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Yuan, Dandan, Cui, Shujie, Russello, Giovanni.  2022.  We Can Make Mistakes: Fault-tolerant Forward Private Verifiable Dynamic Searchable Symmetric Encryption. 2022 IEEE 7th European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P). :587–605.
Verifiable Dynamic Searchable Symmetric Encryption (VDSSE) enables users to securely outsource databases (document sets) to cloud servers and perform searches and updates. The verifiability property prevents users from accepting incorrect search results returned by a malicious server. However, we discover that the community currently only focuses on preventing malicious behavior from the server but ignores incorrect updates from the client, which are very likely to happen since there is no record on the client to check. Indeed most existing VDSSE schemes are not sufficient to tolerate incorrect updates from the client. For instance, deleting a nonexistent keyword-identifier pair can break their correctness and soundness. In this paper, we demonstrate the vulnerabilities of a type of existing VDSSE schemes that fail them to ensure correctness and soundness properties on incorrect updates. We propose an efficient fault-tolerant solution that can consider any DSSE scheme as a black-box and make them into a fault-tolerant VDSSE in the malicious model. Forward privacy is an important property of DSSE that prevents the server from linking an update operation to previous search queries. Our approach can also make any forward secure DSSE scheme into a fault-tolerant VDSSE without breaking the forward security guarantee. In this work, we take FAST [1] (TDSC 2020), a forward secure DSSE, as an example, implement a prototype of our solution, and evaluate its performance. Even when compared with the previous fastest forward private construction that does not support fault tolerance, the experiments show that our construction saves 9× client storage and has better search and update efficiency.
Chiari, Michele, De Pascalis, Michele, Pradella, Matteo.  2022.  Static Analysis of Infrastructure as Code: a Survey. 2022 IEEE 19th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C). :218–225.
The increasing use of Infrastructure as Code (IaC) in DevOps leads to benefits in speed and reliability of deployment operation, but extends to infrastructure challenges typical of software systems. IaC scripts can contain defects that result in security and reliability issues in the deployed infrastructure: techniques for detecting and preventing them are needed. We analyze and survey the current state of research in this respect by conducting a literature review on static analysis techniques for IaC. We describe analysis techniques, defect categories and platforms targeted by tools in the literature.
Gupta, Laveesh, Bansal, Manvendra, Meeradevi, Gupta, Muskan, Khaitan, Nishit.  2022.  Blockchain Based Solution to Enhance Drug Supply Chain Management for Smart Pharmaceutical Industry. 2022 IEEE 10th Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC). :330—335.
Counterfeit drugs are an immense threat for the pharmaceutical industry worldwide due to limitations of supply chain. Our proposed solution can overcome many challenges as it will trace and track the drugs while in transit, give transparency along with robust security and will ensure legitimacy across the supply chain. It provides a reliable certification process as well. Fabric architecture is permissioned and private. Hyperledger is a preferred framework over Ethereum because it makes use of features like modular design, high efficiency, quality code and open-source which makes it more suitable for B2B applications with no requirement of cryptocurrency in Hyperledger Fabric. QR generation and scanning are provided as a functionality in the application instead of bar code for its easy accessibility to make it more secure and reliable. The objective of our solution is to provide substantial solutions to the supply chain stakeholders in record maintenance, drug transit monitoring and vendor side verification.
Baumann, Christoph, Dam, Mads, Guanciale, Roberto, Nemati, Hamed.  2021.  On Compositional Information Flow Aware Refinement. 2021 IEEE 34th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :1–16.
