Visible to the public Biblio

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2019-06-24
Qbeitah, M. A., Aldwairi, M..  2018.  Dynamic malware analysis of phishing emails. 2018 9th International Conference on Information and Communication Systems (ICICS). :18–24.

Malicious software or malware is one of the most significant dangers facing the Internet today. In the fight against malware, users depend on anti-malware and anti-virus products to proactively detect threats before damage is done. Those products rely on static signatures obtained through malware analysis. Unfortunately, malware authors are always one step ahead in avoiding detection. This research deals with dynamic malware analysis, which emphasizes on: how the malware will behave after execution, what changes to the operating system, registry and network communication take place. Dynamic analysis opens up the doors for automatic generation of anomaly and active signatures based on the new malware's behavior. The research includes a design of honeypot to capture new malware and a complete dynamic analysis laboratory setting. We propose a standard analysis methodology by preparing the analysis tools, then running the malicious samples in a controlled environment to investigate their behavior. We analyze 173 recent Phishing emails and 45 SPIM messages in search for potentially new malwares, we present two malware samples and their comprehensive dynamic analysis.

2019-05-01
Shirsat, S. D..  2018.  Demonstrating Different Phishing Attacks Using Fuzzy Logic. 2018 Second International Conference on Inventive Communication and Computational Technologies (ICICCT). :57-61.

Phishing has increased tremendously over last few years and it has become a serious threat to global security and economy. Existing literature dealing with the problem of phishing is scarce. Phishing is a deception technique that uses a combination of technology and social engineering to acquire sensitive information such as online banking passwords, credit card or bank account details [2]. Phishing can be done through emails and websites to collect confidential information. Phishers design fraudulent websites which look similar to the legitimate websites and lure the user to visit the malicious website. Therefore, the users must be aware of malicious websites to protect their sensitive data [1]. But it is very difficult to distinguish between legitimate and fake website especially for nontechnical users [4]. Moreover, phishing sites are growing rapidly. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate phishing detection using fuzzy logic and interpreting results using different defuzzification methods.

2019-03-15
Nicho, M., Khan, S. N..  2018.  A Decision Matrix Model to Identify and Evaluate APT Vulnerabilities at the User Plane. 2018 41st International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO). :1155-1160.
While advances in cyber-security defensive mechanisms have substantially prevented malware from penetrating into organizational Information Systems (IS) networks, organizational users have found themselves vulnerable to threats emanating from Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) vectors, mostly in the form of spear phishing. In this respect, the question of how an organizational user can differentiate between a genuine communication and a similar looking fraudulent communication in an email/APT threat vector remains a dilemma. Therefore, identifying and evaluating the APT vector attributes and assigning relative weights to them can assist the user to make a correct decision when confronted with a scenario that may be genuine or a malicious APT vector. In this respect, we propose an APT Decision Matrix model which can be used as a lens to build multiple APT threat vector scenarios to identify threat attributes and their weights, which can lead to systems compromise.
2019-01-16
Varshney, G., Bagade, S., Sinha, S..  2018.  Malicious browser extensions: A growing threat: A case study on Google Chrome: Ongoing work in progress. 2018 International Conference on Information Networking (ICOIN). :188–193.
Browser extensions are a way through which third party developers provide a set of additional functionalities on top of the traditional functionalities provided by a browser. It has been identified that the browser extension platform can be used by hackers to carry out attacks of sophisticated kinds. These attacks include phishing, spying, DDoS, email spamming, affiliate fraud, mal-advertising, payment frauds etc. In this paper, we showcase the vulnerability of the current browsers to these attacks by taking Google Chrome as the case study as it is a popular browser. The paper also discusses the technical reason which makes it possible for the attackers to launch such attacks via browser extensions. A set of suggestions and solutions that can thwart the attack possibilities has been discussed.
2018-10-26
Douzi, Samira, Amar, Meryem, El Ouahidi, Bouabid.  2017.  Advanced Phishing Filter Using Autoencoder and Denoising Autoencoder. Proceedings of the International Conference on Big Data and Internet of Thing. :125–129.

