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Tadeo, Diego Antonio García, John, S.Franklin, Bhaumik, Ankan, Neware, Rahul, Yamsani, Nagendar, Kapila, Dhiraj.  2021.  Empirical Analysis of Security Enabled Cloud Computing Strategy Using Artificial Intelligence. 2021 International Conference on Computing Sciences (ICCS). :83—85.
Cloud Computing (CC) has emerged as an on-demand accessible tool in different practical applications such as digital industry, academics, manufacturing, health sector and others. In this paper different security threats faced by CC are discussed with suitable examples. Moreover, an artificial intelligence based security enabled CC is also discussed based on suitable empirical data. It is found that an artificial neural network (ANN) is an effective system to detect the level of risk factors associated with CC along with mitigating those risk issues with appropriate algorithms. Hence, it provides a desired level of protection against cyber attacks, internal confidential threats and external threat of data theft from a cloud computing system. Levenberg–Marquardt (LMBP) algorithms are also found as a significant tool to estimate the level of security performance around a cloud computing system. ANN is used to improve the performance level of data security across a cloud computing network and make it security enabled to ensure a protected data transmission to clients associated with the system.
Kar, Jishnudeep, Chakrabortty, Aranya.  2021.  LSTM based Denial-of-Service Resiliency for Wide-Area Control of Power Systems. 2021 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT Europe). :1–5.
Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks in wide-area control loops of electric power systems can cause temporary halting of information flow between the generators, leading to closed-loop instability. One way to counteract this issue would be to recreate the missing state information at the impacted generators by using the model of the entire system. However, that not only violates privacy but is also impractical from a scalability point of view. In this paper, we propose to resolve this issue by using a model-free technique employing neural networks. Specifically, a long short-term memory network (LSTM) is used. Once an attack is detected and localized, the LSTM at the impacted generator(s) predicts the magnitudes of the corresponding missing states in a completely decentralized fashion using offline training and online data updates. These predicted states are thereafter used in conjunction with the healthy states to sustain the wide-area feedback until the attack is cleared. The approach is validated using the IEEE 68-bus, 16-machine power system.
Tall, Anne M., Zou, Cliff C., Wang, Jun.  2021.  Integrating Cybersecurity Into a Big Data Ecosystem. MILCOM 2021 - 2021 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :69—76.
This paper provides an overview of the security service controls that are applied in a big data processing (BDP) system to defend against cyber security attacks. We validate this approach by modeling attacks and effectiveness of security service controls in a sequence of states and transitions. This Finite State Machine (FSM) approach uses the probable effectiveness of security service controls, as defined in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF). The attacks used in the model are defined in the ATT&CK™ framework. Five different BDP security architecture configurations are considered, spanning from a low-cost default BDP configuration to a more expensive, industry supported layered security architecture. The analysis demonstrates the importance of a multi-layer approach to implementing security in BDP systems. With increasing interest in using BDP systems to analyze sensitive data sets, it is important to understand and justify BDP security architecture configurations with their significant costs. The output of the model demonstrates that over the run time, larger investment in security service controls results in significantly more uptime. There is a significant increase in uptime with a linear increase in security service control investment. We believe that these results support our recommended BDP security architecture. That is, a layered architecture with security service controls integrated into the user interface, boundary, central management of security policies, and applications that incorporate privacy preserving programs. These results enable making BDP systems operational for sensitive data accessed in a multi-tenant environment.
Gandhi, Vidhyotma, Ramkumar, K.R., Kaur, Amanpreet, Kaushal, Payal, Chahal, Jasmeen Kaur, Singh, Jaiteg.  2021.  Security and privacy in IoT, Cloud and Augmented Reality. 2021 6th International Conference on Signal Processing, Computing and Control (ISPCC). :131—135.
Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud and Augmented Reality (AR) are the emerging and developing technologies and are at the horizon and hype of their life cycle. Lots of commercial applications based on IoT, cloud and AR provide unrestricted access to data. The real-time applications based on these technologies are at the cusp of their innovations. The most frequent security attacks for IoT, cloud and AR applications are DDoS attacks. In this paper a detailed account of various DDoS attacks that can be the hindrance of many important sensitive services and can degrade the overall performance of recent services which are purely based on network communications. The DDoS attacks should be dealt with carefully and a set of a new generations of algorithm need to be developed to mitigate the problems caused by non-repudiation kinds of attacks.