The concepts of information flow security and refinement are known to have had a troubled relationship ever since the seminal work of McLean. In this work we study refinements that support changes in data representation and semantics, including the addition of state variables that may induce new observational power or side channels. We propose a new epistemic approach to ignorance-preserving refinement where an abstract model is used as a specification of a system's permitted information flows, that may include the declassification of secret information. The core idea is to require that refinement steps must not induce observer knowledge that is not already available in the abstract model. Our study is set in the context of a class of shared variable multiagent models similar to interpreted systems in epistemic logic. We demonstrate the expressiveness of our framework through a series of small examples and compare our approach to existing, stricter notions of information-flow secure refinement based on bisimulations and noninterference preservation. Interestingly, noninterference preservation is not supported “out of the box” in our setting, because refinement steps may introduce new secrets that are independent of secrets already present at abstract level. To support verification, we first introduce a “cube-shaped” unwinding condition related to conditions recently studied in the context of value-dependent noninterference, kernel verification, and secure compilation. A fundamental problem with ignorance-preserving refinement, caused by the support for general data and observation refinement, is that sequential composability is lost. We propose a solution based on relational pre-and postconditions and illustrate its use together with unwinding on the oblivious RAM construction of Chung and Pass.
Morio, Kevin, Künnemann, Robert.  2021.  Verifying Accountability for Unbounded Sets of Participants. 2021 IEEE 34th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :1—16.
Little can be achieved in the design of security protocols without trusting at least some participants. This trust should be justified or, at the very least, subject to examination. One way to strengthen trustworthiness is to hold parties accountable for their actions, as this provides a strong incentive to refrain from malicious behavior. This has led to an increased interest in accountability in the design of security protocols. In this work, we combine the accountability definition of Künnemann, Esiyok, and Backes [21] with the notion of case tests to extend its applicability to protocols with unbounded sets of participants. We propose a general construction of verdict functions and a set of verification conditions that achieve soundness and completeness. Expressing the verification conditions in terms of trace properties allows us to extend TAMARIN - a protocol verification tool - with the ability to analyze and verify accountability properties in a highly automated way. In contrast to prior work, our approach is significantly more flexible and applicable to a wider range of protocols.
Zhao, Chen, Yin, Jiaqi, Zhu, Huibiao, Li, Ran.  2021.  Modeling and Verifying Ticket-Based Authentication Scheme for IoT Using CSP. 2021 IEEE Intl Conf on Parallel & Distributed Processing with Applications, Big Data & Cloud Computing, Sustainable Computing & Communications, Social Computing & Networking (ISPA/BDCloud/SocialCom/SustainCom). :845—852.
Internet of Things (IoT) connects various nodes such as sensor devices. For users from foreign networks, their direct access to the data of sensor devices is restricted because of security threats. Therefore, a ticket-based authentication scheme was proposed, which can mutually authenticate a mobile device and a sensor device. This scheme with new features fills a gap in IoT authentication, but the scheme has not been verified formally. Hence, it is important to study the security and reliability of the scheme from the perspective of formal methods.In this paper, we model this scheme using Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP). Considering the possibility of key leakage caused by security threats in IoT networks, we also build models where one of the keys used in the scheme is leaked. With the model checker Process Analysis Toolkit (PAT), we verify four properties (deadlock freedom, data availability, data security, and data authenticity) and find that the scheme cannot satisfy the last two properties with key leakage. Thus, we propose two improved models. The verification results show that the first improved model can guarantee data security, and the second one can ensure both data security and data authenticity.
Dolev, Shlomi, Kalma, Arseni.  2021.  Verifiable Computing Using Computation Fingerprints Within FHE. 2021 IEEE 20th International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA). :1—9.
We suggest using Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) to be used, not only to keep the privacy of information but also, to verify computations with no additional significant overhead, using only part of the variables length for verification. This method supports the addition of encrypted values as well as multiplication of encrypted values by the addition of their logarithmic representations and is based on a separation between hardware functionalities. The computer/server performs blackbox additions and is based on the separation of server/device/hardware, such as the enclave, that may deal with additions of logarithmic values and exponentiation. The main idea is to restrict the computer operations and to use part of the variable for computation verification (computation fingerprints) and the other for the actual calculation. The verification part holds the FHE value, of which the calculated result is known (either due to computing locally once or from previously verified computations) and will be checked against the returned FHE value. We prove that a server with bit computation granularity can return consistent encrypted wrong results even when the public key is not provided. For the case of computer word granularity the verification and the actual calculation parts are separated, the verification part (the consecutive bits from the LSB to the MSB of the variables) is fixed across all input vectors. We also consider the case of Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) where the computation fingerprints index in the input vectors is fixed across all vectors.