Phishing is referred as an attempt to obtain sensitive information, such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and, indirectly, money), for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication [1]. Hackers and malicious users, often use Emails as phishing tools to obtain the personal data of legitimate users, by sending Emails with authentic identities, legitimate content, but also with malicious URL, which help them to steal consumer's data. The high dimensional data in phishing context contains large number of redundant features that significantly elevate the classification error. Additionally, the time required to perform classification increases with the number of features. So extracting complex Features from phishing Emails requires us to determine which Features are relevant and fundamental in phishing detection. The dominant approaches in phishing are based on machine learning techniques; these rely on manual feature engineering, which is time consuming. On the other hand, deep learning is a promising alternative to traditional methods. The main idea of deep learning techniques is to learn complex features extracted from data with minimum external contribution [2]. In this paper, we propose new phishing detection and prevention approach, based first on our previous spam filter [3] to classify textual content of Email. Secondly it's based on Autoencoder and on Denoising Autoencoder (DAE), to extract relevant and robust features set of URL (to which the website is actually directed), therefore the features space could be reduced considerably, and thus decreasing the phishing detection time.

Al-Janabi, Mohammed, Quincey, Ed de, Andras, Peter.  2017.  Using Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms to Detect Suspicious URLs in Online Social Networks. Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining 2017. :1104–1111.

The increasing volume of malicious content in social networks requires automated methods to detect and eliminate such content. This paper describes a supervised machine learning classification model that has been built to detect the distribution of malicious content in online social networks (ONSs). Multisource features have been used to detect social network posts that contain malicious Uniform Resource Locators (URLs). These URLs could direct users to websites that contain malicious content, drive-by download attacks, phishing, spam, and scams. For the data collection stage, the Twitter streaming application programming interface (API) was used and VirusTotal was used for labelling the dataset. A random forest classification model was used with a combination of features derived from a range of sources. The random forest model without any tuning and feature selection produced a recall value of 0.89. After further investigation and applying parameter tuning and feature selection methods, however, we were able to improve the classifier performance to 0.92 in recall.

2018-05-09
Jillepalli, A. A., Leon, D. C. d, Steiner, S., Sheldon, F. T., Haney, M. A..  2017.  Hardening the Client-Side: A Guide to Enterprise-Level Hardening of Web Browsers. 2017 IEEE 15th Intl Conf on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, 15th Intl Conf on Pervasive Intelligence and Computing, 3rd Intl Conf on Big Data Intelligence and Computing and Cyber Science and Technology Congress(DASC/PiCom/DataCom/CyberSciTech). :687–692.
Today, web browsers are a major avenue for cyber-compromise and data breaches. Web browser hardening, through high-granularity and least privilege tailored configurations, can help prevent or mitigate many of these attack avenues. For example, on a classic client desktop infrastructure, an enforced configuration that enables users to use one browser to connect to critical and trusted websites and a different browser for un-trusted sites, with the former restricted to trusted sites and the latter with JavaScript and Plugins disabled by default, may help prevent most JavaScript and Plugin-based attacks to critical enterprise sites. However, most organizations, today, still allow web browsers to run with their default configurations and allow users to use the same browser to connect to trusted and un-trusted sites alike. In this article, we present detailed steps for remotely hardening multiple web browsers in a Windows-based enterprise, for Internet Explorer and Google Chrome. We hope that system administrators use this guide to jump-start an enterprise-wide strategy for implementing high-granularity and least privilege browser hardening. This will help secure enterprise systems at the front-end in addition to the network perimeter.
2018-05-01
Korczynski, M., Tajalizadehkhoob, S., Noroozian, A., Wullink, M., Hesselman, C., v Eeten, M..  2017.  Reputation Metrics Design to Improve Intermediary Incentives for Security of TLDs. 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :579–594.
Over the years cybercriminals have misused the Domain Name System (DNS) - a critical component of the Internet - to gain profit. Despite this persisting trend, little empirical information about the security of Top-Level Domains (TLDs) and of the overall 'health' of the DNS ecosystem exists. In this paper, we present security metrics for this ecosystem and measure the operational values of such metrics using three representative phishing and malware datasets. We benchmark entire TLDs against the rest of the market. We explicitly distinguish these metrics from the idea of measuring security performance, because the measured values are driven by multiple factors, not just by the performance of the particular market player. We consider two types of security metrics: occurrence of abuse and persistence of abuse. In conjunction, they provide a good understanding of the overall health of a TLD. We demonstrate that attackers abuse a variety of free services with good reputation, affecting not only the reputation of those services, but of entire TLDs. We find that, when normalized by size, old TLDs like .com host more bad content than new generic TLDs. We propose a statistical regression model to analyze how the different properties of TLD intermediaries relate to abuse counts. We find that next to TLD size, abuse is positively associated with domain pricing (i.e. registries who provide free domain registrations witness more abuse). Last but not least, we observe a negative relation between the DNSSEC deployment rate and the count of phishing domains.
2018-04-30
Korczynski, M., Tajalizadehkhoob, S., Noroozian, A., Wullink, M., Hesselman, C., v Eeten, M..  2017.  Reputation Metrics Design to Improve Intermediary Incentives for Security of TLDs. 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :579–594.