Banasode, Praveen, Padmannavar, Sunita.  2021.  Evaluation of Performance for Big Data Security Using Advanced Cryptography Policy. 2021 International Conference on Forensics, Analytics, Big Data, Security (FABS). 1:1—5.
The revolution caused by the advanced analysis features of Internet of Things and big data have made a big turnaround in the digital world. Data analysis is not only limited to collect useful data but also useful in analyzing information quickly. Therefore, most of the variants of the shared system based on the parallel structural model are explored simultaneously as the appropriate big data storage library stimulates researchers’ interest in the distributed system. Due to the emerging digital technologies, different groups such as healthcare facilities, financial institutions, e-commerce, food service and supply chain management generate a surprising amount of information. Although the process of statistical analysis is essential, it can cause significant security and privacy issues. Therefore, the analysis of data privacy protection is very important. Using the platform, technology should focus on providing Advanced Cryptography Policy (ACP). This research explores different security risks, evolutionary mechanisms and risks of privacy protection. It further recommends the post-statistical modern privacy protection act to manage data privacy protection in binary format, because it is kept confidential by the user. The user authentication program has already filed access restrictions. To maintain this purpose, everyone’s attitude is to achieve a changing identity. This article is designed to protect the privacy of users and propose a new system of restoration of controls.
Li, Shuang, Zhang, Meng, Li, Che, Zhou, Yue, Wang, Kanghui, Deng, Yaru.  2021.  Mobile APP Personal Information Security Detection and Analysis. 2021 IEEE/ACIS 19th International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS). :82—87.
Privacy protection is a vital part of information security. However, the excessive collections and uses of personal information have intensified in the area of mobile apps (applications). To comprehend the current situation of APP personal information security problem of APP, this paper uses a combined approach of static analysis technology, dynamic analysis technology, and manual review to detect and analyze the installed file of mobile apps. 40 mobile apps are detected as experimental samples. The results demonstrate that this combined approach can effectively detect various issues of personal information security problem in mobile apps. Statistics analysis of the experimental results demonstrate that mobile apps have outstanding problems in some aspects of personal information security such as privacy policy, permission application, information collection, data storage, etc.
Varma, Dheeraj, Mishra, Shikhar, Meenpal, Ankita.  2020.  An Adaptive Image Steganographic Scheme Using Convolutional Neural Network and Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—7.
The technique of concealing a confidential information in a carrier information is known as steganography. When we use digital images as carriers, it is termed as image steganography. The advancements in digital technology and the need for information security have given great significance for image steganographic methods in the area of secured communication. An efficient steganographic system is characterized by a good trade-off between its features such as imperceptibility and capacity. The proposed scheme implements an edge-detection based adaptive steganography with transform domain embedding, offering high imperceptibility and capacity. The scheme employs an adaptive embedding technique to select optimal data-hiding regions in carrier image, using Canny edge detection and a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Then, the secret image is embedded in the Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) coefficients of the selected carrier image blocks, with the help of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The analysis of the scheme is performed using metrics such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Structural Similarity Index (SSIM), and Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC).
Elharrouss, Omar, Almaadeed, Noor, Al-Maadeed, Somaya.  2020.  An image steganography approach based on k-least significant bits (k-LSB). 2020 IEEE International Conference on Informatics, IoT, and Enabling Technologies (ICIoT). :131—135.
Image steganography is the operation of hiding a message into a cover image. the message can be text, codes, or image. Hiding an image into another is the proposed approach in this paper. Based on LSB coding, a k-LSB-based method is proposed using k least bits to hide the image. For decoding the hidden image, a region detection operation is used to know the blocks contains the hidden image. The resolution of stego image can be affected, for that, an image quality enhancement method is used to enhance the image resolution. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, we compare it with some of the state-of-the-art methods.
Xu, Yueyao.  2020.  Unsupervised Deep Learning for Text Steganalysis. 2020 International Workshop on Electronic Communication and Artificial Intelligence (IWECAI). :112—115.
