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Navas, Renzo E., Sandaker, Håkon, Cuppens, Frédéric, Cuppens, Nora, Toutain, Laurent, Papadopoulos, Georgios Z..  2020.  IANVS: A Moving Target Defense Framework for a Resilient Internet of Things. 2020 IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC). :1—6.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is more and more present in fundamental aspects of our societies and personal life. Billions of objects now have access to the Internet. This networking capability allows for new beneficial services and applications. However, it is also the entry-point for a wide variety of cyber-attacks that target these devices. The security measures present in real IoT systems lag behind those of the standard Internet. Security is sometimes completely absent. Moving Target Defense (MTD) is a 10-year-old cyber-defense paradigm. It proposes to randomize components of a system. Reasonably, an attacker will have a higher cost attacking an MTD-version of a system compared with a static-version of it. Even if MTD has been successfully applied to standard systems, its deployment for IoT is still lacking. In this paper, we propose a generic MTD framework suitable for IoT systems: IANVS (pronounced Janus). Our framework has a modular design. Its components can be adapted according to the specific constraints and requirements of a particular IoT system. We use it to instantiate two concrete MTD strategies. One that targets the UDP port numbers (port-hopping), and another a CoAP resource URI. We implement our proposal on real hardware using Pycom LoPy4 nodes. We expose the nodes to a remote Denial-of-Service attack and evaluate the effectiveness of the IANVS-based port-hopping MTD proposal.
Fu, T., Zhen, W., Qian, X. Z..  2020.  A Study of Evaluation Methods of WEB Security Threats Based on Multi-stage Attack. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Information Technology,Big Data and Artificial Intelligence (ICIBA). 1:1457—1461.
Web application services have gradually become an important support of Internet services, but are also facing increasingly serious security problems. It is extremely necessary to evaluate the security of Web application services to deal with attacks against them effectively. In this paper, in view of the characteristics of the current attack of Web application services, a Web security analysis model based on the kill chain is established, and the possible attacks against Web application services are analyzed in depth from the perspective of the kill chain. Then, the security of Web application services is evaluated in a quantitative manner. In this way, it can make up the defects of insufficient inspection by the existing security vulnerability model and the security specification of the tracking of Web application services, so as to realize the objective and scientific evaluation of the security state of Web application services.
Haseeb, J., Mansoori, M., Welch, I..  2020.  A Measurement Study of IoT-Based Attacks Using IoT Kill Chain. 2020 IEEE 19th International Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom). :557—567.

Manufacturing limitations, configuration and maintenance flaws associated with the Internet of Things (IoT) devices have resulted in an ever-expanding attack surface. Attackers exploit IoT devices to steal private information, take part in botnets, perform Denial of Service (DoS) attacks and use their resources for the mining of cryptocurrency. In this paper, we experimentally evaluate a hypothesis that attacks on IoT devices follow the generalised Cyber Kill Chain (CKC) model. We used a medium-interaction honeypot to capture and analyse more than 30,000 attacks targeting IoT devices. We classified the steps taken by the attackers using the CKC model and extended CKC to an IoT Kill Chain (IoTKC) model. The IoTKC provides details about IoT-specific attack characteristics and attackers' activities in the exploitation of IoT devices.

Straub, J..  2020.  Modeling Attack, Defense and Threat Trees and the Cyber Kill Chain, ATT CK and STRIDE Frameworks as Blackboard Architecture Networks. 2020 IEEE International Conference on Smart Cloud (SmartCloud). :148—153.

Multiple techniques for modeling cybersecurity attacks and defense have been developed. The use of tree- structures as well as techniques proposed by several firms (such as Lockheed Martin's Cyber Kill Chain, Microsoft's STRIDE and the MITRE ATT&CK frameworks) have all been demonstrated. These approaches model actions that can be taken to attack or stopped to secure infrastructure and other resources, at different levels of detail.This paper builds on prior work on using the Blackboard Architecture for cyberwarfare and proposes a generalized solution for modeling framework/paradigm-based attacks that go beyond the deployment of a single exploit against a single identified target. The Blackboard Architecture Cyber Command Entity attack Route (BACCER) identification system combines rules and facts that implement attack type determination and attack decision making logic with actions that implement reconnaissance techniques and attack and defense actions. BACCER's efficacy to model examples of tree-structures and other models is demonstrated herein.