Over the years cybercriminals have misused the Domain Name System (DNS) - a critical component of the Internet - to gain profit. Despite this persisting trend, little empirical information about the security of Top-Level Domains (TLDs) and of the overall 'health' of the DNS ecosystem exists. In this paper, we present security metrics for this ecosystem and measure the operational values of such metrics using three representative phishing and malware datasets. We benchmark entire TLDs against the rest of the market. We explicitly distinguish these metrics from the idea of measuring security performance, because the measured values are driven by multiple factors, not just by the performance of the particular market player. We consider two types of security metrics: occurrence of abuse and persistence of abuse. In conjunction, they provide a good understanding of the overall health of a TLD. We demonstrate that attackers abuse a variety of free services with good reputation, affecting not only the reputation of those services, but of entire TLDs. We find that, when normalized by size, old TLDs like .com host more bad content than new generic TLDs. We propose a statistical regression model to analyze how the different properties of TLD intermediaries relate to abuse counts. We find that next to TLD size, abuse is positively associated with domain pricing (i.e. registries who provide free domain registrations witness more abuse). Last but not least, we observe a negative relation between the DNSSEC deployment rate and the count of phishing domains.

2018-03-26
Srinivasa Rao, Routhu, Pais, Alwyn R..  2017.  Detecting Phishing Websites Using Automation of Human Behavior. Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Workshop on Cyber-Physical System Security. :33–42.

In this paper, we propose a technique to detect phishing attacks based on behavior of human when exposed to fake website. Some online users submit fake credentials to the login page before submitting their actual credentials. He/She observes the login status of the resulting page to check whether the website is fake or legitimate. We automate the same behavior with our application (FeedPhish) which feeds fake values into login page. If the web page logs in successfully, it is classified as phishing otherwise it undergoes further heuristic filtering. If the suspicious site passes through all heuristic filters then the website is classified as a legitimate site. As per the experimentation results, our application has achieved a true positive rate of 97.61%, true negative rate of 94.37% and overall accuracy of 96.38%. Our application neither demands third party services nor prior knowledge like web history, whitelist or blacklist of URLS. It is able to detect not only zero-day phishing attacks but also detects phishing sites which are hosted on compromised domains.

2018-02-15
Griffin, P. H..  2017.  Secure authentication on the Internet of Things. SoutheastCon 2017. :1–5.
This paper describes biometric-based cryptographic techniques for providing confidential communications and strong, mutual and multifactor authentication on the Internet of Things. The described security techniques support the goals of universal access when users are allowed to select from multiple choice alternatives to authenticate their identities. By using a Biometric Authenticated Key Exchange (BAKE) protocol, user credentials are protected against phishing and Man-in-the-Middle attacks. Forward secrecy is achieved using a Diffie-Hellman key establishment scheme with fresh random values each time the BAKE protocol is operated. Confidentiality is achieved using lightweight cryptographic algorithms that are well suited for implementation in resource constrained environments, those limited by processing speed, limited memory and power availability. Lightweight cryptography can offer strong confidentiality solutions that are practical to implement in Internet of Things systems, where efficient execution, and small memory requirements and code size are required.
Patel, P., Kannoorpatti, K., Shanmugam, B., Azam, S., Yeo, K. C..  2017.  A theoretical review of social media usage by cyber-criminals. 2017 International Conference on Computer Communication and Informatics (ICCCI). :1–6.