Chand, Ravinesh, Valluri, Maheswara Rao, Khan, MGM.  2021.  Digital Signature Scheme over Lattices. 2021 25th International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Communications and Computers (CSCC). :71–78.
With the rapid advancements in information technology, data security has become an indispensable component. Cryptography performs a significant role in establishing information security. Computational problems have been utilized extensively by cryptographers to construct digital signature schemes. Digital signature schemes offer security services such as confidentiality, authenticity, integrity, and non-repudiation of a message. This paper proposes a modification of the Dilithium signature scheme that is secure against unforgeability attack based on the hardness of lattice problems such as Learning With Errors and Short Integer Solution over lattices. Using the rejection sampling technique, data is sampled from a uniform distribution to generate keys that are expanded into a matrix. The keys are hashed and signed by the sender to generate a message, which is then accepted by the receiver upon verification. Finally, the security analysis for the proposed signature scheme is provided with a strong emphasis on the security of the secret key. We prove that the attacker cannot forge a signature on a message, and recommended parameters are proposed.
Sharif, Amer, Ginting, Dewi S., Dias, Arya D..  2021.  Securing the Integrity of PDF Files using RSA Digital Signature and SHA-3 Hash Function. 2021 International Conference on Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, and Business Analytics (DATABIA). :154–159.
Signatures are used on documents as written proof that the document was verified by the person indicated. Signature also indicated that the document originated from the signer if the document is transferred to another party. A document maybe in physical print form but may also be a digital print. A digital print requires additional security since a digital document may easily be altered by anyone although the said document is signed using a photographed or scanned signature. One of the means of security is by using the RSA Digital Signature method which is a combination of the RSA algorithm with Digital Signature. RSA algorithm is one of the public key cryptography algorithms, while Digital Signature is a security scheme which may guarantee the authenticity, non-repudiation, and integrity of a file by means of a hash function. This research implemented a web-based combination of RSA Digital Signature with SHA-3 hash function to secure the integrity of PDF files using PHP programming language. The result is a web-based system which could guarantee the authenticity, non repudiation and integrity of PDF files. Testing were carried out on six different sizes of PDF files ranging from 6 KB, up to 23285 KB on three different web browsers: Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, and Mozilla Firefox. Average processing times of signing and verifying on each browsers were 1.3309 seconds, 1.2565 seconds, and 1.2667 seconds.
Marksteiner, Stefan, Marko, Nadja, Smulders, Andre, Karagiannis, Stelios, Stahl, Florian, Hamazaryan, Hayk, Schlick, Rupert, Kraxberger, Stefan, Vasenev, Alexandr.  2021.  A Process to Facilitate Automated Automotive Cybersecurity Testing. 2021 IEEE 93rd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2021-Spring). :1—7.
Modern vehicles become increasingly digitalized with advanced information technology-based solutions like advanced driving assistance systems and vehicle-to-x communications. These systems are complex and interconnected. Rising complexity and increasing outside exposure has created a steadily rising demand for more cyber-secure systems. Thus, also standardization bodies and regulators issued standards and regulations to prescribe more secure development processes. This security, however, also has to be validated and verified. In order to keep pace with the need for more thorough, quicker and comparable testing, today's generally manual testing processes have to be structured and optimized. Based on existing and emerging standards for cybersecurity engineering, this paper therefore outlines a structured testing process for verifying and validating automotive cybersecurity, for which there is no standardized method so far. Despite presenting a commonly structured framework, the process is flexible in order to allow implementers to utilize their own, accustomed toolsets.
Künnemann, Robert, Garg, Deepak, Backes, Michael.  2021.  Accountability in the Decentralised-Adversary Setting. 2021 IEEE 34th Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :1–16.