Ratti, R., Singh, S. R., Nandi, S..  2020.  Towards implementing fast and scalable Network Intrusion Detection System using Entropy based Discretization Technique. 2020 11th International Conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT). :1—7.

With the advent of networking technologies and increasing network attacks, Intrusion Detection systems are apparently needed to stop attacks and malicious activities. Various frameworks and techniques have been developed to solve the problem of intrusion detection, still there is need for new frameworks as per the challenging scenario of enormous scale in data size and nature of attacks. Current IDS systems pose challenges on the throughput to work with high speed networks. In this paper we address the issue of high computational overhead of anomaly based IDS and propose the solution using discretization as a data preprocessing step which can drastically reduce the computation overhead. We propose method to provide near real time detection of attacks using only basic flow level features that can easily be extracted from network packets.

Krohmer, D., Schotten, H. D..  2020.  Decentralized Identifier Distribution for Moving Target Defense and Beyond. 2020 International Conference on Cyber Situational Awareness, Data Analytics and Assessment (CyberSA). :1—8.

In this work, we propose a novel approach for decentralized identifier distribution and synchronization in networks. The protocol generates network entity identifiers composed of timestamps and cryptographically secure random values with a significant reduction of collision probability. The distribution is inspired by Unique Universal Identifiers and Timestamp-based Concurrency Control algorithms originating from database applications. We defined fundamental requirements for the distribution, including: uniqueness, accuracy of distribution, optimal timing behavior, scalability, small impact on network load for different operation modes and overall compliance to common network security objectives. An implementation of the proposed approach is evaluated and the results are presented. Originally designed for a domain of proactive defense strategies known as Moving Target Defense, the general architecture of the protocol enables arbitrary applications where identifier distributions in networks have to be decentralized, rapid and secure.

Aydeger, A., Saputro, N., Akkaya, K..  2020.  Cloud-based Deception against Network Reconnaissance Attacks using SDN and NFV. 2020 IEEE 45th Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN). :279—285.

An attacker's success crucially depends on the reconnaissance phase of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks, which is the first step to gather intelligence. Although several solutions have been proposed against network reconnaissance attacks, they fail to address the needs of legitimate users' requests. Thus, we propose a cloud-based deception framework which aims to confuse the attacker with reconnaissance replies while allowing legitimate uses. The deception is based on for-warding the reconnaissance packets to a cloud infrastructure through tunneling and SDN so that the returned IP addresses to the attacker will not be genuine. For handling legitimate requests, we create a reflected virtual topology in the cloud to match any changes in the original physical network to the cloud topology using SDN. Through experimentations on GENI platform, we show that our framework can provide reconnaissance responses with negligible delays to the network clients while also reducing the management costs significantly.

Yu, M., He, T., McDaniel, P., Burke, Q. K..  2020.  Flow Table Security in SDN: Adversarial Reconnaissance and Intelligent Attacks. IEEE INFOCOM 2020 - IEEE Conference on Computer Communications. :1519—1528.

The performance-driven design of SDN architectures leaves many security vulnerabilities, a notable one being the communication bottleneck between the controller and the switches. Functioning as a cache between the controller and the switches, the flow table mitigates this bottleneck by caching flow rules received from the controller at each switch, but is very limited in size due to the high cost and power consumption of the underlying storage medium. It thus presents an easy target for attacks. Observing that many existing defenses are based on simplistic attack models, we develop a model of intelligent attacks that exploit specific cache-like behaviors of the flow table to infer its internal configuration and state, and then design attack parameters accordingly. Our evaluations show that such attacks can accurately expose the internal parameters of the target flow table and cause measurable damage with the minimum effort.