Social media plays an integral part in individual's everyday lives as well as for companies. Social media brings numerous benefits in people's lives such as to keep in touch with close ones and specially with relatives who are overseas, to make new friends, buy products, share information and much more. Unfortunately, several threats also accompany the countless advantages of social media. The rapid growth of the online social networking sites provides more scope for criminals and cyber-criminals to carry out their illegal activities. Hackers have found different ways of exploiting these platform for their malicious gains. This research englobes some of the common threats on social media such as spam, malware, Trojan horse, cross-site scripting, industry espionage, cyber-bullying, cyber-stalking, social engineering attacks. The main purpose of the study to elaborates on phishing, malware and click-jacking attacks. The main purpose of the research, there is no particular research available on the forensic investigation for Facebook. There is no particular forensic investigation methodology and forensic tools available which can follow on the Facebook. There are several tools available to extract digital data but it's not properly tested for Facebook. Forensics investigation tool is used to extract evidence to determine what, when, where, who is responsible. This information is required to ensure that the sufficient evidence to take legal action against criminals.

2018-01-23
Dudheria, R..  2017.  Evaluating Features and Effectiveness of Secure QR Code Scanners. 2017 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :40–49.

As QR codes become ubiquitous, there is a prominent security threat of phishing and malware attacks that can be carried out by sharing rogue URLs through such codes. Several QR code scanner apps have become available in the past few years to combat such threats. Nevertheless, limited work exists in the literature evaluating such apps in the context of security. In this paper, we have investigated the status of existing secure QR code scanner apps for Android from a security point of view. We found that several of the so-called secure QR code scanner apps merely present the URL encoded in a QR code to the user rather than validating it against suitable threat databases. Further, many apps do not support basic security features such as displaying the URL to the user and asking for user confirmation before proceeding to open the URL in a browser. The most alarming issue that emerged during this study is that only two of the studied apps perform validation of the redirected URL associated with a QR code. We also tested the relevant apps with a set of benign, phishing and malware URLs collected from multiple sources. Overall, the results of our experiments imply that the protection offered by the examined secure QR code scanner apps against rogue URLs (especially malware URLs) is limited. Based on the findings of our investigation, we have distilled a set of key lessons and proposed design recommendations to enhance the security aspects of such apps.

2018-01-10
Bhattacharjee, S. Das, Talukder, A., Al-Shaer, E., Doshi, P..  2017.  Prioritized active learning for malicious URL detection using weighted text-based features. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :107–112.

Data analytics is being increasingly used in cyber-security problems, and found to be useful in cases where data volumes and heterogeneity make it cumbersome for manual assessment by security experts. In practical cyber-security scenarios involving data-driven analytics, obtaining data with annotations (i.e. ground-truth labels) is a challenging and known limiting factor for many supervised security analytics task. Significant portions of the large datasets typically remain unlabelled, as the task of annotation is extensively manual and requires a huge amount of expert intervention. In this paper, we propose an effective active learning approach that can efficiently address this limitation in a practical cyber-security problem of Phishing categorization, whereby we use a human-machine collaborative approach to design a semi-supervised solution. An initial classifier is learnt on a small amount of the annotated data which in an iterative manner, is then gradually updated by shortlisting only relevant samples from the large pool of unlabelled data that are most likely to influence the classifier performance fast. Prioritized Active Learning shows a significant promise to achieve faster convergence in terms of the classification performance in a batch learning framework, and thus requiring even lesser effort for human annotation. An useful feature weight update technique combined with active learning shows promising classification performance for categorizing Phishing/malicious URLs without requiring a large amount of annotated training samples to be available during training. In experiments with several collections of PhishMonger's Targeted Brand dataset, the proposed method shows significant improvement over the baseline by as much as 12%.