A promising paradigm in protocol design is to hold parties accountable for misbehavior, instead of postulating that they are trustworthy. Recent approaches in defining this property, called accountability, characterized malicious behavior as a deviation from the protocol that causes a violation of the desired security property, but did so under the assumption that all deviating parties are controlled by a single, centralized adversary. In this work, we investigate the setting where multiple parties can deviate with or without coordination in a variant of the applied-π calculus.We first demonstrate that, under realistic assumptions, it is impossible to determine all misbehaving parties; however, we show that accountability can be relaxed to exclude causal dependencies that arise from the behavior of deviating parties, and not from the protocol as specified. We map out the design space for the relaxation, point out protocol classes separating these notions and define conditions under which we can guarantee fairness and completeness. Most importantly, we discover under which circumstances it is correct to consider accountability in the single-adversary setting, where this property can be verified with off-the-shelf protocol verification tools.
Abdul Basit Ur Rahim, Muhammad, Duan, Qi, Al-Shaer, Ehab.  2020.  A Formal Analysis of Moving Target Defense. 2020 IEEE 44th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). :1802—1807.
Static system configuration provides a significant advantage for the adversaries to discover the assets and launch attacks. Configuration-based moving target defense (MTD) reverses the cyber warfare asymmetry by mutating certain configuration parameters to disrupt the attack planning or increase the attack cost significantly. In this research, we present a methodology for the formal verification of MTD techniques. We formally modeled MTD techniques and verified them against constraints. We use Random Host Mutation (RHM) as a case study for MTD formal verification. The RHM transparently mutates the IP addresses of end-hosts and turns into untraceable moving targets. We apply the formal methodology to verify the correctness, safety, mutation, mutation quality, and deadlock-freeness of RHM using the model checking tool. An adversary is also modeled to validate the effectiveness of the MTD technique. Our experimentation validates the scalability and feasibility of the formal verification methodology.
Naik, Nikhil, Nuzzo, Pierluigi.  2020.  Robustness Contracts for Scalable Verification of Neural Network-Enabled Cyber-Physical Systems. 2020 18th ACM-IEEE International Conference on Formal Methods and Models for System Design (MEMOCODE). :1–12.
The proliferation of artificial intelligence based systems in all walks of life raises concerns about their safety and robustness, especially for cyber-physical systems including multiple machine learning components. In this paper, we introduce robustness contracts as a framework for compositional specification and reasoning about the robustness of cyber-physical systems based on neural network (NN) components. Robustness contracts can encompass and generalize a variety of notions of robustness which were previously proposed in the literature. They can seamlessly apply to NN-based perception as well as deep reinforcement learning (RL)-enabled control applications. We present a sound and complete algorithm that can efficiently verify the satisfaction of a class of robustness contracts on NNs by leveraging notions from Lagrangian duality to identify system configurations that violate the contracts. We illustrate the effectiveness of our approach on the verification of NN-based perception systems and deep RL-based control systems.
Wu, Shanglun, Yuan, Yujie, Kar, Pushpendu.  2020.  Lightweight Verification and Fine-grained Access Control in Named Data Networking Based on Schnorr Signature and Hash Functions. 2020 IEEE 20th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :1561–1566.
Named Data Networking (NDN) is a new kind of architecture for future Internet, which is exactly satisfied with the rapidly increasing mobile requirement and information-depended applications that dominate today's Internet. However, the current verification-data accessed system is not safe enough to prevent data leakage because no strongly method to resist any device or user to access it. We bring up a lightweight verification based on hash functions and a fine-grained access control based on Schnorr Signature to address the issue seamlessly. The proposed scheme is scalable and protect data confidentiality in a NDN network.
Paulsen, Brandon, Wang, Jingbo, Wang, Jiawei, Wang, Chao.  2020.  NEURODIFF: Scalable Differential Verification of Neural Networks using Fine-Grained Approximation. 2020 35th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE). :784–796.