Text steganography aims to embed hidden messages in text information while the goal of text steganalysis is to identify the existence of hidden information or further uncover the embedded message from the text. Steganalysis has received significant attention recently for the security and privacy purpose. In this paper, we develop unsupervised learning approaches for text steganalysis. In particular, two detection models based on deep learning have been proposed to detect hidden information that may be embedded in text from a global and a local perspective. Extensive studies have been carried out on the Chinese poetry text steganography datasets. It is seen that the proposed models show strong empirical performance in steganographic text detection.
Wu, Yue-hong, Zhuang, Shen, Sun, Qi.  2020.  A Steganography Algorithm Based on GM Model of optimized Parameters. 2020 International Conference on Computer Engineering and Application (ICCEA). :384—387.
In order to improve the concealment of image steganography, a new method is proposed. The algorithm firstly adopted GM (1, 1) model to detect texture and edge points of carrier image, then embedded secret information in them. GM (1, 1) model of optimized parameters can make full use of pixels information. These pixels are the nearest to the detected point, so it improves the detection accuracy. The method is a kind of steganography based on human visual system. By testing the stegano images with different embedding capacities, the result indicates concealment and image quality of the proposed algorithm are better than BPCS (Bit-plane Complexity Segmentation) and PVD (Pixel-value Differencing), which are also based on visual characteristics.
Rathor, Mahendra, Sarkar, Pallabi, Mishra, Vipul Kumar, Sengupta, Anirban.  2020.  Securing IP Cores in CE Systems using Key-driven Hash-chaining based Steganography. 2020 IEEE 10th International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE-Berlin). :1—4.
Digital signal processor (DSP) intellectual property (IP) cores are the underlying hardware responsible for high performance data intensive applications. However an unauthorized IP vendor may counterfeit the DSP IPs and infuse them into the design-chain. Thus fake IPs or integrated circuits (ICs) are unknowingly integrated into consumer electronics (CE) systems, leading to reliability and safety issues for users. The latent solution to this threat is hardware steganography wherein vendor's secret information is covertly inserted into the design to enable detection of counterfeiting. A key-regulated hash-modules chaining based IP steganography is presented in our paper to secure against counterfeiting threat. The proposed approach yielded a robust steganography achieving very high security with regard to stego-key length than previous approaches.
Abdali, Natiq M., Hussain, Zahir M..  2020.  Reference-free Detection of LSB Steganography Using Histogram Analysis. 2020 30th International Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ITNAC). :1—7.
Due to the difficulty of obtaining a database of original images that are required in the classification process to detect tampering, this paper presents a technique for detecting image tampering such as image steganography in the spatial domain. The system depends on deriving the auto-correlation function of the image histogram, then applying a high-pass filter with a threshold. This technique can be used to decide which image is cover or a stego image, without adopting the original image. The results have eventually revealed the validity of this system. Although this study has focused on least-significant-bit (LSB) steganography, we expect that it could be extended to other types of image tapering.
Pan, I-Hui, Liu, Kung-Chin, Liu, Chiang-Lung.  2020.  Chi-Square Detection for PVD Steganography. 2020 International Symposium on Computer, Consumer and Control (IS3C). :30—33.
Although the Pixel-Value Differencing (PVD) steganography can avoid being detected by the RS steganalysis, the histogram of the pixel-value differences poses an abnormal distribution. Based on this hiding characteristic, this paper proposes a PVD steganalysis based on chi-Square statistics. The degrees of freedom were adopted to be tested for obtaining various detection accuracies (ACs). Experimental results demonstrate the detection accuracies are all above 80%. When the degrees of freedom are set as 10 while the accuracy is the best (AC = 83%). It means that the proposed Chi-Square based method is an efficient detection for PVD steganography.
Butora, Jan, Fridrich, Jessica.  2020.  Steganography and its Detection in JPEG Images Obtained with the "TRUNC" Quantizer. ICASSP 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP). :2762—2766.