2017-12-20
Heartfield, R., Loukas, G., Gan, D..  2017.  An eye for deception: A case study in utilizing the human-as-a-security-sensor paradigm to detect zero-day semantic social engineering attacks. 2017 IEEE 15th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications (SERA). :371–378.

In a number of information security scenarios, human beings can be better than technical security measures at detecting threats. This is particularly the case when a threat is based on deception of the user rather than exploitation of a specific technical flaw, as is the case of spear-phishing, application spoofing, multimedia masquerading and other semantic social engineering attacks. Here, we put the concept of the human-as-a-security-sensor to the test with a first case study on a small number of participants subjected to different attacks in a controlled laboratory environment and provided with a mechanism to report these attacks if they spot them. A key challenge is to estimate the reliability of each report, which we address with a machine learning approach. For comparison, we evaluate the ability of known technical security countermeasures in detecting the same threats. This initial proof of concept study shows that the concept is viable.

Weedon, M., Tsaptsinos, D., Denholm-Price, J..  2017.  Random forest explorations for URL classification. 2017 International Conference On Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics And Assessment (Cyber SA). :1–4.

Phishing is a major concern on the Internet today and many users are falling victim because of criminal's deceitful tactics. Blacklisting is still the most common defence users have against such phishing websites, but is failing to cope with the increasing number. In recent years, researchers have devised modern ways of detecting such websites using machine learning. One such method is to create machine learnt models of URL features to classify whether URLs are phishing. However, there are varying opinions on what the best approach is for features and algorithms. In this paper, the objective is to evaluate the performance of the Random Forest algorithm using a lexical only dataset. The performance is benchmarked against other machine learning algorithms and additionally against those reported in the literature. Initial results from experiments indicate that the Random Forest algorithm performs the best yielding an 86.9% accuracy.

Chen, C. K., Lan, S. C., Shieh, S. W..  2017.  Shellcode detector for malicious document hunting. 2017 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing. :527–528.

Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) attacks became a major network threat in recent years. Among APT attack techniques, sending a phishing email with malicious documents attached is considered one of the most effective ones. Although many users have the impression that documents are harmless, a malicious document may in fact contain shellcode to attack victims. To cope with the problem, we design and implement a malicious document detector called Forensor to differentiate malicious documents. Forensor integrates several open-source tools and methods. It first introspects file format to retrieve objects inside the documents, and then automatically decrypts simple encryption methods, e.g., XOR, rot and shift, commonly used in malware to discover potential shellcode. The emulator is used to verify the presence of shellcode. If shellcode is discovered, the file is considered malicious. The experiment used 9,000 benign files and more than 10,000 malware samples from a well-known sample sharing website. The result shows no false negative and only 2 false positives.