As neural networks make their way into safety-critical systems, where misbehavior can lead to catastrophes, there is a growing interest in certifying the equivalence of two structurally similar neural networks - a problem known as differential verification. For example, compression techniques are often used in practice for deploying trained neural networks on computationally- and energy-constrained devices, which raises the question of how faithfully the compressed network mimics the original network. Unfortunately, existing methods either focus on verifying a single network or rely on loose approximations to prove the equivalence of two networks. Due to overly conservative approximation, differential verification lacks scalability in terms of both accuracy and computational cost. To overcome these problems, we propose NEURODIFF, a symbolic and fine-grained approximation technique that drastically increases the accuracy of differential verification on feed-forward ReLU networks while achieving many orders-of-magnitude speedup. NEURODIFF has two key contributions. The first one is new convex approximations that more accurately bound the difference of two networks under all possible inputs. The second one is judicious use of symbolic variables to represent neurons whose difference bounds have accumulated significant error. We find that these two techniques are complementary, i.e., when combined, the benefit is greater than the sum of their individual benefits. We have evaluated NEURODIFF on a variety of differential verification tasks. Our results show that NEURODIFF is up to 1000X faster and 5X more accurate than the state-of-the-art tool.
Criswell, John, Zhou, Jie, Gravani, Spyridoula, Hu, Xiaoyu.  2019.  PrivAnalyzer: Measuring the Efficacy of Linux Privilege Use. 2019 49th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :593–604.
Operating systems such as Linux break the power of the root user into separate privileges (which Linux calls capabilities) and give processes the ability to enable privileges only when needed and to discard them permanently when the program no longer needs them. However, there is no method of measuring how well the use of such facilities reduces the risk of privilege escalation attacks if the program has a vulnerability. This paper presents PrivAnalyzer, an automated tool that measures how effectively programs use Linux privileges. PrivAnalyzer consists of three components: 1) AutoPriv, an existing LLVM-based C/C++ compiler which uses static analysis to transform a program that uses Linux privileges into a program that safely removes them when no longer needed, 2) ChronoPriv, a new LLVM C/C++ compiler pass that performs dynamic analysis to determine for how long a program retains various privileges, and 3) ROSA, a new bounded model checker that can model the damage a program can do at each program point if an attacker can exploit the program and abuse its privileges. We use PrivAnalyzer to determine how long five privileged open source programs retain the ability to cause serious damage to a system and find that merely transforming a program to drop privileges does not significantly improve security. However, we find that simple refactoring can considerably increase the efficacy of Linux privileges. In two programs that we refactored, we reduced the percentage of execution in which a device file can be read and written from 97% and 88% to 4% and 1%, respectively.
Babenko, Liudmila, Pisarev, Ilya.  2018.  Security Analysis of the Electronic Voting Protocol Based on Blind Intermediaries Using the SPIN Verifier. 2018 International Conference on Cyber-Enabled Distributed Computing and Knowledge Discovery (CyberC). :43—435.

Cryptographic protocols are the basis for the security of any protected system, including the electronic voting system. One of the most effective ways to analyze protocol security is to use verifiers. In this paper, the formal verifier SPIN was used to analyze the security of the cryptographic protocol for e-voting, which is based on model checking using linear temporal logic (LTL). The cryptographic protocol of electronic voting is described. The main structural units of the Promela language used for simulation in the SPIN verifier are described. The model of the electronic voting protocol in the language Promela is given. The interacting parties, transferred data, the order of the messages transmitted between the parties are described. Security of the cryptographic protocol using the SPIN tool is verified. The simulation of the protocol with active intruder using the man in the middle attack (MITM) to substitute data is made. In the simulation results it is established that the protocol correctly handles the case of an active attack on the parties' authentication.

Kanellopoulos, Aris, Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G., Gupta, Vijay.  2019.  Decentralized Verification for Dissipativity of Cascade Interconnected Systems. 2019 IEEE 58th Conference on Decision and Control (CDC). :3629—3634.