Alshamrani, A..  2020.  Reconnaissance Attack in SDN based Environments. 2020 27th International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT). :1—5.
Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a promising network architecture that aims at providing high flexibility through the separation between network logic (control plane) and forwarding functions (data plane). This separation provides logical centralization of controllers, global network overview, ease of programmability, and a range of new SDN-compliant services. In recent years, the adoption of SDN in enterprise networks has been constantly increasing. In the meantime, new challenges arise in different levels such as scalability, management, and security. In this paper, we elaborate on complex security issues in the current SDN architecture. Especially, reconnaissance attack where attackers generate traffic for the goal of exploring existing services, assets, and overall network topology. To eliminate reconnaissance attack in SDN environment, we propose SDN-based solution by utilizing distributed firewall application, security policy, and OpenFlow counters. Distributed firewall application is capable of tracking the flow based on pre-defined states that would monitor the connection to sensitive nodes toward malicious activity. We utilize Mininet to simulate the testing environment. We are able to detect and mitigate this type of attack at early stage and in average around 7 second.
Pham, L. H., Albanese, M., Chadha, R., Chiang, C.-Y. J., Venkatesan, S., Kamhoua, C., Leslie, N..  2020.  A Quantitative Framework to Model Reconnaissance by Stealthy Attackers and Support Deception-Based Defenses. :1—9.

In recent years, persistent cyber adversaries have developed increasingly sophisticated techniques to evade detection. Once adversaries have established a foothold within the target network, using seemingly-limited passive reconnaissance techniques, they can develop significant network reconnaissance capabilities. Cyber deception has been recognized as a critical capability to defend against such adversaries, but, without an accurate model of the adversary's reconnaissance behavior, current approaches are ineffective against advanced adversaries. To address this gap, we propose a novel model to capture how advanced, stealthy adversaries acquire knowledge about the target network and establish and expand their foothold within the system. This model quantifies the cost and reward, from the adversary's perspective, of compromising and maintaining control over target nodes. We evaluate our model through simulations in the CyberVAN testbed, and indicate how it can guide the development and deployment of future defensive capabilities, including high-interaction honeypots, so as to influence the behavior of adversaries and steer them away from critical resources.

Rivera, S., Lagraa, S., State, R..  2019.  ROSploit: Cybersecurity Tool for ROS. 2019 Third IEEE International Conference on Robotic Computing (IRC). :415—416.

Robotic Operating System(ROS) security research is currently in a preliminary state, with limited research in tools or models. Considering the trend of digitization of robotic systems, this lack of foundational knowledge increases the potential threat posed by security vulnerabilities in ROS. In this article, we present a new tool to assist further security research in ROS, ROSploit. ROSploit is a modular two-pronged offensive tool covering both reconnaissance and exploitation of ROS systems, designed to assist researchers in testing exploits for ROS.

Kamhoua, C. A..  2018.  Game theoretic modeling of cyber deception in the Internet of Battlefield Things. 2018 56th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing (Allerton). :862—862.

Internet of Battlefield Things (IoBT) devices such as actuators, sensors, wearable devises, robots, drones, and autonomous vehicles, facilitate the Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) to Command and Control and battlefield services. IoBT devices have the ability to collect operational field data, to compute on the data, and to upload its information to the network. Securing the IoBT presents additional challenges compared with traditional information technology (IT) systems. First, IoBT devices are mass produced rapidly to be low-cost commodity items without security protection in their original design. Second, IoBT devices are highly dynamic, mobile, and heterogeneous without common standards. Third, it is imperative to understand the natural world, the physical process(es) under IoBT control, and how these real-world processes can be compromised before recommending any relevant security counter measure. Moreover, unprotected IoBT devices can be used as “stepping stones” by attackers to launch more sophisticated attacks such as advanced persistent threats (APTs). As a result of these challenges, IoBT systems are the frequent targets of sophisticated cyber attack that aim to disrupt mission effectiveness.