Schäfer, C..  2017.  Detection of compromised email accounts used for spamming in correlation with origin-destination delivery notification extracted from metadata. 2017 5th International Symposium on Digital Forensic and Security (ISDFS). :1–6.
Fifty-four percent of the global email traffic in October 2016 was spam and phishing messages. Those emails were commonly sent from compromised email accounts. Previous research has primarily focused on detecting incoming junk mail but not locally generated spam messages. State-of-the-art spam detection methods generally require the content of the email to be able to classify it as either spam or a regular message. This content is not available within encrypted messages or is prohibited due to data privacy. The object of the research presented is to detect an anomaly with the Origin-Destination Delivery Notification method, which is based on the geographical origin and destination as well as the Delivery Status Notification of the remote SMTP server without the knowledge of the email content. The proposed method detects an abused account after a few transferred emails; it is very flexible and can be adjusted for every environment and requirement.
Williams, N., Li, S..  2017.  Simulating Human Detection of Phishing Websites: An Investigation into the Applicability of the ACT-R Cognitive Behaviour Architecture Model. 2017 3rd IEEE International Conference on Cybernetics (CYBCONF). :1–8.
The prevalence and effectiveness of phishing attacks, despite the presence of a vast array of technical defences, are due largely to the fact that attackers are ruthlessly targeting what is often referred to as the weakest link in the system - the human. This paper reports the results of an investigation into how end users behave when faced with phishing websites and how this behaviour exposes them to attack. Specifically, the paper presents a proof of concept computer model for simulating human behaviour with respect to phishing website detection based on the ACT-R cognitive architecture, and draws conclusions as to the applicability of this architecture to human behaviour modelling within a phishing detection scenario. Following the development of a high-level conceptual model of the phishing website detection process, the study draws upon ACT-R to model and simulate the cognitive processes involved in judging the validity of a representative webpage based primarily around the characteristics of the HTTPS padlock security indicator. The study concludes that despite the low-level nature of the architecture and its very basic user interface support, ACT-R possesses strong capabilities which map well onto the phishing use case, and that further work to more fully represent the range of human security knowledge and behaviours in an ACT-R model could lead to improved insights into how best to combine technical and human defences to reduce the risk to end users from phishing attacks.
Che, H., Liu, Q., Zou, L., Yang, H., Zhou, D., Yu, F..  2017.  A Content-Based Phishing Email Detection Method. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion (QRS-C). :415–422.
Phishing emails have affected users seriously due to the enormous increasing in numbers and exquisite camouflage. Users spend much more effort on distinguishing the email properties, therefore current phishing email detection system demands more creativity and consideration in filtering for users. The proposed research tries to adopt creative computing in detecting phishing emails for users through a combination of computing techniques and social engineering concepts. In order to achieve the proposed target, the fraud type is summarised in social engineering criteria through literature review; a semantic web database is established to extract and store information; a fuzzy logic control algorithm is constructed to allocate email categories. The proposed approach will help users to distinguish the categories of emails, furthermore, to give advice based on different categories allocation. For the purpose of illustrating the approach, a case study will be presented to simulate a phishing email receiving scenario.
Abdelhamid, N., Thabtah, F., Abdel-jaber, H..  2017.  Phishing detection: A recent intelligent machine learning comparison based on models content and features. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :72–77.

In the last decade, numerous fake websites have been developed on the World Wide Web to mimic trusted websites, with the aim of stealing financial assets from users and organizations. This form of online attack is called phishing, and it has cost the online community and the various stakeholders hundreds of million Dollars. Therefore, effective counter measures that can accurately detect phishing are needed. Machine learning (ML) is a popular tool for data analysis and recently has shown promising results in combating phishing when contrasted with classic anti-phishing approaches, including awareness workshops, visualization and legal solutions. This article investigates ML techniques applicability to detect phishing attacks and describes their pros and cons. In particular, different types of ML techniques have been investigated to reveal the suitable options that can serve as anti-phishing tools. More importantly, we experimentally compare large numbers of ML techniques on real phishing datasets and with respect to different metrics. The purpose of the comparison is to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of ML predictive models and to show their actual performance when it comes to phishing attacks. The experimental results show that Covering approach models are more appropriate as anti-phishing solutions, especially for novice users, because of their simple yet effective knowledge bases in addition to their good phishing detection rate.

Gayathri, S..  2017.  Phishing websites classifier using polynomial neural networks in genetic algorithm. 2017 Fourth International Conference on Signal Processing, Communication and Networking (ICSCN). :1–4.
Genetic Algorithms are group of mathematical models in computational science by exciting evolution in AI techniques nowadays. These algorithms preserve critical information by applying data structure with simple chromosome recombination operators by encoding solution to a specific problem. Genetic algorithms they are optimizer, in which range of problems applied to it are quite broad. Genetic Algorithms with its global search includes basic principles like selection, crossover and mutation. Data structures, algorithms and human brain inspiration are found for classification of data and for learning which works using Neural Networks. Artificial Intelligence (AI) it is a field, where so many tasks performed naturally by a human. When AI conventional methods are used in a computer it was proved as a complicated task. Applying Neural Networks techniques will create an internal structure of rules by which a program can learn by examples, to classify different inputs than mining techniques. This paper proposes a phishing websites classifier using improved polynomial neural networks in genetic algorithm.
Shirazi, H., Haefner, K., Ray, I..  2017.  Fresh-Phish: A Framework for Auto-Detection of Phishing Websites. 2017 IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration (IRI). :137–143.