In this paper, we consider the problem of decentralized verification for large-scale cascade interconnections of linear subsystems such that dissipativity properties of the overall system are guaranteed with minimum knowledge of the dynamics. In order to achieve compositionality, we distribute the verification process among the individual subsystems, which utilize limited information received locally from their immediate neighbors. Furthermore, to obviate the need for full knowledge of the subsystem parameters, each decentralized verification rule employs a model-free learning structure; a reinforcement learning algorithm that allows for online evaluation of the appropriate storage function that can be used to verify dissipativity of the system up to that point. Finally, we show how the interconnection can be extended by adding learning-enabled subsystems while ensuring dissipativity.

Lochbihler, Andreas, Sefidgar, S. Reza, Basin, David, Maurer, Ueli.  2019.  Formalizing Constructive Cryptography using CryptHOL. 2019 IEEE 32nd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :152–15214.
Computer-aided cryptography increases the rigour of cryptographic proofs by mechanizing their verification. Existing tools focus mainly on game-based proofs, and efforts to formalize composable frameworks such as Universal Composability have met with limited success. In this paper, we formalize an instance of Constructive Cryptography, a generic theory allowing for clean, composable cryptographic security statements. Namely, we extend CryptHOL, a framework for game-based proofs, with an abstract model of Random Systems and provide proof rules for their equality and composition. We formalize security as a special kind of system construction in which a complex system is built from simpler ones. As a simple case study, we formalize the construction of an information-theoretically secure channel from a key, a random function, and an insecure channel.
Kasodhan, Rashmi, Gupta, Neetesh.  2019.  A New Approach of Digital Signature Verification based on BioGamal Algorithm. 2019 3rd International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :10–15.
In recent times, online services are playing a crucial role in our day-to-day life applications. Inspite of their advantage, it also have certain security challenges in the communication network. Security aspects consists of authentication of users, confidentiality of data/information as well as integrity of data. In order to achieve all these parameters, the sensitive information must be digitally signed by the original sender and later verified by the intended recipient. Therefore, research on digital signatures should be further developed to improve the data security and authenticity of the transferred data. In this paper, a secured digital signature algorithm is designed. The design of secure digital signature uses the concept of hybridization of secure hash code, DNA encryption/decryption technique and elgamal encryption/decryption techniques. The use of SHA algorithm generates a secure hash code and hybridization of encryption algorithm reduces the computational complexity and this research method is then compared with existing PlayGamal algorithm with respect to encryption/decryption time complexity.
Laranjeiro, Nuno, Gomez, Camilo, Schiavone, Enrico, Montecchi, Leonardo, Carvalho, Manoel J. M., Lollini, Paolo, Micskei, Zoltán.  2019.  Addressing Verification and Validation Challenges in Future Cyber-Physical Systems. 2019 9th Latin-American Symposium on Dependable Computing (LADC). :1–2.
Cyber-physical systems are characterized by strong interactions between their physical and computation parts. The increasing complexity of such systems, now used in numerous application domains (e.g., aeronautics, healthcare), in conjunction with hard to predict surrounding environments or the use of non-traditional middleware and with the presence of non-deterministic or non-explainable software outputs, tend to make traditional Verification and Validation (V&V) techniques ineffective. This paper presents the H2020 ADVANCE project, which aims precisely at addressing the Verification and Validation challenges that the next-generation of cyber-physical systems bring, by exploring techniques, methods and tools for achieving the technical objective of improving the overall efficiency and effectiveness of the V&V process. From a strategic perspective, the goal of the project is to create an international network of expertise on the topic of V&V of cyber-physical systems.
Cheang, Kevin, Rasmussen, Cameron, Seshia, Sanjit, Subramanyan, Pramod.  2019.  A Formal Approach to Secure Speculation. 2019 IEEE 32nd Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF). :288—28815.