Many portable imaging devices use the operation of "trunc" (rounding towards zero) instead of rounding as the final quantizer for computing DCT coefficients during JPEG compression. We show that this has rather profound consequences for steganography and its detection. In particular, side-informed steganography needs to be redesigned due to the different nature of the rounding error. The steganographic algorithm J-UNIWARD becomes vulnerable to steganalysis with the JPEG rich model and needs to be adjusted for this source. Steganalysis detectors need to be retrained since a steganalyst unaware of the existence of the trunc quantizer will experience 100% false alarm.
Mohamed, Nour, Rabie, Tamer, Kamel, Ibrahim.  2020.  IoT Confidentiality: Steganalysis breaking point for J-UNIWARD using CNN. 2020 Advances in Science and Engineering Technology International Conferences (ASET). :1—4.
The Internet of Things (IoT) technology is being utilized in endless applications nowadays and the security of these applications is of great importance. Image based IoT applications serve a wide variety of fields such as medical application and smart cities. Steganography is a great threat to these applications where adversaries can use the images in these applications to hide malicious messages. Therefore, this paper presents an image steganalysis technique that employs Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to detect the infamous JPEG steganography technique: JPEG universal wavelet relative distortion (J-UNIWARD). Several experiments were conducted to determine the breaking point of J-UNIWARD, whether the hiding technique relies on correlation of the images, and the effect of utilizing Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) on the performance of the CNN. The results of the CNN display that the breaking point of J-UNIWARD is 1.5 (bpnzAC), the correlation of the database affects the detection accuracy, and DCT increases the detection accuracy by 13%.
Jan, Aiman, Parah, Shabir A., Malik, Bilal A..  2020.  A Novel Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) and Chaotic Encryption Based Image Steganography Technique. 2020 International Conference for Emerging Technology (INCET). :1—4.
Information sharing through internet has becoming challenge due to high-risk factor of attacks to the information being transferred. In this paper, a novel image-encryption edge based Image steganography technique is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses logistic map for encrypting the information prior to transmission. Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) edge operator is used to find edge areas of the colored-cover-image. Simulation analysis demonstrates that the proposed algorithm has a good amount of payload along with better results of security analysis. The proposed scheme is compared with the existing-methods.
Vishnu, B., Sajeesh, Sandeep R, Namboothiri, Leena Vishnu.  2020.  Enhanced Image Steganography with PVD and Edge Detection. 2020 Fourth International Conference on Computing Methodologies and Communication (ICCMC). :949—953.
Steganography is the concept to conceal information and the data by embedding it as secret data into various digital medium in order to achieve higher security. To achieve this, many steganographic algorithms are already proposed. The ability of human eyes as well as invisibility remain the most important and prominent factor for the security and protection. The most commonly used security measure of data hiding within imagesYet it is ineffective against Steganalysis and lacks proper verifications. Thus the proposed system of Image Steganography using PVD (Pixel Value Differentiating) proves to be a better choice. It compresses and embeds data in images at the pixel value difference calculated between two consecutive pixels. To increase the security, another technique called Edge Detection is used along with PVD to embed data at the edges. Edge Detection techniques like Canny algorithm are used to find the edges in an image horizontally as well as vertically. The edge pixels in an image can be used to handle more bits of messages, because more pixel value shifts can be handled by the image edge area.
Chen, Wenhao, Lin, Li, Newman, Jennifer, Guan, Yong.  2021.  Automatic Detection of Android Steganography Apps via Symbolic Execution and Tree Matching. 2021 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS). :254—262.
The recent focus of cyber security on automated detection of malware for Android apps has omitted the study of some apps used for “legitimate” purposes, such as steganography apps. Mobile steganography apps can be used for delivering harmful messages, and while current research on steganalysis targets the detection of stego images using academic algorithms and well-built benchmarking image data sets, the community has overlooked uncovering a mobile app itself for its ability to perform steganographic embedding. Developing automatic tools for identifying the code in a suspect app as a stego app can be very challenging: steganography algorithms can be represented in a variety of ways, and there exists many image editing algorithms which appear similar to steganography algorithms.This paper proposes the first automated approach to detect Android steganography apps. We use symbolic execution to summarize an app’s image operation behavior into expression trees, and match the extracted expression trees with reference trees that represents the expected behavior of a steganography embedding process. We use a structural feature based similarity measure to calculate the similarity between expression trees. Our experiments show that, the propose approach can detect real world Android stego apps that implement common spatial domain and frequency domain embedding algorithms with a high degree of accuracy. Furthermore, our procedure describes a general framework that has the potential to be applied to other similar questions when studying program behaviors.