Hoffmann, Romuald.  2019.  Markov Models of Cyber Kill Chains with Iterations. 2019 International Conference on Military Communications and Information Systems (ICMCIS). :1–6.
A understanding of the nature of targeted cyber-attack processes is needed to defend against this kind of cyber threats. Generally, the models describing processes of targeted cyber attacks are called in the literature as cyber kill chains or rarely cyber-attacks life cycles. Despite the fact that cyber-attacks have random nature, almost no stochastic models of cyber kill chains bases on the theory of stochastic processes have been proposed so far. This work, attempting to fill this deficiency, proposes to start using Markov processes for modeling some cyber-attack kill chains. In this paper two example theoretical models of cycles of returning cyber-attacks are proposed which have been generally named as the models of cyber kill chains with iterations. Presented models are based on homogeneous continuous time Markov chains.
Yan, Dingyu, Liu, Feng, Jia, Kun.  2019.  Modeling an Information-Based Advanced Persistent Threat Attack on the Internal Network. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—7.
An advanced persistent threat (APT) attack is a powerful cyber-weapon aimed at the specific targets in cyberspace. The sophisticated attack techniques, long dwell time and specific objectives make the traditional defense mechanism ineffective. However, most existing studies fail to consider the theoretical modeling of the whole APT attack. In this paper, we mainly establish a theoretical framework to characterize an information-based APT attack on the internal network. In particular, our mathematical framework includes the initial entry model for selecting the entry points and the targeted attack model for studying the intelligence gathering, strategy decision-making, weaponization and lateral movement. Through a series of simulations, we find the optimal candidate nodes in the initial entry model, observe the dynamic change of the targeted attack model and verify the characteristics of the APT attack.
Shah, Mujahid, Ahmed, Sheeraz, Saeed, Khalid, Junaid, Muhammad, Khan, Hamayun, Ata-ur-rehman.  2019.  Penetration Testing Active Reconnaissance Phase – Optimized Port Scanning With Nmap Tool. 2019 2nd International Conference on Computing, Mathematics and Engineering Technologies (iCoMET). :1—6.

Reconnaissance might be the longest phase, sometimes take weeks or months. The black hat makes use of passive information gathering techniques. Once the attacker has sufficient statistics, then the attacker starts the technique of scanning perimeter and internal network devices seeking out open ports and related services. In this paper we are showing traffic accountability and time to complete the specific task during reconnaissance phase active scanning with nmap tool and proposed strategies that how to deal with large volumes of hosts and conserve network traffic as well as time of the specific task.

Khorsandroo, Sajad, Tosun, Ali Saman.  2018.  Time Inference Attacks on Software Defined Networks: Challenges and Countermeasures. 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing (CLOUD). :342—349.

Through time inference attacks, adversaries fingerprint SDN controllers, estimate switches flow-table size, and perform flow state reconnaissance. In fact, timing a SDN and analyzing its results can expose information which later empowers SDN resource-consumption or saturation attacks. In the real world, however, launching such attacks is not easy. This is due to some challenges attackers may encounter while attacking an actual SDN deployment. These challenges, which are not addressed adequately in the related literature, are investigated in this paper. Accordingly, practical solutions to mitigate such attacks are also proposed. Discussed challenges are clarified by means of conducting extensive experiments on an actual cloud data center testbed. Moreover, mitigation schemes have been implemented and examined in details. Experimental results show that proposed countermeasures effectively block time inference attacks.

Fraunholz, Daniel, Schotten, Hans D..  2018.  Defending Web Servers with Feints, Distraction and Obfuscation. 2018 International Conference on Computing, Networking and Communications (ICNC). :21—25.

In this paper we investigate deceptive defense strategies for web servers. Web servers are widely exploited resources in the modern cyber threat landscape. Often these servers are exposed in the Internet and accessible for a broad range of valid as well as malicious users. Common security strategies like firewalls are not sufficient to protect web servers. Deception based Information Security enables a large set of counter measures to decrease the efficiency of intrusions. In this work we depict several techniques out of the reconnaissance process of an attacker. We match these with deceptive counter measures. All proposed measures are implemented in an experimental web server with deceptive counter measure abilities. We also conducted an experiment with honeytokens and evaluated delay strategies against automated scanner tools.

