece of work that combines (a) the EV charging/discharging protocols, the (b) cyber network and (c) power measurements from physical network to detect intrusions in the EV to power grid system.1Minimum latency on V2G network is 2 seconds.
Naseem, Faraz, Babun, Leonardo, Kaygusuz, Cengiz, Moquin, S.J., Farnell, Chris, Mantooth, Alan, Uluagac, A. Selcuk.  2019.  CSPoweR-Watch: A Cyber-Resilient Residential Power Management System. 2019 International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData). :768–775.
Modern Energy Management Systems (EMS) are becoming increasingly complex in order to address the urgent issue of global energy consumption. These systems retrieve vital information from various Internet-connected resources in a smart grid to function effectively. However, relying on such resources results in them being susceptible to cyber attacks. Malicious actors can exploit the interconnections between the resources to perform nefarious tasks such as modifying critical firmware, sending bogus sensor data, or stealing sensitive information. To address this issue, we propose a novel framework that integrates PowerWatch, a solution that detects compromised devices in the smart grid with Cyber-secure Power Router (CSPR), a smart energy management system. The goal is to ascertain whether or not such a device has operated maliciously. To achieve this, PowerWatch utilizes a machine learning model that analyzes information from system and library call lists extracted from CSPR in order to detect malicious activity in the EMS. To test the efficacy of our framework, a number of unique attack scenarios were performed on a realistic testbed that comprises functional versions of CSPR and PowerWatch to monitor the electrical environment for suspicious activity. Our performance evaluation investigates the effectiveness of this first-of-its-kind merger and provides insight into the feasibility of developing future cybersecure EMS. The results of our experimental procedures yielded 100% accuracy for each of the attack scenarios. Finally, our implementation demonstrates that the integration of PowerWatch and CSPR is effective and yields minimal overhead to the EMS.
Muka, Romina, Haugli, Fredrik Bakkevig, Vefsnmo, Hanne, Heegaard, Poul E..  2019.  Information Inconsistencies in Smart Distribution Grids under Different Failure Causes modelled by Stochastic Activity Networks. 2019 AEIT International Annual Conference (AEIT). :1–6.
The ongoing digitalization of the power distribution grid will improve the operational support and automation which is believed to increase the system reliability. However, in an integrated and interdependent cyber-physical system, new threats appear which must be understood and dealt with. Of particular concern, in this paper, is the causes of an inconsistent view between the physical system (here power grid) and the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) system (here Distribution Management System). In this paper we align the taxonomy used in International Electrotechnical Commission (power eng.) and International Federation for Information Processing (ICT community), define a metric for inconsistencies, and present a modelling approach using Stochastic Activity Networks to assess the consequences of inconsistencies. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated in a simple use case.