Summary form only given. Strong light-matter coupling has been recently successfully explored in the GHz and THz [1] range with on-chip platforms. New and intriguing quantum optical phenomena have been predicted in the ultrastrong coupling regime [2], when the coupling strength Ω becomes comparable to the unperturbed frequency of the system ω. We recently proposed a new experimental platform where we couple the inter-Landau level transition of an high-mobility 2DEG to the highly subwavelength photonic mode of an LC meta-atom [3] showing very large Ω/ωc = 0.87. Our system benefits from the collective enhancement of the light-matter coupling which comes from the scaling of the coupling Ω ∝ √n, were n is the number of optically active electrons. In our previous experiments [3] and in literature [4] this number varies from 104-103 electrons per meta-atom. We now engineer a new cavity, resonant at 290 GHz, with an extremely reduced effective mode surface Seff = 4 × 10-14 m2 (FE simulations, CST), yielding large field enhancements above 1500 and allowing to enter the few (\textbackslashtextless;100) electron regime. It consist of a complementary metasurface with two very sharp metallic tips separated by a 60 nm gap (Fig.1(a, b)) on top of a single triangular quantum well. THz-TDS transmission experiments as a function of the applied magnetic field reveal strong anticrossing of the cavity mode with linear cyclotron dispersion. Measurements for arrays of only 12 cavities are reported in Fig.1(c). On the top horizontal axis we report the number of electrons occupying the topmost Landau level as a function of the magnetic field. At the anticrossing field of B=0.73 T we measure approximately 60 electrons ultra strongly coupled (Ω/ω- \textbackslashtextbar\textbackslashtextbar

Park, A. J., Quadari, R. N., Tsang, H. H..  2017.  Phishing website detection framework through web scraping and data mining. 2017 8th IEEE Annual Information Technology, Electronics and Mobile Communication Conference (IEMCON). :680–684.
Phishers often exploit users' trust on the appearance of a site by using webpages that are visually similar to an authentic site. In the past, various research studies have tried to identify and classify the factors contributing towards the detection of phishing websites. The focus of this research is to establish a strong relationship between those identified heuristics (content-based) and the legitimacy of a website by analyzing training sets of websites (both phishing and legitimate websites) and in the process analyze new patterns and report findings. Many existing phishing detection tools are often not very accurate as they depend mostly on the old database of previously identified phishing websites. However, there are thousands of new phishing websites appearing every year targeting financial institutions, cloud storage/file hosting sites, government websites, and others. This paper presents a framework called Phishing-Detective that detects phishing websites based on existing and newly found heuristics. For this framework, a web crawler was developed to scrape the contents of phishing and legitimate websites. These contents were analyzed to rate the heuristics and their contribution scale factor towards the illegitimacy of a website. The data set collected from Web Scraper was then analyzed using a data mining tool to find patterns and report findings. A case study shows how this framework can be used to detect a phishing website. This research is still in progress but shows a new way of finding and using heuristics and the sum of their contributing weights to effectively and accurately detect phishing websites. Further development of this framework is discussed at the end of the paper.
Althamary, I. A., El-Alfy, E. S. M..  2017.  A more secure scheme for CAPTCHA-based authentication in cloud environment. 2017 8th International Conference on Information Technology (ICIT). :405–411.
Cloud computing is a remarkable model for permitting on-demand network access to an elastic collection of configurable adaptive resources and features including storage, software, infrastructure, and platform. However, there are major concerns about security-related issues. A very critical security function is user authentication using passwords. Although many flaws have been discovered in password-based authentication, it remains the most convenient approach that people continue to utilize. Several schemes have been proposed to strengthen its effectiveness such as salted hashes, one-time password (OTP), single-sign-on (SSO) and multi-factor authentication (MFA). This study proposes a new authentication mechanism by combining user's password and modified characters of CAPTCHA to generate a passkey. The modification of the CAPTCHA depends on a secret agreed upon between the cloud provider and the user to employ different characters for some characters in the CAPTCHA. This scheme prevents various attacks including short-password attack, dictionary attack, keylogger, phishing, and social engineering. Moreover, it can resolve the issue of password guessing and the use of a single password for different cloud providers.