Alexan, Wassim, Mamdouh, Eyad, Elkhateeb, Abdelrahman, Al-Seba'ey, Fahd, Amr, Ziad, Khalil, Hana.  2021.  Securing Sensitive Data Through Corner Filters, Chaotic Maps and LSB Embedding. 2021 3rd Novel Intelligent and Leading Emerging Sciences Conference (NILES). :359—364.
This paper proposes 2 multiple layer message security schemes. Information security is carried out through the implementation of cryptography, steganography and image processing techniques. In both schemes, the sensitive data is first encrypted by employing a chaotic function. In the first proposed scheme, LSB steganography is then applied to 2D slices of a 3D image. In the second proposed scheme, a corner detection filter is first applied to the 2D slices of a 3D image, then LSB embedding is carried out in those corner-detected pixels. The number of neighboring pixels used for corner detection is varied and its effect is noted. Performance of the proposed schemes is numerically evaluated using a number of metrics, including the mean squared error (MSE), the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), the structure similarity index measure (SSIM), the normalized cross-correlation (NCC), the image fidelity (IF), as well as the image difference (ID). The proposed schemes exhibit superior payload capacity and security in comparison to their counterparts from the literature.
Zhang, Chenxu, Wang, Xiaomei, Sun, Weikai.  2021.  Coverless Steganography Method based on the Source XML File Organization of OOXML Documents. 2021 2nd International Conference on Electronics, Communications and Information Technology (CECIT). :413—420.
Existing search-based coverless text steganography algorithms according to the characteristics of the text, do not need to modify the carrier, and have good resistance to detection, but they rely on a large text data set and have a limited hiding capacity. For this reason, this paper proposes a coverless steganography method based on the source XML file organization of the OOXML documents from a new perspective. It analyzes the organization of OOXML documents, and uses the differences of organization to construct the mapping between documents and secret information, so as to realize the coverless information hiding. To achieve the efficiency of information hiding, a compound tree model is designed and introduced to construct the OOXML document category library. Compared with the existing coverless information hiding methods, the text set size that this method relies on is significantly reduced, and the flexibility of the mapping is higher under the similar hiding capacity.
Nahar, Nazmun, Ahmed, Md. Kawsher, Miah, Tareq, Alam, Shahriar, Rahman, Kh. Mustafizur, Rabbi, Md. Anayt.  2021.  Implementation of Android Based Text to Image Steganography Using 512-Bit Algorithm with LSB Technique. 2021 5th International Conference on Electrical Information and Communication Technology (EICT). :1—6.
Steganography security is the main concern in today’s informative world. The fact is that communication takes place to hide information secretly. Steganography is the technique of hiding secret data within an ordinary, non-secret, file, text message and images. This technique avoids detection of the secret data then extracted at its destination. The main reason for using steganography is, we can hide any secret message behind its ordinary file. This work presents a unique technique for image steganography based on a 512-bit algorithm. The secure stego image is a very challenging task to give protection. Therefore we used the least significant bit (LSB) techniques for implementing stego and cover image. However, data encryption and decryption are used to embedded text and replace data into the least significant bit (LSB) for better approaches. Android-based interface used in encryption-decryption techniques that evaluated in this process.Contribution—this research work with 512-bit data simultaneously in a block cipher to reduce the time complexity of a system, android platform used for data encryption decryption process. Steganography model works with stego image that interacts with LSB techniques for data hiding.
King, James, Bendiab, Gueltoum, Savage, Nick, Shiaeles, Stavros.  2021.  Data Exfiltration: Methods and Detection Countermeasures. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR). :442—447.