Fleck, Daniel, Stavrou, Angelos, Kesidis, George, Nasiriani, Neda, Shan, Yuquan, Konstantopoulos, Takis.  2018.  Moving-Target Defense Against Botnet Reconnaissance and an Adversarial Coupon-Collection Model. 2018 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC). :1—8.

We consider a cloud based multiserver system consisting of a set of replica application servers behind a set of proxy (indirection) servers which interact directly with clients over the Internet. We study a proactive moving-target defense to thwart a DDoS attacker's reconnaissance phase and consequently reduce the attack's impact. The defense is effectively a moving-target (motag) technique in which the proxies dynamically change. The system is evaluated using an AWS prototype of HTTP redirection and by numerical evaluations of an “adversarial” coupon-collector mathematical model, the latter allowing larger-scale extrapolations.

Wang, Shaolei, Zhou, Ying, Li, Yaowei, Guo, Ronghua, Du, Jiawei.  2018.  Quantitative Analysis of Network Address Randomization's Security Effectiveness. 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT). :906—910.

The quantitative security effectiveness analysis is a difficult problem for the research of network address randomization techniques. In this paper, a system model and an attack model are proposed based on general attacks' attack processes and network address randomization's technical principle. Based on the models, the network address randomization's security effectiveness is quantitatively analyzed from the perspective of the attacker's attack time and attack cost in both static network address and network address randomization cases. The results of the analysis show that the security effectiveness of network address randomization is determined by the randomization frequency, the randomization space, the states of hosts in the target network, and the capabilities of the attacker.

Sugrim, Shridatt, Venkatesan, Sridhar, Youzwak, Jason A., Chiang, Cho-Yu J., Chadha, Ritu, Albanese, Massimiliano, Cam, Hasan.  2018.  Measuring the Effectiveness of Network Deception. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). :142—147.

Cyber reconnaissance is the process of gathering information about a target network for the purpose of compromising systems within that network. Network-based deception has emerged as a promising approach to disrupt attackers' reconnaissance efforts. However, limited work has been done so far on measuring the effectiveness of network-based deception. Furthermore, given that Software-Defined Networking (SDN) facilitates cyber deception by allowing network traffic to be modified and injected on-the-fly, understanding the effectiveness of employing different cyber deception strategies is critical. In this paper, we present a model to study the reconnaissance surface of a network and model the process of gathering information by attackers as interactions with a cyber defensive system that may use deception. To capture the evolution of the attackers' knowledge during reconnaissance, we design a belief system that is updated by using a Bayesian inference method. For the proposed model, we present two metrics based on KL-divergence to quantify the effectiveness of network deception. We tested the model and the two metrics by conducting experiments with a simulated attacker in an SDN-based deception system. The results of the experiments match our expectations, providing support for the model and proposed metrics.

Aydeger, Abdullah, Saputro, Nico, Akkaya, Kemal.  2018.  Utilizing NFV for Effective Moving Target Defense Against Link Flooding Reconnaissance Attacks. MILCOM 2018 - 2018 IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM). :946—951.

Moving target defense (MTD) is becoming popular with the advancements in Software Defined Networking (SDN) technologies. With centralized management through SDN, changing the network attributes such as routes to escape from attacks is simple and fast. Yet, the available alternate routes are bounded by the network topology, and a persistent attacker that continuously perform the reconnaissance can extract the whole link-map of the network. To address this issue, we propose to use virtual shadow networks (VSNs) by applying Network Function Virtualization (NFV) abilities to the network in order to deceive attacker with the fake topology information and not reveal the actual network topology and characteristics. We design this approach under a formal framework for Internet Service Provider (ISP) networks and apply it to the recently emerged indirect DDoS attacks, namely Crossfire, for evaluation. The results show that attacker spends more time to figure out the network behavior while the costs on the defender and network operations are negligible until reaching a certain network size.

Hu, Qinwen, Asghar, Muhammad Rizwan, Brownlee, Nevil.  2018.  Measuring IPv6 DNS Reconnaissance Attacks and Preventing Them Using DNS Guard. 2018 48th Annual IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN). :350—361.