Transient execution attacks like Spectre, Meltdown and Foreshadow have shown that combinations of microarchitectural side-channels can be synergistically exploited to create side-channel leaks that are greater than the sum of their parts. While both hardware and software mitigations have been proposed against these attacks, provable security has remained elusive. This paper introduces a formal methodology for enabling secure speculative execution on modern processors. We propose a new class of information flow security properties called trace property-dependent observational determinism (TPOD). We use this class to formulate a secure speculation property. Our formulation precisely characterises all transient execution vulnerabilities. We demonstrate its applicability by verifying secure speculation for several illustrative programs.
Lipp, Benjamin, Blanchet, Bruno, Bhargavan, Karthikeyan.  2019.  A Mechanised Cryptographic Proof of the WireGuard Virtual Private Network Protocol. 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS P). :231—246.

WireGuard is a free and open source Virtual Private Network (VPN) that aims to replace IPsec and OpenVPN. It is based on a new cryptographic protocol derived from the Noise Protocol Framework. This paper presents the first mechanised cryptographic proof of the protocol underlying WireGuard, using the CryptoVerif proof assistant. We analyse the entire WireGuard protocol as it is, including transport data messages, in an ACCE-style model. We contribute proofs for correctness, message secrecy, forward secrecy, mutual authentication, session uniqueness, and resistance against key compromise impersonation, identity mis-binding, and replay attacks. We also discuss the strength of the identity hiding provided by WireGuard. Our work also provides novel theoretical contributions that are reusable beyond WireGuard. First, we extend CryptoVerif to account for the absence of public key validation in popular Diffie-Hellman groups like Curve25519, which is used in many modern protocols including WireGuard. To our knowledge, this is the first mechanised cryptographic proof for any protocol employing such a precise model. Second, we prove several indifferentiability lemmas that are useful to simplify the proofs for sequences of key derivations.

Ahamed, Md. Salahuddin, Asiful Mustafa, Hossen.  2019.  A Secure QR Code System for Sharing Personal Confidential Information. 2019 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Chemical, Materials and Electronic Engineering (IC4ME2). :1–4.
Securing and hiding personal confidential information has become a challenge in these modern days. Due to the lack of security and confidentiality, forgery of confidential information can cause a big margin loss to a person. Personal confidential information needs to be securely shared and hidden with the expected recipient and he should be able to verify the information by checking its authenticity. QR codes are being used increasingly to share data for different purposes. In information communication, QR code is important because of its high data capacity. However, most existing QR code systems use insecure data format and encryption is rarely used. A user can use Secure QR Code (SQRC) technology to keep information secured and hidden. In this paper, we propose a novel SQRC system which will allow sharing authentic personal confidential information by means of QR code verification using RSA digital signature algorithm and also allow authorizing the information by means of QR code validation using RSA public key cryptographic algorithm. We implemented the proposed SQRC system and showed that the system is effective for sharing personal confidential information securely.
Ye, Fanghan, Dong, Xiaolei, Shen, Jiachen, Cao, Zhenfu, Zhao, Wenhua.  2019.  A Verifiable Dynamic Multi-user Searchable Encryption Scheme without Trusted Third Parties. 2019 IEEE 25th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS). :896–900.
Searchable encryption is a cryptographic primitive that allows users to search for keywords on encrypted data. It allows users to search in archives stored on cloud servers. Among searchable encryption schemes, those supporting multiuser settings are more suitable for daily application scenarios and more practical. However, since the cloud server is semi-trusted, the result set returned by the server is undefined, and most existing multi-user searchable encryption schemes rely heavily on trusted third parties to manage user permission. To address these problems, verifiable multi-user searchable encryption schemes with dynamic management of user search permissions, weak trust on trusted third parties and are desirable. In this paper, we propose such a scheme. Our scheme manages user permission and key distribution without a trusted third party. User search permission and user access permission matrices are generated separately to manage user permissions dynamically. In addition, our scheme can verify the result set returned by the cloud server. We also show that our scheme is index and trapdoor indistinguishable under chosen keyword attacks in the random oracle model. Finally, a detailed comparison experiment is made by using the actual document data set, and the results show that our scheme is efficient and practical.