Data exfiltration is of increasing concern throughout the world. The number of incidents and capabilities of data exfiltration attacks are growing at an unprecedented rate. However, such attack vectors have not been deeply explored in the literature. This paper aims to address this gap by implementing a data exfiltration methodology, detailing some data exfiltration methods. Groups of exfiltration methods are incorporated into a program that can act as a testbed for owners of any network that stores sensitive data. The implemented methods are tested against the well-known network intrusion detection system Snort, where all of them have been successfully evaded detection by its community rule sets. Thus, in this paper, we have developed new countermeasures to prevent and detect data exfiltration attempts using these methods.
Tiwari, Krishnakant, Gangurde, Sahil J..  2021.  LSB Steganography Using Pixel Locator Sequence with AES. 2021 2nd International Conference on Secure Cyber Computing and Communications (ICSCCC). :302—307.
Image steganography is a technique of hiding confidential data in the images. We do this by incorporating the LSB(Least Significant Bit) of the image pixels. LSB steganography has been there for a while, and much progress has been made in it. In this paper, we try to increase the security of the LSB steganography process by incorporating a random data distribution method which we call pixel locator sequence (PLS). This method scatters the data to be infused into the image by randomly picking up the pixels and changing their LSB value accordingly. This random distribution makes it difficult for unknowns to look for the data. This PLS file is also encrypted using AES and is key for the data encryption/decryption process between the two parties. This technique is not very space-efficient and involves sending meta-data (PLS), but that trade-off was necessary for the additional security. We evaluated the proposed approach using two criteria: change in image dynamics and robustness against steganalysis attacks. To assess change in image dynamics, we measured the MSE and PSNR values. To find the robustness of the proposed method, we used the tool StegExpose which uses the stego image produced from the proposed algorithm and analyzes them using the major steganalysis attacks such as Primary Sets, Chi-Square, Sample Pairs, and RS Analysis. Finally, we show that this method has good security metrics for best known LSB steganography detection tools and techniques.
Liu, Xiyao, Fang, Yaokun, He, Feiyi, Li, Zhaoying, Zhang, Yayun, Zeng, Xiongfei.  2021.  High capacity coverless image steganography method based on geometrically robust and chaotic encrypted image moment feature. 2021 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC). :1455—1460.
In recent years, coverless image steganography attracts significant attentions due to its distortion-free trait on carrier images to avoid the detection by steganalysis tools. Despite this advantage, current coverless methods face several challenges, e.g., vulnerability to geometrical attacks and low hidden capacity. In this paper, we propose a novel coverless steganography algorithm based on chaotic encrypted dual radial harmonic Fourier moments (DRHFM) to tackle the challenges. In specific, we build mappings between the extracted DRHFM features and secret messages. These features are robust to various of attacks, especially to geometrical attacks. We further deploy the DRHFM parameters to adjust the feature length, thus ensuring the high hidden capacity. Moreover, we introduce a chaos encryption algorithm to enhance the security of the mapping features. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art coverless steganography based on image mapping in terms of robustness and hidden capacity.
Sarrafpour, Bahman A. Sassani, Alomirah, Reem A., Sarrafpour, Soshian, Sharifzadeh, Hamid.  2021.  An Adaptive Edge-Based Steganography Algorithm for Hiding Text into Images. 2021 IEEE 19th International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC). :109—116.
Steganography is one of the techniques for secure transformation of data which aims at hiding information inside other media in such a way that no one will notice. The cover media that can accommodate secret information include text, audio, image, and video. Images are the most popular covering media in steganography, due to the fact that, they are heavily used in daily applications and have high redundancy in representation. In this paper, we propose an adaptive steganography algorithm for hiding information in RGB images. To minimize visual perceptible distortion, the proposed algorithm uses edge pixels for embedding data. It detects the edge pixels in the image using the Sobel filter. Then, the message is embedded into the LSBs of the blue channel of the edge pixels. To resist statistical attacks, the distribution of the blue channel of the edge pixels is used when embedding data in the cover image. The experimental results showed that the algorithm offers high capacity for hiding data in cover images; it does not distort the quality of the stego image; it is robust enough against statistical attacks; and its execution time is short enough for online data transfer. Also, the results showed that the proposed algorithm outperforms similar approaches in all evaluation metrics.