Traditional address scanning attacks mainly rely on the naive 'brute forcing' approach, where the entire IPv4 address space is exhaustively searched by enumerating different possibilities. However, such an approach is inefficient for IPv6 due to its vast subnet size (i.e., 264). As a result, it is widely assumed that address scanning attacks are less feasible in IPv6 networks. In this paper, we evaluate new IPv6 reconnaissance techniques in real IPv6 networks and expose how to leverage the Domain Name System (DNS) for IPv6 network reconnaissance. We collected IPv6 addresses from 5 regions and 100,000 domains by exploiting DNS reverse zone and DNSSEC records. We propose a DNS Guard (DNSG) to efficiently detect DNS reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks. DNSG is a plug and play component that could be added to the existing infrastructure. We implement DNSG using Bro and Suricata. Our results demonstrate that DNSG could effectively block DNS reconnaissance attacks.

Egert, Rolf, Grube, Tim, Born, Dustin, Mühlhäuser, Max.  2019.  Modular Vulnerability Indication for the IoT in IP-Based Networks. 2019 IEEE Globecom Workshops (GC Wkshps). :1—6.

With the rapidly increasing number of Internet of Things (IoT) devices and their extensive integration into peoples' daily lives, the security of those devices is of primary importance. Nonetheless, many IoT devices suffer from the absence, or the bad application, of security concepts, which leads to severe vulnerabilities in those devices. To achieve early detection of potential vulnerabilities, network scanner tools are frequently used. However, most of those tools are highly specialized; thus, multiple tools and a meaningful correlation of their results are required to obtain an adequate listing of identified network vulnerabilities. To simplify this process, we propose a modular framework for automated network reconnaissance and vulnerability indication in IP-based networks. It allows integrating a diverse set of tools as either, scanning tools or analysis tools. Moreover, the framework enables result aggregation of different modules and allows information sharing between modules facilitating the development of advanced analysis modules. Additionally, intermediate scanning and analysis data is stored, enabling a historical view of derived information and also allowing users to retrace decision-making processes. We show the framework's modular capabilities by implementing one scanner module and three analysis modules. The automated process is then evaluated using an exemplary scenario with common IP-based IoT components.

Oujezsky, Vaclav, Chapcak, David, Horvath, Tomas, Munster, Petr.  2019.  Security Testing Of Active Optical Network Devices. 2019 42nd International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). :9—13.

This article presents results and overview of conducted testing of active optical network devices. The base for the testing is originating in Kali Linux and penetration testing generally. The goal of tests is to either confirm or disprove a vulnerability of devices used in the tested polygon. The first part deals with general overview and topology of testing devices, the next part is dedicated to active and passive exploration and exploits. The last part provides a summary of the results.

Sharma, Dilli P., Cho, Jin-Hee, Moore, Terrence J., Nelson, Frederica F., Lim, Hyuk, Kim, Dong Seong.  2019.  Random Host and Service Multiplexing for Moving Target Defense in Software-Defined Networks. ICC 2019 - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). :1—6.

Moving target defense (MTD) is a proactive defense mechanism of changing the attack surface to increase an attacker's confusion and/or uncertainty, which invalidates its intelligence gained through reconnaissance and/or network scanning attacks. In this work, we propose software-defined networking (SDN)-based MTD technique using the shuffling of IP addresses and port numbers aiming to obfuscate both network and transport layers' real identities of the host and the service for defending against the network reconnaissance and scanning attacks. We call our proposed MTD technique Random Host and Service Multiplexing, namely RHSM. RHSM allows each host to use random, multiple virtual IP addresses to be dynamically and periodically shuffled. In addition, it uses short-lived, multiple virtual port numbers for an active service running on the host. Our proposed RHSM is novel in that we employ multiplexing (or de-multiplexing) to dynamically change and remap from all the virtual IPs of the host to the real IP or the virtual ports of the services to the real port, respectively. Via extensive simulation experiments, we prove how effectively and efficiently RHSM outperforms a baseline counterpart (i.e., a static network without RHSM) in terms of the attack success probability and defense cost.